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Full text of "History of the Gold Coast and Asante, based on traditions and historical facts : comprising a period of more than three centuries from about 1500 to 1860"

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'iX4 ■' . 




McKEW PARR COLLECTION 




MAGELLAN 

and the AGE of DISCOVERY 




PRESENTED TO 

BRANDEIS UNIVERSITY • 1961 



>^ 






HISTORY OF THE GOLD COAST 

AND ASANTE, 

BASED ON TRADITIONS AND HISTORICAL FACTS, 

COMPRISING A PERIOD OF MORE THAN THREE CENTURIES 

FROM ABOUT 1500 TO 1860. 

BY 

EEV. CARL CHRISTIAN REINDORF, 

NATIVE PASTOR OF THE BASEL MISSION, CHRISTIANSLORG. GOLD COAST. 




BASEL 1895. 

Printed for the Author, 

to be had of 

the Missiousbuchhaiidluiig Basel, Switzerland, 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner & Co. London, 

the Basel Mission Book Depot Christianshorg, tr. C, 

the Gold Coast District Book Depot, Cape Coast, W. Africa. 



7 51) 



m 



Preface. 

To the Educated Coinmiiiiity in the Gold Coast Colony. 

Bear Friends, — 

The sole object of this publication is, to call the attention of all you 
my friends and countiymen, to the study and collection of our history, 
and to create a basis for a future more complete history of the Gold 
Coast. 

A history is the methodical narration of events in the order in which 
they successively occurred, exhibiting- the origin and progress, the causes 
and effects, and the auxiliaries and tendencies of that which has occurred 
in connection with a nation. It is, as it were, the speculum and meas- 
ure-tape of that nation, showing its true shape and stature. Hence a 
nation not possessing a history has no true representation of all the 
stages of its development, whether it is in a state of progress or in a 
state of retrogression. In the place of a written history, tradition, which 
from antiquity was a natural source of history, was kept and trans- 
mitted regularly by our ancestors to their children in their days. It 
was not, of course, in uniform theory, but existed and exercised its in- 
fluence in the physical and mental powers of our people. This impor- 
tant custom of a nation — which our forefathers felt obliged to pre- 
serve and transmit from one generation to another, so as to enable us 
to compare our times with theirs — has, since the dawn of education, 
been gradually neglected and forgotten. Since then it has been the 
good fortune of the Gold Coast to possess educated men of powerful 
mind, who I am sure were well qualified to collect the traditions of 
their forefathers as a basis for a future history of the Gold Coast. 
But unfortunately such collections have not been preserved by their suc- 
cessors, but have been left to the memories of the uneducated commu- 
nity. Such a work as writing- a history of the Gold Coast would not 
have been difficult for such of our brethren as the late lamented Eev. 
William Hansen, and Charles Bannerman, and some others in Fante; 
they possessed the mental powers which would have enabled them to 
do it successfully. Unfortunately, however, these lights on the Gold 
Coast were carried away by death in the prime of life. 

A history of the Gold Coast written by a foreigner would most prob- 
ably not be correct in its statements, he not having the means of 

* 

1 M 771 ^ 



IV Preface. 

acquiring the different traditions in the country and of comparing them 
with those which he may have gathered from a single individual. Un- 
less a foreigner writes what he witnesses personally, his statements will 
be comparatively worthless, as it is the case with several accounts of the 
Gold Coast already published. Hence it is most desirable that a history 
of the Gold Coast and its people should be written by one who has 
not only studied, but has had the privilege of initiation into the history 
of its former inhabitants and writes with true native patriotism. 

It is no egotism when I say 1 have had the privilege of being ini- 
tiated into, and also of possessing a love for, the history of my country. 
My ancestors on the father's and mother's side belonged to the families 
of national ofliciating high priests in Akra and Christiansborg. And I 
should have become a priest either of Nai at Akra or Klote at Chris- 
tiansborg, if I had not been born a mulatto and become a Christian. 
My worthy grandmother Okakg Asase, as in duty bound to lier chil- 
dren and grandchildren, used to relate the traditions of the country to 
her people when they sat around her in the evenings. My education 
and calling separated me from home, and prevented me from complet- 
ing the series of these lessons in native tradition. 

However in 1860 I felt a craving to spend some days with her, so 
as to complete it; but she died whilst I was absent from home in Krobo 
as a catechist. Four years later Rev. Fr. Aldinger asked me to collect 
traditions for him; but the old lady was dead, and the old people, 
though possessing a vast store of tradition, refrained from imparting it; 
so I obtained very little for him. 

This treatment of the then old people stirred up a greater desire in 
me to use all available means in my power to collect traditions. From 
more than two hundred persons of both sexes 1 ol)tained what know- 
ledge of the subject I now possess. These traditions I have carefully 
compared in order to arrive at the truth. The result I now humbly 
present to the public, to whom I have to suggest a few remarks. 

If a nation's history is the nation's speculum and measure-tape, then 
it brings the past of that nation to its own view, so that the past may 
be compared with the present to see whether progress or retrogression 
is in operation; and also as a means of judging our nation by others, 
so that we may gather instruction for our future guidance. When such 
is not the case with a nation, no hope can be entertained for better 
prospects. Keeping this in mind, we shall more clearly understand the 
necessity of collecting materials for a complete history of the Gold Coast 
from evei-y source within our reach. 



Preface. V 

The title chosen for this publication, "History of the Gold Coast and 
Asante" may be deemed to promise more than I was actually able to 
give. For, from want of reliable information, the principal and impor- 
tant portion of the Gold Coast, Fante, the land of history, the land of 
poetry and enlightenment and semi-civilization, could not be treated 
fi-om its origin. Still I venture to have the book so named in the hope 
that our brethren and friends on the Gold Coast, both Native and Eu- 
ropean, may possess better sources of information for a history of the 
Gold Coast, and may, laying aside all prejudice, be induced to unite 
to bring the history of the GJold Coast to perfection. I deem it impossible 
for one man unaided to carry out such an important work to perfection. 

Having described the principal object I have in view in writing this 
work as a desire to produce a complete history of the Gold Coast, I 
trust, my friends in Fante, or elsewhere, will co-operate with me in re- 
vising, if need be, what I have written, and in assisting me by furnish- 
ing additional information, in order that a subsequent edition may be 
more complete. 

Another important snbject, besides that of Fante etc., which ought to 
be more fully investigated before the work would be complete, is the 
different conditions and concerns of various European nations on the 
Gold Coast and their connections with the people there since their es- 
tablishment in this country. 

I may also state briefly my object in connecting the history of Asante 
with that of the Gold Coast. There must be a starting-point in writing 
a history of a nation. If the kingdom of Akra, which appears to have 
been the first established on the Gold Coast, could have continued 
and absorbed that of Fante, or been absorbed by the latter, I might 
have easily obtained the starting-point. But both kingdoms having 
failed and the kingdom of Asante having become the leading and ruling 
power, a Gold Coast history would not be complete without the history 
of Asante, as the histories of both countries are so interwoven. Thus 
my present work carries us from the origin of the diflPerent tribes to 
the year 1856 i.e. the rebuilding of the town of Osu or Christiansborg, 
a period of at least three centuries. 

If, in conjunction with the united efforts of all the educated commu- 
nity of the country and those foreigners who take a special interest in 
us, we could collect materials of those dark days to complete this pio- 
neer work, that from 1857 up to the present time, some thirty years 
only, could be easily obtained, as there is sufficient matter already in 
store for us. 



VI Preface. 

Regarding dates and historical facts, I have made references to such 
works as I could lay hand upon. The records of the Colonial (4overn- 
nient would have furnished nie with correct dates and substantial infor- 
mations, but I was unable to obtain access to them. I am, however, 
highly thankful to the Rev. P. Steiner for the translation of some pages 
from the following works in German, viz. W. J. Muller, Danish chap- 
lain in Frederiksborg (now Fort Victoria) near Cape Coast Castle from 
1662—1670, published in Hamburg 1673 and in Niirnberg 1675; Fr. 
Romer, a Danish merchant in Christiansborg from 1735 — 43, published 
at Copenhagen in 1769; Dr. P. E. Isert, Copenhagen 1788; H. C. Mon- 
rad, a Danish Chaplain in Christiansborg from 1805 — 9, Weimar 1824; 
Dr. 0. Dapper's Africa. The short history of the Bremen Mission was 
kindly given me by the Rev. G. Binetsch, of the North German or 
Bremen Mission on the Slave Coast. 

Besides those, I have got the follov/ing works in English: William 
Bosnian, A new and accurate Description of the Coast of Guinea, de- 
vided into the Gold, the Slave, and the Ivory Coasts, 1705; Bowdich, 
Mission to Ashantee ; Cruickshank, Eighteen Years on the Gold Coast; 
Sir Dal. Hay, Ashanti and the Gold Coast; The British Battles; A brief 
history of the Wesleyan Missions on the Western Coast of Africa by 
William Fox, 1851; the Report of the Basel Mission for 1879, or a 
Retrospect on fifty years Mission Work; and the Gold Coast Almanack 
for 1842 and 1843, with some few manuscripts of the late Old James 
Bannerman and Charles Bannerman, which were kindly communicated 
to me by Mr. Edmund Bannerman and from which I obtained some 
information about Sir Charles McCarthy's war with Asante. And lastly, 
I am thankful to the Rev. A. W. Parker and the Rev. John H. Davies 
M. A., the Colonial Chaplain, for their informations. 

I have, at the same time, to crave indulgence from all the English 
readers of my work for my poor English and for using Dr. Lepsius' 
Standard Alphabet in writing the African names. For I have found 
out that the English Alphabet could never fully express the names, 
and as I have the full conviction that the endeavours of the Basel 
German missionaries to cultivate our language and to give us a litera- 
ture of our own have been successful, and this work is intended as a 
contribution towards that, ray native friends will, in the long run, find 
that I have adopted the best mode in doing so. 

The vowels a, e, i, o, u, [having the same pronunciation whether they 
be long or short] are as in English far, hest, sit, post, full; e = e in 
English there; g = o in not, nor; a, e, e, i, o, o, u are nasals; a, e, e, 



Preftice. VII 

1, g, 0, 11 ;ire long; h=ng- as in sing; s = sh ; ts = tsh in chin; ds = dsh, 
like j in just. For the Tshi (Twi) names I have used gy instead of dsh- 

And in conclusion I must beg you, my native friends, not to despise 
this work coming from one of your own brethren, but let it rather en- 
courage you to assist me by your kind informations and co-operation, 
so as to get our own history complete. To interest you chiefly I col- 
lected so many names of our forefathers, who defended our country from 
the yoke of Asante, trusting that every one of you will be pleased to 
tiud his grandfather's name in the lists. 

May our dear Lord bless this poor means I now offer to the public 
for the improvement of ourselves as well as our country! 



I am yours very truly 

C. C. Reindorf. 

Christlansborg, April 26f'>, 1889. 



Prefatory Remarks 

of the author's friend who carried the work through the press. 

The author had some difficulty in getting his Avork printed, as this 
could not be done on the Gold Coast. His endeavours to have it printed 
in England failed, and after some correspondence with his friends in 
Basel, a German printer was entrusted with it, who had printed numer- 
ous books and papers in the Tshi or Asante and in the Ga or Akra 
languages for the Basel Mission and the British and Foreign Bible So- 
ciety. The undersigned, being a fellow-labourer in the Basel Mission 
of the author and his personal friend, having also been the chief in- 
strument for preparing works in the Tshi language and carrying them 
through the press, as well as the publications in Ga since 1869, under- 
took to render similar service for the present work. Some of the au- 
thor's friends, taking a lively interest in the publication, found that the 
English manuscript wanted some revision before it went to the press. 
The delicate task would have been to difficult for the undersigned, be- 
ing himself neither born nor educated among English-speaking peo- 
ple; but he had the good luck to secure the services of a gentleman, 
who has been teaching English in Basel and in India about 33 years 
and possesses the advantage of speaking that language as his mother- 
tongue. Unibrtunately the duties of his vocation left him but very little 
time for this work, which he carried on, however, with great self-de- 
votion and managed at last to complete. If the book were to see an- 
other edition arranged in strict chronological order and with additional 
to.uches added to the revision of the style, our friend will not object to 
have his name given in the preface. After him the undersigned finally 
prepared the manuscript for the press, ciomparing it at the same time 
with the Ga translation of the first half of the work, which had been 
communicated to him by the author in order to be printed sxxccessively 
in a periodical " Christian Reporter for the Natives of the Gold Coast 
speaking the Ga or Akra language." By this comparison the true sense 
of the English as well as the Ga version was mutually elucidated and 
confirmed. Yet even after or partly on account of these threefold en- 
deavours to do justice to the English language, a genuine English reader 
may still find slight inaccuracies or inconsistencies e. g. in the punctua- 
tion and other points of orthography, in which even books of English 
authors do not always agree, so that e. g. the name M'Carthy is also found 



Prefatory Remarks. IX 

written McCarthy, Macarthy, MacOarthy. The number of capital 
letters used by the author was partly reduced by the revisors. Titles 
before English names are treated as in English, not so before African 
names, e. g. Captain Laing, king Taki. 

The way of writing the native names in English books has hitherto 
been very fluctuating and unsatisfactory, although it is very simple and 
plain in the vernaculars. In 1877 a circular from the Secretary of 
State called attention to the correct spelling of proper names, and from 
the Assistant Colonial Secretary's Office at Lagos a book was given out 
for the use of the Courts, prescribing "the correct spelling" of about 
470 places in or adjacent to the Gold Coast Protectorate. But of these 
names (often 2 and 3 for the same place, e. g. Crackee and Karaki = 
Krakye, Quahoo and Okwoo ^ Okwawu, Shawi, Sewhee, or Sefui = Sa- 
f\vi) only few were tolerably correct, some scarcely recognisable, the 
spelling was arbitrary and capricious. Certain principles were laid 
down in 1885, when a "System of Orthography for native names of 
places'' to be used in official publications was issued from the Intelli- 
gence Branch, according to which vowels are pronounced as in Italian, 
and consonants as in English, the letters c, q, and x being excluded. 
In 1887, 1888 and 1890 authorities under the Governments of France, 
Germany and the United States accepted in many points the principles 
of that English system and enlarged it, so that an international alpha- 
bet for geographical names was in view, but a tborough union has not 
yet taken place. The first rule of that English system says : " No 
change will be made in the orthography of foreign names in countries 
which use Roman letters: thus Spanish, Dutch etc., names will be spelt 
as by the respective nations." Accordingly, as for the Tshi and Ga 
languages Roman letters are used on the base of Prof. Lepsius' Stan- 
dard Alphabet (London 1863), Mr. Reindorf was right in using the ver- 
nacular orthography, although with some adaptation to that international 
alphabet which uses sh for s (in Ga) and tsh tor ts (Eng. ch in church)'^ 
likewise dsh is used in this book for ds [^^dzh, Engl, j', international 
djj. [For ds and ts in Ga, the Tshi has gy and ky, und besides d\v 
and tw [^ di/iv ?ind tsJnv), also fw, and w=ivy.] The simple sound of 
ng (as in singer, not as in finger) is expressed by n in Ga and Tshi, 
but in this book either ng is used at the beginning of words (in Ga) 
and sometimes at the end, or n before k and at the end, because the 
final h in Tshi, especially in Fante, often interchanges with n. 

We write Asante, and not "Ashanti"', because the simple sound of 
English sh does not exist in the language and no true Asante or Fante- 



X Pi-ef;itory Remarks. 

man uses it. The third rule of the above mentioned official "System 
of Orthography" says, "The true sound of the word as locally pro- 
nounced will be taken as the basis of the spelling." The wrong spell- 
ing "Ashantee" is owing to Mr. Bowdich and his interpreter, an Akra- 
man who went with him to Kumase in 1817, The Akras, having a 
predilection for "sh" especially before "e and i", pronounce the origi- 
nal form "Asiante" indeed "Ashanti", whereas the Asantes themselves 
have suppressed the short "i" but retained the "s". The stress is laid 
on the middle syllable, although it has the low tone; the final short 
vowel is not a real "i", but a "narrow e" which is often mistaken for 
"i", and has the high tone: Asante. The four last letters are pro- 
nounced as in the Italian name "Dante". 

We also write Akra (as many English writers did and do), and not Ac- 
cra, because the "c" is excluded from the spelling of African names, 
the doubling of consonants is against a fundamental law of most Negro 
languages, and the stress lies on the last syllal)le. The name "Akra" 
has been framed by Europeans from the Tshi name "Nkrah"; the na- 
tive name is "Ga". Since all the other native names are treated uni- 
formly, it would be awkward to retain Ashantee, ('oomassie, Accra, 
Yariba etc. because they were written so in 1817. The spelling and 
explanation of African names and other words are the very weakest 
points in Bowdich's excellent book. 

As to the merits of the present work, it will speak for itself to any- 
one who will take the time and trouble of perusing it, overlooking mi- 
nor defects in form and style. A few remarks, however, may be al- 
lowed here. 

Whatever imperfections the critical eye of an English reader may 
find in the book with regard to outward things or the arrangement of 
the contents or the author's knowledge and opinion concerning the re- 
mote antiquity etc., — the publication deserves to be welcomed 1)y the 
natives of the Gold Coast to whom it is dedicated, and by Englishmen 
and other Europeans who take an interest in Africa. It is the first 
comprehensive history of an important part of Africa written by a na- 
tive and from the standpoint of a native. For the author's countrymen 
everything in the l)Ook, also the many names, will be of some value. 
But for Europeans too, especially for English statesmen, authorities and 
officials that have to do with the Gold Coast, also for missionaries, his- 
torians, ethnologists, psychologists, philologists, and even geographers 
(on account of the geographical names) it will afford valuable matter. 
Several books treating of the Gold Coast have been written by Eu- 



Prefatory Remarks. XI 

ropeaiis, among them one or two under the title "A history of the C4olcl 
Coast." But all these were written from the standpoint of a European 
and with no, or only a very scanty, knowledge of the native languages, 
whereas here we have a history written by a native who has a warm 
heart for his country and people and is at home in their language and 
way of thinking, whereby he could attain to a truer aspect of things and 
facts than a European who has to gather his information by interpreters. 

Many parts of the book will excite the interest and sympathy or some- 
times antipathy of the common reader. One thing among others is re- 
markable: the extent to which an illiterate people can preserve so many 
facts and names of persons of its past history, by no other means but 
the retentive memory and oral tradition, partly supported by certain 
popular songs referring to the facts. This feature in the life of illit- 
erate people may also contribute to remove or abate the doubts concern- 
ing the reliability of other records of ancient and modern nations simi- 
larly circumstanced as the African peoples. 

But the superstitions, cruelties, horrors and atrocities in the private 
and public life ot heathenish nations are also brought to view in too 
many instances of this History of the Gold Coast, and this ought to 
impress natives and Europeans with thankfulness for the changes al- 
ready effected and with the conviction of the necessity of continuing 
and increasing every effort to bring the various tribes more and more 
under the influence of true Christian religion and civilization. 

The history of the Christian Missions on the Gold Coast in chapter 
XIX dwells perhaps too much on the beginnings and does not give much 
on the progress of the work, but mentions some of their results and 
statistics down to the year 1893. (In 1894 the increase of church mem- 
bers of the Basel Mission was larger than ever before, nearly one 
thousand.) 

The author certainly deserves warm acknowledgment for all his pains- 
taking in gathering the materials for his book. May the work he has 
accomplished stir up many dormant faculties in his African countrymen, 
to give him every support towards the continuation of his historical re- 
searches and the "completion" of the History of the Gold Coast so much 
desired by him, and may it promote the mutual understanding of Eu- 
ropeans and Natives especially concerning that which is needful for the 
elevation and true civilization of the inhabitants of the Gold Coast. 

J. G. Christaller. 
Schorndorf, June 1895. 



Contents. 



Chapter I. 

A short desci'iption of the Gold Coast. — The kingdom of Gui- 
nea. — Expeditions sent by Pharaoh Necho and the Carthagin- 
ians. — F. Komer's reference to the kingdom of Benin. — Tradi- 
tional accounts of emigration to this coast. — Different tribes, 
supposed to have been the aboriginal races on the coast, and their 
conquest. 13. C. 600. 570. A. D. 1400—1700 1 

Chapter II. 

Detinition of Gfi; its boundary; the first powerful kingdom formed 
by the Akras on the coast. — ■ I'he first three kings. — Akwamu, 
the first Tshi refugee, and the formation of his state and power. 

— The Portuguese and other Europeans forming settlemeirts on the 
Gold Coast for the purpose of slave-trade. — The expedition to 
Aharamata by king Mankpong Okai. — The tyrannical reigns of 
queen Dode Akabi and her son Okai Koi, whose reigns caused 
the destruction of the kingdom of Akra by the Akwamus. A. C. 
1500—1660 11 

Chapter III. 

King Ashangnio's^ defence of the country against the Akwamus. 

— His being repulsed with the Akras to Little Popo and Tetetutu 
and his wars with the Dahomeans and Angulas. — New settle- 
ments and towns formed on the coast by the Akras and immigrants 
from Dankera, Alata and Osudoku. - — War between Labade and 
Ningowa, and dissension among the Labades. — Settlers from Era 
(Anehg or Little Popo). — Origin of the Adangme tribe. 1660 — 1680 24 

Chapter IV. 

Emigration and settlements of the 1'shi tribes in the interior. — 
Awirade Basa and his first kingdom in Adanse. — Dankera, the 
first powerful state among the Tshi tribes, and the wars of Owusu 
Bore. — The formation of the kingdom of Amanse known as the 
kingdom of Asante. — • Its invasion by Ntim Gyakari : destruction 
of the kingdom of Dankera by Osei Tutu. About 1500—1700 . 43 



Contents. XIII 

Chapter V. 

Of the kingdoms of Akwamu and Akem. — The flourishing- 
state of the Akras on the coast. — Oduro Tibo's war with Nyako 
Kwaku. — War declared by Osei Tutu against Akem, and his 
death. — Akguno's invasion of Akra and the neighbouring tribes. 
About 1530—1730 58 

Chapter VI. 

The warlike and victorious reign of Opoku Ware. — His wars 
against Amo Yaw of Takiman. — The great improvement in the 
Akra kingdom in the reign of king Ayikuma Tieko, and his pre- 
paration against Akwamu. — Firempong declared war against 
Akwanno, and the troubles on the coast. — The three kings of 
Akem and their being hired by the Akras to fight the Akwamus. 
— Their expulsion to Krepe, and the Akems' supremacy on the 
coast. — The battle of Benna, and the invasion of Kumase by 
Abirimoro. — Safvvi and Gyaman ravaged. — Subjugation of Bu- 
roii Kyemi)im and Ntamang. 1731 — 1749 . . . . .74 

Chapter VII. 

Origin of the inhabitants of Akuapem and its formation into an 
independent state by the deputy prince Safori of Akem. — Of the 
eight successors after him to the reign of Obuobi Atiemo. — The 
reign of Ni Ayai, known as Tete Ahene Akwa (or Momotshe) and 
Okai Dsha. — The reformation of the state of Akra by him; ex- 
pedition to Little Popo, and his death. — Chief Okai Dsha's 
civil wars; his visit to the camp of Dade Adu, and his death. — 
Chief Wetshe Kodsho's reign, and expedition got up by him for 
tlie purpose of establishing peace in the country. — The reign of 
Teko Tshuru, and the civil war commonly called Kotoku and 
Twerebo-war. 1733—1777 90 

Appendix: Tradition about chief Okaidsha. 

Chapter VIII. , 

General constitution of the countries. Tshi form and Akra fcnmi 
of government. — Construction and worship of the royal stool. — 
Law about succession; collection of revenue. — • Organization of 
their armies. Different bands and their symbolical mottoes. — 
Preparation for war. Symbolical means of communication . .111 

Chapter IX. 

The attack by the English man-of-war on the fort Creve-Coeur 
and Dutch Akra, commonly known as the war with the Man-of- 
war (Manowota). — The first Danish expedition against the Ang- 
ulas. 1782—1784 128 



XIV Contents. 

Cliapter X. 

The state of Asante and Akeiu at this period. — The battle at 
Mpemehoasera, dissensions and commotions in the country. — The 
first Asante invasion of Fante, known as Fantekaii. — The inva- 
sion by the Obutus and Fantes of Akra on Saturday, commonly 
called Hota. 1749- -1809 137 

Chapter XI. 

Evacuation of Dutch Town's people to Kaneshi, or the efforts 
on the part of the Danish and English governments on the Gold 
Coast in abolishing the Slave Trade. 1807 — 1847 . . . 151 

Chapter XII. 

The first Asante revenge on the enemies of Akra by General 
Opoku Fredefrede. — The second invasion by the Iriple army of 
Fante, Akem and Akuapem on Thursday (Sota). — Kwadsho Ku- 
ma's rebellion, and tlie second Asante revenge by General Aman- 
kwa Abunyawa. 1811—1816 160 

Chapter XIII. 

The deplorable state of the country in consequence of the inva- 
sion by and the tyrannical rule of the Asantes. — The deputation 
composed of Mr. James, Governor of Akra, and Messrs. Bowdich, 
Hutchison, and Tedlie, witb a present to the king of Asante. — 
The king of Asante commenced war with Gyamaii. — • The insult 
given to Asante residents in Fante. — Mr. Dupuis appointed as 
Consul to Asante. — The former friendship which existed between 
the Akras and Asantes, and the flourishing state of Akra owing 
to their exemption from Asante invasions. 1817^1823 . • 171 

Chapter XIV. 
Arrival of, and preparations made by Sir Charles McCarthy for 
the invasion of Asante. — Expeditions to Aburi and Asikuma. 
1822—1823 17 9 

Chapter XV. 
Martial law proclaimed by the British Government. — Kwadsho 
Tibo's flight from Kumase." — • Sir Charles' death. — Expedition 
to the Pra. 1824 187 

Chapter XVI. 
The causes which led to the battle of Katamansu. — Defeat of 
Osei Yaw at Cape Coast. — His retreat, and disorder among his 
captains. — His accession to the stool and preparation for an in- 
vasion to reclaim his honour. — His principal captains. March 
for invasion and incidents in camp on the coast. 1825 — -1826 . 196 



Contents. XV 

Chapter XVI I. 

The old, women and children of Akem and Akuapem obtained 
ret'iifi'e at Akra. — Concentration of the troops at Akra — The 
tirst and second encampments ....... 205 

Chapter XVIII. 

The battle and victory. — • The plundering- of tlie camp. — The 
retreat of Osei out of the Protectorate. — The triumpliant return 
of the different troops. Enormous wealth poured into the Protect- 
orate by the victory. August 7. 1826 210 

Chapter .XIX. 

Establishment of schools by the European Governments on the 
Gold Coast. — Count Zinzendorf's attention drawn towards tlie 
propagation of the Gospel on the coast. — Arrival of the Moravian 
missionaries and their deaths. — Major de Richelieu's negotiation 
with the Committee of the Basel Mission on the propriety of be- 
ginning a mission work. — The first missionaries and the diffi- 
culties accompanying their work. — - Excellent plans of the mis- 
sion and its progress. — Arrival and establishing of the Wesleyan 
Methodist Mission, the Xorth German Mission and the Anglican 
Church Mission. — Effects of these missions on the different tribes 
on the Gold Coast. About 1720—1890 220 

Chapter XX. 
The expedition under chief Ankra to Bame. 1829 . . .251 

Chapter XXI. 

Peace made between Asante and the Protectorate, April 27, 1831. 

— The prisoners ransomed back to Asante ..... 257 

Chapter XXII. 

Agriculture with its implements in Adam's time. — Improvements 
in it by the ancients. — How the former inhabitants on the Gold 
Coast acquired implements, and the fertility of the soil. — Princi- 
pal plants known before the arrival of Europeans. — New plants 
introduced and improvements made by Europeans. — • Principal oc- 
cupations of the inhabitants, and how not improved. — Different 
famines known in the country, provision and labour being dear. 

— Folly of the educated community in not following the example 
of the civilized nations. — What the government should do to get 

the colony prosperous ......... 263 

Chapter XXIII. 

The causes that led to the first civil-war between Kumase and 
Dwaben. — Battle and retreat of Boaten to Akem. 1832 . . 285 



XVI Contents. 

Chapter XXIV. 

Boaten's residence at Akem. — His being- recalled to Asante. — 
The atrocious request of having his cousins and some captains put 
to death before he consented to return ...... 292 

Chapter XXV. 

His march back to Dwaben and death. — ■ The arrival at Kumase 
of his mother Seewa and the Dwabens. — The rebuilding of Dwa- 
ben. — Trade with Asante revived and full peace restored. 1842. 301 

Chapter XXVI. 

The expedition under chief Kwatei Kodsho to Nyive. — The 
war for independence of the Krepes from the yoke of Akwamu. 
1831—1833 305 

Chapter XXVII. 

The causes that led to the expedition by governor Morck against 
the Krobos. — Ado Dahkwa throwing off his allegiance to the 
Danish government, and his death. 1835 — 1838 .... 314 

Chapter XXVIII. 

Return of Owusu Akem back to Akuapera. — Disturbances there 
about the royal stool. — Adum's incarceration and appeal for re- 
dress on the coast. — Death of Owusu Akem. — Disturbances on 
the coast in consequence of Owusu's death. — King Adum and 
chief SabcVs deportation to Denmark. — Danish possessions on the 
Gold Coast ceded to the English government. 1839 — 1850 . . 321 

Chapter XXIX. 

Administration of justice according to English Law. — Its effect 
upon the people. — Imposition of a poll-tax. — Mode which the 
Government should have adopted in collecting it. — Conspiracy 
among the people to refuse paying the tax. — - Governor Hill's 
p.itience with the folly of the people. — Bombardment of Chris- 
tiansborg, Labade and Teshi by H. M. S. Scourge, Commodore 
John Adams. — • Peace made, and the rebuilding of Christiausborg. 
1851—1856 .329 

Appendixes. 

A. Lists of European Governors on the Gold Coast . . . 342 

B. Kings and the Royal Family of Asante .... 346 

C. The native leaders and officers engaged in the battle at Dodowa 347 

Additions and Corrections ...,.-.. 355 



HISTORY OF THE GOLD COAST m ASACTE. 



CHAPTER {. 

A short description of the Gold Coast. — The kingdom of Guinea. — Expe- 
ditions sent by Pharaoh Necho and the Carthaginians. — F. Komer's re- 
ference to the kingdom of P)enin. — Traditional accounts of emigration 
to this coast. — Different tribes, supposed to have been the aboriginal 
races on the coast, and their conquest. B.C. 600. 570. A.D. 1400-1700 

Our continent obtained its name "Africa" from the ancients, a 
name derived, according to Bochart, from a Punic word, signifying 
''Ears of corn."' It was represented by them as one of the three great 
continents of which they believed at that time the world to consist. 

"It is," to quote the late Rev. J. Zimmermann, "the cradle of the 
Hamitic portion of mankind, having Egypt with the adjacent coun- 
tries and deserts as her head and prototype, as the flood-gate through 
which the Hamitic branch of the human family flowed into her 
southward as far as to the Niger Delta. Western Africa must 
have been peopled by the rivulets overflowing from the main 
current and turning westward, pushing each other forward in the 
different directions to the barrier of the Atlantic. Africa, in the be- 
ginning second only to Asia in the development of early civilization — 
the cradle of Israel, the people of God, and also the nursery and 
place of refuge of our Saviour in his, and of Christianity in her in- 
fancy — must begin to open her eyes now after a deathlike sleep 
of more than a thousand years, and to call again for her place in 
the history of the world." 

Our object is the Gold Coast, situated on that western part of 
this great continent, which is called Guinea, divided into Upper and 
Lower Guinea. The Gold Coast (so called b}^ Europeans from the 
immense quantity of gold obtained hence) is that portion of Upper 
Guinea, which is bounded on the east by the River Volta. The 
western border is traced from a point 20 miles to the eastward of the 
mouth of the River Asini on a meridian of W. long. S^ 10' (G.) and 
farther inland 2" 50', or in the Tanno valley, to a parallel of N. lat. 
6^20'. From thence the line of demarcation between Asante and the 

Asante 1 



2 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Gold Coast Protectorate bends east and south-east to the River Ofe 
near the town of Terebuom, follows that river down to its confluence 
with the Pra, and again ascends this river to the parallel of N. lat. 
6*^ 30', from whence it [formerly] nearly followed that parallel to the 
River Volta.*) The boundary on the south is the sea with a shore- 
line of about 250 miles. The Protectorate has an approximate area 
of 20,000 sqr. m., and a population of about one million. 

Several authors of former times have represented Guinea as a 
mighty kingdom, whose prince had subdned numerous countries and 
united the whole territory into one powerful kingdom, called Guinea. 
This representation has, however, been refuted by several otlier 
authors, who may not have seen any vestige of that mighty king- 
dom. They are in so far right, as that mighty kingdom had been 
split into several independent states shortly before the Portuguese 
formed their settlements here. But we on our part, after several 
researches, incline to give credence to the accounts given by the 
first authors, which we do by the authority of the accounts and tra- 
ditions to be mentioned hereafter. 

The Phoenicians are supposed to have been the first people who 
visited this coast; for "Pharaoh Necho, one of the kings of Egypt, 
after having taken Sidon and subdued Phoenicia and Palestine (he 
must therefore have possessed considerable maritime power, nor 
was he less powerful b}^ land, II Kings 23, 29), employed Phoenician 
mariners to circumnavigate Africa, an undertaking which they 
accomplished with success." This was done about the year 600 
before Christ. 

Thirty or forty years after this, the Carthaginians, who were 
rivals of the Egyptians in commerce, must undoubtedly have ex- 



*) Couceruing the western border of the British Protectox'ate on the 
Gold Coast cf. Burton and Cameron, to the Gold Coast for Gold II, 78. 
At present (1894) the Protectorate includes also the Safvvi country be- 
yond the Tan no in the north-west. The northern frontier has been con- 
siderably extended on the east of Asante, including now Asante-Akem, 
Agogo, Okwawu and Broh (Brono), in fact the whole corner between 
Asante proper and Nkoransa on the west and the River Volta on the 
north and east. — On the east the Protectorate comprises also some coun- 
tries east of the lower Volta with the towns of Akwam, Anum, Peki, and 
Keta on the Slave Coast. The number of inhabitants of the Colony and 
Protectorate, excluding Okwawu and its above named neighbours, has 
officially, after a census taken in 1891, been computed at 973,822, that of 
Okwawu and British Krepe has been estimated at about 500,000. — Chr. 



Chapter I. 3 

plored a great part of the Western Coast of Africa, they may even 
have settled there. But according to the usual caution and mono- 
[tolizing spirit of commercial states, it is probable that they con- 
cealed their discoveries from other nations. Only one important 
document seems to have reached our times, which demonstrates 
the enterprising spirit of that people. It is an apparently abridged 
journal of a voyage to the Western Coast of Africa, undertaken 
by Hanno the Carthaginian. Hanno is said to have sailed according 
to the decree of his people with 60 ships of .50 oars each and a 
body of men and women to the number of 30,000, with stores and 
provisions. Their plan was to colonize or establish permanent 
garrisons upon the Western Coast of Africa. Hanno seems to have 
reached the Gold Coast, as may be seen from his own account 
given of the places they visited. They talked of having caught 
two women covered with hair, whose skins they brought to Car- 
thage. These must have been some species of monkeys which 
abound in Africa. At one place during the night, they saw a lofty 
fire, larger than the rest, which seemed to touch the stars; but at 
day-break they discovered this elevated fire to be a large hill, 
which they called "the Chariot of the Gods." These fires undoubt- 
edly were the annual burnings of the dried grasses on the Coast 
during the Harmattan season. 

(3f much later times there is an account of Mr. F. Romer, a 
Danish resident merchant of Christiansborg during the middle of 
the last century (1735 — 43), confirming the above statements about 
the kingdom of Guinea. He says, that the Gold Coast was a part 
of the western division of the great empire of the Emperor of Benin, 
which extended from Benin up to the river Gambia, and that it M-^as 
governed by kings appointed by the Emperor. The eastern division 
of his empire is said by Romer to have extended twice as far as 
that of the western. Such an extensive and large empire could not 
be established but by a" powerful king like the Pharaohs. In those 
ancient times there must have been a way for trade between Egypt 
and this coast. The mosaic beads known as aggry beads (Bosman 
calls them — Conte de Terra), found chiefly on the Gold Coast and 
Slave Coast, must have been brought hither from Egypt. The in- 
signia of the kings of Akra were as those in use in Benin, and 
most of their religious ceremonies, e.g. killing the sacrificial animals 
with sharp stones instead of knives, in order to avoid the animal 
being defiled, were also in use at Akra. 

1* 



4 History of the Gold Coast and A saute. 

We now come to the traditional accounts of the natives of the Gold 
Coast which seem to confirm and prove Romer's statement concern- 
ing the empire of Benin. 

The first instance is, that the kings of Lagos were formerly ap- 
pointed from Benin. 

The second instance is the following tradition which is generally 
and universally believed among our people. 

The ancestors of the tribes of Akra, Late, Obutu and Mowure are 
said to have immigrated from the sea; they arrived on the coast 
one tribe after another. 

The Akra King Ayi Kushi (perhaps Ayi the CushiteV) and his 
son Ayite with their subjects, the tribe ofTungmawe, now Abora, 
had in their company a prince with a few body-guards, who had 
the commission to rule over the Tshis in the interior. The two 
princes, i.e. the Akra and Akem sovereigns, proposed to send out 
one man each to spy out the land. They had to run a race, and 
he who first discovered land should claim preeminence for his sov- 
ereign. The racers started, but the Akra, perceiving his antagonist 
outstripping him, pretended to have got a thorn run into his foot. 
He thereupon asked the Tshi to spare him a knife to remove the 
thorn; but he replied, "Where came a thorn on this rock?" Upon 
stooping, however, to get him the knife, the other forthwith took 
hold of his shoulders and jumped over him with these words "It 
is I who first saw God!" And there and then both became the 
twin rocks known as Akwete and Akuete on the rock Tumo on 
the beach behind the Basel Mission Factory at Ussher Town, or 
Dutch Akra. 

The tribe of Gbese*) arrived first with two powerful priests, Amugi 
and Anyai. These with their people took possession of the site now 
occupied by the Ussher and James Towns' people. After their ar- 
rival King Ayi Kushi and his own tribe of Tungmawe with the 
Obutus and the Ningowas also came out. Wyete, the king of Obutu, 
arrived, although late, yet very grand, having plenty of gold orna- 
ments on his person; hence it was proposed by the Akras, that he 
should be the king of all the immigrants. Upon refusal to accept 
that offer, the Akras took hold of one of his arms, his people hold- 
ing the other arm, which very unfortunately was plucked off; he 



*) Gbese is the name of a species of red ants which live on fruit trees 
and attack any one coming' near. 



rh;ii)t(n- I. 5 

therefore retired into the sea. The numerous body known as the 
Asere tribe thereupon requested to have the ruling power; and that 
so offended the Icing (Ayi Kushi) that he also retired into the sea, 
after he iiad handed his sword to prince Ajite, who at his father's 
request marched with all the Akras, Obutus, and the Tshi prince, 
to Ayawaso, and there established his capital on the hill known 
as Okaikoi or Kplagon. The Aseres settled at Amonmole, the Obu- 
tus on the west of that hill, and the Akem prince went to the in- 
terior to assume government o;>^er the people there. — The ancestors 
of Mowure also are said to have come out of the sea very numer- 
ously, so that a man seeing them and being astonished to behold 
such a host of people coming out of the sea, gave a cry, which 
deterred the rest still in the sea, and those became rocks. 

In reference to the above, we give the following account from 
the "Western Echo". 

"The founder of Asabu, it is traditionally reported, was Amamli, 
a giant, who with his sister, accompanied by Kwagya, another giant, 
are said to have come from the sea with a great number of follow- 
ers. On their way from the sea, which took them five days, they 
were observed l)y a certain huntsman, who on seeing such a large 
body of men, is said to have clapped his hands and exclaimed, 
"how numerous!" At this the line of people emerging from the 
sea was suddenly cut off, and became petrified and transformed 
into several shapes and postures, which till now may be seen in 
clear sea extending to some distance. These two giants with their 
retinue travelled on together till they arrived at the Iron Hill and 
descended to the road which leads to the base of a hill called Abere- 
wanfo, the literal signification of which has reference to the diffi- 
culty of the ascent for old women. Here they parted, and Amamfi 
and his sister, taking the road that leads to Akotekua, made for 
the interior, finally making their abode in Astibu. - Kwagya on the 
other hand took the road leading to the beach side, until he arri- 
ved at the brow of the promontory now known as Mowure, and 
finding the place to be well situated for fishing, he and his men 
halted. They immediately set to clearing the bush, which was 
completed on the sixth day after their arrival, probably on Monday." 

The above traditions appear to be mere folklore, yet there may 
be some truth in them. In the first instance, our people, being- 
illiterate, could not keep the accounts of their emigration in writing. 
For what they say of coming from the sea could be easily explained 



6 History of the Gold Coast and Asaiite. 

by the common expression daily in use of coopers, carpenters, &c., 
employed to the Bights, "Ete iisoiV = he is gone to the sea ; ^'Edse 
iison'' = he comes from the sea. Hence the immigrants may have 
come by big canoes or ships to this coast. 

The tradition of immigration from the sea is also among the 
Tshis: the Adanses and the Tafos in Akeni; and the Asantes saj 
to this very day, that there arc certain people among them whose 
ancestors came from the sea. 

The third instance to prove the statements of Mr. Romer is that 
of a prince for Akem coming from the sea in company with the 
Akras. That throws a great light on Romer's acconnt of kings ap- 
pointed by the emperor of Benin to rule his subjects on this part 
of his empire. 

The last instance is the peculiar dress worn by the chief priest 
of Akra. A close inspection of the priest in his officiating garb 
leads to the conviction that his worship must be of foreign origin. 
As there is no African nation or tribe ever known to have so ad- 
vanced in their religious views as the Akras, one is inclined to 
suppose that the Jewish system of worship in the Old Testament 
style has been either introduced hy or imitated from the peo])le 
who came out first to this coast. If that be not the case, it may 
be found probable that those peculiarities are to be derived from 
the Portuguese Catholics, who established several churches on the 
Coast, and whose religion, after their expulsion, may have been 
mixed up with fetishism. 

As to the question whether the Carthaginians [or other people that came 
from the eastern coast of Africa round the Cape] settled on the (irold 
Coast, and what became of them, it may be observed that the descendants 
of the colonists, being lett here for nearly 2000 years before the Euro- 
peans came, and having no connnunication with the parent state for sucli 
a length of time, must certainly have lost their nationality, knowledge, 
civilization, and even their language, and have been assimilated, in every 
respect, to the aborigines. 

Having traced this so far, we come to another tradition, which 
says that the Akras and the Adangmes emigrated together from 
Tetetutu, or, as some say, from Same, in the east, between two 
large rivers. After crossing the Volta, they dispersed over the 
country ; the Krobos stayed on the Krobo mountain, the Shais on 
theirs, and so forth; but the Akras reached the Coast and formed 
their settlements. The Akras and Ningowas were marching in a 
body; during one night the former hastily started and left their 



Chapter I. 7 

dough behind them, hence their surname ^'Mashi" = those that have 
left their dough. The Ningowas, being left behind, were called by 
the former ^'Wo" i.e. sleepers. 

The aboriginal race all along the sea-coast and inland, at some 
points 15, 20, 30 and 40 miles northward, were nearly all of the 
Guan, Kyerepong, Le and Ahanta tribes, speaking different dialects 
of the Ahanta, Obutu, Kyerepong, Late (Le) and Kpeshi languages. — 
They seem to have extended from Asini down toTema; thence to 
the Volta were the districts of the Lbs, speaking Adangme, the 
mother dialect of Ga. In the interior were the Tshi or Fante tribes, 
who, as we suppose, when the Moslem invasion of Western Europe 
was stemmed, and the Christians reasserted their superiority in 
Spain, were driven by the Moors from central Africa into the low 
lying countries between the Kong (Kpong) mountains and the river 
Pra. Hence the tradition of the Fantes about their emigration to 
the coast, that they separated from the other emigrants and were 
called Ofatewfo i.e. the portion that has separated from the main 
body. We suppose this to be more the real meaning than "Efan- 
tewfo" pickers of "efaii" i.e. vegetable or pot-herb. The emigrants 
from the interior, after crossing the river Pra, travelled along it to 
the coast, and either subduing the aborigines or driving them along 
the coast, they settled in the country between Sima (Chama) and 
Dwomma (Gammah, Mumfort) along the sea-coast as well as in the 
interior. The Dankeras and Tshuforos crossed the Pra, leaving the 
Ahanta and Guan aborigines on the south from Sima (Chama) to 
Asini, and on the east from Dwomma (Dshiienma, Mumford, Mont- 
fort) to Lany-ma or the Cook's loaf.*) 



*) The only way, we suppose, of tiudiug out the difterent tribes which 
compose the wliole Gold Coast population, is by knowing those people 
who perform the following different customs tor their marriageable girls. 
In the wliole, there are three principal tribes, viz : the Guah-Broh tribe, 
the Ga- Adangme tribe and the Fante-Twi tribe. The Customs hitherto 
known to us are : 

1. Tuh-yo = camwood-girl, indicates the pure Ga tribe. 

2. Ama-yo = pitch-girl, the mixed Le-Ga tribe (the aborigines). 

3. Asim-yo = elephant's tail wearing^ girl, the mixed Guah-Ga tribe 
(Kpesi and Obutu). 

4. Otufo-yo = priestly hat and loin-cloth wearing girl, the Adangme 
tribe. 

5. Nsowumg-yo = sea-washing girl, the Fante tribe. 

6. Bradsu-yo = menses-washing girl, the mixed Guan-T\vi tribe. 

7. Ak6-y5 = (red) parrot-feathers wearing girl, the T\Vi tribe. 



8 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

The following account proves it. Amamfi, Asabu, and Kwagya 
with their numerous retinue had already settled in the country and 
had founded several towns, such as Asabii, the capital, Putubew, 
Amosima, Abora, Po-Ekrofo (Boropo-Ekrofo, which signifies sea- 
people, that is, people emerged jfrom the sea), Akumamba, Mainsu, 
Berebu, Mowure, &c. 

"The Fantes, on arriving from Takiman, to settle among the for- 
mer inhabitants of the land, encountered great opposition from 
Asabu. It is reported that the Asabus, previous to the settlement 
of that portion of Fante called Abora, lived where the latter now 
dwell. The Asabus looked upon them as intruders, and consequently 
did all they could to make their stay in the places they occupied 
as far from peaceful as possible. To show how far the Asabus 
tyrannized over the Aboras, it may be remarked, that it was not 
an uncommon thing for their chief Amamfi, to try his bill hook on 
any one of them he came across after he had sharpened it. But 
the Aboras soon gave evident signs of their unwillingness to en- 
dure such insults. A number of battles ensued, in which the Asa- 
bus, though numerically inferior, were invariably the victors by 
reason of Amamfi's extraordinary strength. The Aboras having so 
often failed in their attempt to dispossess the Asabus, and the latter 
having continued to be more and more troublesome, the former 
combined to make one strenuous effort to put them down. They 
asked their highest fetish Nananom, what sacrifice they should offer 
to ensure success, and by his advice buried a certain creeping plant 
called by the Akras "akpatrokpo" in a pot near the enemy's town. 
The consequence was, that all the warriors of Amamfi and Asabu, 
as well as their chiefs themselves, were soon laid down by an attack 
of guinea-worm, effected b}^ the influence of that sacrifice. Tlie 
Aboras then gave battle to the Asabus. Ofisadu, nephew of Asabu, 
and captain over the Asabus' forces, was ordered to fall in to meet 
the enemy. Amamfi and Asabu, as a matter of course, were un- 
able to join their people. They very soon discovered the great 
probability of the Aboras winning the day ; finding themselves in 
great peril, they, with great. effort, got up and approached the scene 
of action. On finding that the people were no longer able to make 
a stand and were actually retreating, it is said, they retired into 
the sea. Thus the Aboras got possession of the country." Such 
emigrations back into the sea should be understood as rather emi- 
grating somewhere else. 



Chapter I. 9 

As ah-eady remarked, when tlie whole Gold (Joast was under the 
emperor of Benin and governed by kings appointed by him, there 
was peace throughout the whole extent of the country. But after 
the arrival of the Portuguese and the immigration of the Tshi tribes 
the unity was dissolved; hence we hear toward the end of the 
seventeenth century of eleven powerful states or kingdoms on the 
Coast, besides those in the interior. They are, according to Bosnian, 
Axim, Ante or Ahanta, Adom, Gabi, Kommani, Afutu, Sabu (Asabu), 
Fante, Akron or Gomoa, Agona, and Akwamu. The kingdom of 
Akra had already been destroyed by the Akwamus, hence the 
eleven states mentioned; else they would be twelve. Those immi- 
grants by their conquest introduced their language among the ab- 
original race, hence we see that Tshi is spoken in all the kingdoms 
or states forming the Western Province of the colony, although 
several states retain their mother tongues besides. 

We also enumerate those countries on the Coast as well as Inland 
according- to the Rev. J. G. Christaller's dictionary of the Asante and 
Fante language (1881). The south-western group of states and districts 
of the Gold Coast are : Amanahia, from the lagoons and lower courses , 
of the river Tanno to the mouth of the Ankobra river (which the Por- 
tuguese called "Serpentine" on account of its intricate windings), Aiiwo- 
uwii (Awowi) north of Amanahia, Safvvi, Ahanta, Wasa, Twiforo and 
Dankira. The Fante group, on the middle part of the Gold Coast, ex- 
tending from 80 to 100 miles l)etween the rivers Pra and Sakumo ; 
Komane (Commenda) with Aguafo and Aberemu, Odena or Elmina, Afutu, 
Asabu, Abora, Fante proper (Onomabo and Fante Asene, Korentsel, 
Anyah &c.), Adwumako, Akumfi, Gomoa, Agona, Asikuma. The south- 
eastern Akau group : A sen or Asenefufu, Akem Abuakwa, Akem Kotoku, 
Akem Dwaben, Akuapem, and Akwam with Kamana.*) 

Although we have stated above that the Guan and Ahanta tribes 
extended from Asini to Tenia, yet according to the political division, 



*) As a north-western Akan Group he mentions inland countries which 
were then (1881) outside the British Protectorate ; but Okwawu, Asante- 
Akem and Agogo have since been received into it, the tribes of Adanse, 
Nkwauta, Danyase and Kokofu have immigrated into the British Terri- 
tory, Dadease is disinclined to serve Asante, and so this once powerful 
kingdom is reduced t9 Kumase, Bekwae in the S.W., Agona, Mampoh, 
Kumawu, Nsuta and Nkoransa in the N., and some minor dependencies. 
In the N.E. the Bron tribes placed themselves under British protection, 
and Nkoransa is likely to follow. The south eastern corner of the Gold 
Coast contains the Akra or Ga and Adangme country, see the beginning 
of Chapter TI. 



10 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

the Le tribes^ among whom were Kyerepongs, Kpeshis and Adang- 
mes, extended from Mount Langma to the Volta. The Akras seem 
to have driven some of those tribes to the Akuapem mountains 
and beyond the river Volta. What thb Lates say of having had 30 
towns, and the Kyerepongs, also 50 towns, may be true of that time. 

Thus we see that the tribes of Late, Anum, Nkonya, and even 
the Bowure people in Krepe, emigrated from this coast to the other 
side of the Volta.*) The Bowures are reported to have emigrated 
from Mowure in Fante. There are, however, some remnants of the 
aboriginal race of the Les, Kpeshis and Obutus mixed up with the 
Akras. — To prove that the Kpeshis may have occupied the land 
from Tema to the Volta, we give the following reasons. 

All the lagoons from Laloi near Kpoh (Poni) on the east to the 
river Sakumo and the lagoon Sakumo in Apa (Apam) on the west 
were owned by the Kpeshis and Obutus or Afutu-Berekus; the first 
lagoon they named Sakumo nukpa (the elder) and the river they 
called Sakumo fio (the younger). The lagoons which the natives 
worship as their fetishes have all their religious songs in the Obutu 
or Kpeshi dialect. This shows that the Obutus and Kpeshis were 
the first settlers on this tract of land. 

There is, however, a tradition which says, that the lagoon Sakumo 
nukpa (Tema Sakumo) was the property of the Ningowas, who in 
their wars with the Labades pawned it to Adshete Ashabara, king 
of Tema. The Ningowas are said to have shared the tract of land 
between the river Sakumo and Laloi with the Akras; the boundary 
was the lagoon Kolete at Christiansborg. This shows that they 
may have shared the land between themselves after the conquest 
of the Kpeshis, knowing, according to tradition, that these two tribes, 
Akra and Ningowa, emigrated together to this coast. 

The other settlers were the Les, as we find mentioned the family 
of Lakote Aduawushi = Kote of Le, who is known to have been 
on the coast with his people before the Akras removed thither. The 
brother of Lakote with the name Leteboi was acknowledged by tiie 
Dutch Government, by an instrument drawn, which was afterwards 
carved on the silver-handed cane of the priest of Nai, as the king 
of Akra in 1734. Likewise we see that one Tete Kpeshi was the 



*) Very likely these tribes were driven over the Volta by the Ak- 
wamus, when that tribe subjugated the Kyerepongs on the Akua- 
pem-hills. P. St. 



Chapter II. U 

chief of James Town, whose brother Kpakpo Anege*) was acknow- 
ledged by an other instrument drawn by one Mr. J. Hosey Besouth, 
agent of the Royal African Company of England, as tlie chief and 
successor of Tete Kpeshi on tlie 16'^^ January 1737; and was paid 
a stipend of ^ 4 per month. 

The coast and the inland of the Eastern Province, i.e. from Mount 
Cook's Loaf (Langma) to the Volta, hare been the seats of power- 
ful kingdoms and states, as there have been such in the Western 
Province. Tltey were the kingdoms of Akra, Obutu, Le or Ningo 
or Adangnie, whose king had the title Ladingcour or Liinimo (see 
Bosnian page 327), of ShCioyi near Sasabi, and several other states. 



CHAPTER IL 



Definition of Ga ; its boundary ; the first powerful kingdom formed by 
the Akras on the Coast. ^ The first three kings. Akwarnu, the first 
Tshi refugee, and the foruiation of his state and power. — The Portu- 
guese and other Europeans forming settlements on the Gold Coast for 
the purpose of slave-trade. — The expedition to Aharamata by King 
Mankpong Okai. — -The tyrannical reigns of Queen Dode Akabi and her 
son Okai Koi, whose reigns caused the destruction of the kingdom of 
Akra Ity the Akwanms. 1500—1660. 

'"Ga" is the name particularly applied to the people and country 
bounded on the east by the lagoon Tshemu near Tenia, west by 
the river Sakumo fio, south by the sea, and north by the Akuapem 
mountains. It is, however, generally applied to the people and land 
from the Cook's Loaf or Langma to the Volta. The seven towns 
forming the Akra proper are: L Ga, English or James Town (Brit- 
ish Akra); 2. Kinka (Kanka) or Ussher Town (Dutch Akra); 3. Osu 
or Christiansborg (Danish Akra); 4. La or Labade; 5. Teshi ; 6. Ning- 
owa or Little Ningo; 7. Tema. The Ga-Adangme coast towns are: 
Kpong or Poni; Gbugbra orPrampram; Nungo or Ningo and Ada. 
The inland Adangme towns are: Shai, Krobo, Osudoku and Asu- 
tshuare. 

The reduplication of Ga is gaga, which is a kind of the big black 
ants which bite severely and are formidable to the white ants. The 



*) Onigi is an Obutu name for Guinea fowl, and Kpakpo being very 
handsome was called by that name. 



12 History of the (lold (.-cast and Asante. 

natives designate themselves '^Loeiabii (Loiabii)". Loei is the Ga 
name for another species of the black ants, which wander about 
in great swarms and thus invade houses, killing and devouring 
every living thing that comes in their way. These ants are called 
''nkran" by the Tshis and Fantes. The Portuguese coming to tliis 
part of the coast may have' brought down Fante servants, who must 
iiave told them, the place is Nkran. As foreigners, thej' could not 
pronounce it so properly, but called it "Akra" (which the English 
spell Accra). As their name designates, they must have been a 
very numerous and powerful wandering tribe who very easily sub- 
dued the aborigines. Fourteen big towns are said to have existed 
inland of Ussher Town, one as large as our present James Town 
and Ussher Town ])ut together four times, of at least 40 — 50,000 
inhabitants. It is said that all the inland elevations or hills, such 
as Akpadegong, Pletekwogong, Muko, Amonmole, Fanofa, Dokutsho, 
Kushibiete (Legon) &c. had big towns on them formerly. James 
Town, Christiansborg, and Teshi were then not founded. The tribe 
of Ningowa or Wg had several towns : Wodoku, Kpatshakole, La- 
shibi, Koko nyaga, Wokple, Wodode, Woshagba, Wo-Akwamu, Wg- 
bgbg &c., vv^ith Wodoku as the capital. The Labades were then on 
the Aboasa hill and near the river Nsaki, whilst Ashijaote, tiie 
jiriest ofLakpa, resided on the Adshanggte hill. The tribe of Tenia 
or Kpeshi likewise had several tow^ns: Tebiang (Yege, Kpla), Podoku, 
Atshebidoku, Alagba, Lakanmabi, Takinmabi*) &c. There was a 
large town with several other towns near Sasabi known as Shugyi. 
All these tribes and people, as well as the Adangmes and Les or 
Agotims down to the Volta, the Obutus, Akwamus, and Akuapems 
were tributary states to the king of Akra. In short, the whole 
extent of the kingdom is said to have reached as far down as Aha- 
ramata, north of Little Popo on the east, and to Akan near Obutu 
on the west. 

We have obtained only a few names of the first kings of Akra 
with a few scanty notes about them. The first king was Ayi Kushi^ 
who retired into the sea. The next was Ayite, who established his 
capital at Okaikoi near Ayawaso. The third was NT Koi Nalai or 
Nlkoilai, and the fourth Mankpong Okai, surnamed Owura Mankpong; 
all we know about him is, that he used to ride in a carriage, which 



*) Lakanmabi is now called Ashaman, and Takinmabi = Awuduui ; 
they are now quarters and no more towns. 



Chapter II. 13 

shows that in his days the Portuguese had settled here, perhaps 
about 1483, because the Portui^uese took possession of Elmina and 
built the Castle St. George de Ellmina in 1481. 

During his reign the following incident may have occurred. 
Mr. Romer says: "Two princes in the interior fell in love with a 
noble woman. They agreed to ask her to make choice of one of 
them, upon which one was chosen. The one not chosen one night 
called upon and made off with her. By travelling six weeks they 
arrived at Okaikoi and took refuge with the king of Akra, then 
at Ayawaso. The name of that prince was Akwamu, which after- 
wards became the name of that tribe and kingdom. He staying 
with the king as a servant, got two children, a son and a daughter, 
with his wife, and in the course of time he obtained a piece of land 
as a grant from the king, and built his own village 4 miles off. 
When he was removing to his new place, he left his son at the 
king's court to be educated. Akwamu, being a Tshi prince with 
their known inherent wits for ruling, easily managed to collect a 
good number of other fugitives about him, so that, after the lapse 
of 50 years, he could form a small state at the foot of Akem Peak 
(^Nyanawase), yet was under the king." 

King Mahkpong Okal appears to have married the Obutu princess 
Dode Akabi (Akai\ who seems to have been a grand-daughter of 
king Wyete. She was the mother of Okaikoi, who was named after 
her royal family's name — Koi, but being the son of king Okai, he 
got the full name Okai Koi, as the ancient Akras used to name 
their children — the father's name preceding the son's name, similar 
to the Jewish fashion in naming their children. 

Our connection with Europe seems to have commenced a little 
earlier, prior to the reign of King Okai. After the lapse of exactly 
2000 years from the supposed Carthaginian settlement on the Western 
Coast of Afrika, no nation explored the Coast ; though some French 
authors have tried to prove that a French company of Dieppe 
and Rouen built the first fort in 1383, which afterwards was rebuilt 
and got the name St. George della Mina by the Portuguese in 1481. 
We leave that dispute to the two nations and proceed on the gen- 
erally accepted supposition that the Portuguese were the first nation 
on the Coast. 

Prince Henry of Portugal, the navigator, was the first to direct 
attention to the West Coast of Africa, and it was explored as far 
as Sierra Leone, under his auspices. He always urged his naviga- 



14 History of the CtoIcI Coast and Asante. 

tors to bring home some of the natives, that he might have them 
baptized, educated, and sent back, so that the Portuguese might 
afterwards be able to open a commerce with them in their own 
country. Gonzales Baldeza in 1442, returning after a voyage of two 
years, brought 10 slaves and some gold-dust. Prince Henry pre- 
sented the Negroes to the Pope Martin V., who thereupon conferred 
upon Portugal the right of possession and sovereignty over all the 
countries that might be discovered between Cape Bojador (S. of the 
Canary Islands) and the East Indies. But at Prince Henry's death 
in 1463 discovery had not yet advanced beyond Sierra Leone. 

King John II. of Portugal, in 1481, despatched Don Diego d'Asam- 
buja, with a force of 700 men, to the Gold Coast. He landed at 
Elmina and built the Castle of St. George, in spite of the opposition 
from Karamansa, the native king of Fetu (Afutu), then the power- 
ful state in Fante. (Karamansa may be Okoromansa, a name often 
joined to the name Amoa, or Okara Mansa.) The discovery of 
America by Columbus, and the commencement of the West African 
slave-trade attracted other nations to visit Guinea. 

After the Portuguese, the Dutch followed. The}^ built Fort Nassau 
at Mowure and settled in other places, as will be shown hereafter. 
The English so long ago as the reign of Edward IV. had proposed 
to establish themselves in these regions, but were restrained by fear 
of infringing the rights of Portugal under the Pope's grant. In the 
latter part of Edward the Fourth's reign, private English adventurers 
traded to the Coast, and the first commercial voyage from England 
to Guinea was performed in 1536. But the Government's support 
extended by Portugal, and then b^^ Holland, to their subjects, placed 
the English adventurers at great disadvantage. James I. extended 
some support to these traders, and a Fort was established at Koro- 
mante (Cormantine) in the year 1624. 

Cape Coast Castle (the Castle at Cabo Corso) was built in the 
year 1652 by the Swedes. The foundation was laid by its comman- 
dant Isaac Miville, a Swiss from Basel. The first name of the Castle 
was "Carolus-burg" (Charles'fort). In 1658 it was taken by the 
enterprising Heinrich Karloff, a native of Sweden, then in the ser- 
vice of the Danish Company, and thus it fell into the hands of 
the Danes. 

The Danes built the forts Fredericksborg near Cape Coast and 
Christiansborg near Osu in 1659, as well as those at Anamabo and 
Takorari. In the same year the Danish African Company obtained 



Chapter II. 15 

the privilege of trading on the West Coast from king Frederick III. 
of Denmark and Norway. But unfortunately Immanuel Schmid, the 
succesor of Karloff, surrendered the Castle of Cabo Corso and those 
in Anamabo and Osu to the Dutch in 1659. After this the natives 
of Fetu (Afutu) besieged Cape Coast Castle and took it in 1660; 
but the Swedes retook it from their hands and kept it from that 
year to 1663, when the Fetus retook it from the Swedes by surprise 
and treachery. Now the English, Danes, and Dutch respectively 
endeavoured to get possession of it by negociation, but all failed. 
On the second of May 1663, however, the Fetus voluntarily surren- 
dered it to the Dutch. It had not been one year in their possession, 
when it was attacked by Admiral Sir Robert Holmes by land and by 
sea and captured on the third of May 1664. (The author of the "Brit- 
ish Battles" places the event in the year 1661.) The English have 
ever since kept possession of Cape Coast Castle, though the illustrious 
Dutch Admiral De Ruyter tried with thirteen men-of-war to capture 
it in 1665. 

In 1685 the Danes sold to the English Fort Fredericksborg, named 
by them Fort Royal, but now Fort Victoria. 

.James Fort at Akra was built by the English in 1662, in which 
year a chartered company was formed, ''the Company of Royal Ad- 
venturers of England trading to Africa". In 1672 "the Royal African 
Company of England" succeeded them, and in 1752 "the African 
Company of Merchants" took their place. 

Not only Portugal, Holland, and England formed companies for 
the purpose of trading to tbe Gold Coast, but also Denmark, Bran- 
denburg, Sweden, France, with the sole object of obtaining from 
our kings and chiefs the superfluous population or their captives in 
war as slaves for the cultivation of the American plantations. From 
Apollonia down to Keta (Quittah) we find about 35 Forts built by 
them, most of which are now in ruins. For the interest of our 
young readers we give the names of these forts, beginning from 
the east: 

Quittah (Keta) Fort Prindsensteen 1784 Danish 

Addah (Ada) » Kongensteen 1784 y> 

Ningo (Nuno) » Fredensborg 1735-41 » 

Prampram (Gbugbra) » Vernon English 

Teshi » Augustenborg Danish 

Osu » Christiansborg 1659 » 

Dutcli Akra (Kinka) » Crevecoeur Dutch 



16 



History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 



English Akra, or James 

Town (Ga, Erilesi) Fort James 
Seniah (Sanya) 
Winnebah (Simpa) 
Apam (Apa) 
Gamma (Dwomma) 
Tantvim (Tuam) 
Cormantine | 

(Koromante) I 

Anamabo (Onomabo) 
Moree (Mowure) 



1662 English 
Bereku Dutch 

Winnebah 1694 English 

Lijdzaamheid(Patieiice) 1697 Dutch 



Cape Coast (Ogua) 



Mumfort 

Tantamquerry 

Cormantine 

Amsterdam 

Anamabo 

Nassau 

Carolusburg 

Cabo Corso 

Cape Coast Castle 

FrederiksT^org 



English 
)) 
1624 )> 
1665 Dutch 
1753 English 

Dutch 
1652 Swedish 
1658-63 Danish & Dutch 
1664 English 
1659 Danish 



Elmina (Odena) 

» 
Commenda (Komane) 
» (Akatakyi) 

Chama (Sima) 



Royal, now Victoria 1685 English 

William » 

Macarthy » 

oi. /-. jjT^i • rl481 Portuguese 

St.Georged'ElminaJ .^^_ ^, , 
^ \Wo( Dutch 

St. Jago (Koenraadsbiirg) )^ 

Vredenburg ' 1688 » 

Commenda 1681 English 

St. Sebastian (Portg.) Dutch 



Secondi (Sakunne) 


)) 


Orange 






1680 » 


)) » 


)) 


Secondee 






1685 English 


Tacorady (Takorade) 


» 


Witsen 






Dutch 


Bootry (Butiri) 


» 


Bate ns teen 






» 


Dixcove (Mfuma) 


)) 


Dixcove 






1691 English 


Akoda (Akwida) 
Takrama 


» 
» 


Dorothea 
Takrama 




. 


1682 Brandenburg 
1725 Dutch 


Montfort (Manforo) 


» 


Friedrichsb 


urg 




Axim(Asem,Sem-brofo) 


)) 


St. Antonio 


(Portj 


?•) 


» 


Apollonia (Benyin) 


)) 


Apollonia 






English. 



These torts were not only built for defence against hostile in- 
digenous tribes, but also against European neighbours and powers. 
In 1637 the Dutch took the famous Castle of St. George d'El- 
mina from the Portuguese; they planted their cannons on the hill 
on which St. Jago was afterwards built, and obliged the Castle to 
surrender. The Portuguese were finally expelled by the Dutch from 



Chapter II. 17 

the Gold Coast in 1642. Bosman says: "The Portuguese served for 
setting dogs to spring the game which as soon as they had done 
was seized by others." 

The Portuguese being thus expelled, the Dutch, English, and Danes 
became possessors of their forts or built new ones. The Dutch had 
16, the English 14, and the Danes 5. But the Danes ceded their 
possessions to the English in 1850, and the Dutch in 1868 and 1872, 
so that now, over the whole coast-line of 250 miles, the Union-Jack 
alone waves supremely. 

Rule, supremely rule, Britannia, rule. 
Thy acquired colony on the Gold Coast! 
Protected from the Tyrant and the Slaver 
By blood of thy noble sons shed on fields, 
Besides thousands and thousands of pounds ! 
Destined by Heaven to have the rule, 
Godly, justly, fatherly therefore rule ! — 

The old kingdom of Akra, as already remarked, extended on the 
Coast to Aharamata, north of Little Popo. The chiefs there, being 
tributary subjects to King Mankpong Okai, sent him regular annual 
tributes and presents. They often asked the Akras to defend them 
against their enemies; hence in after times, when the power of 
Akra was broken, the Akras also sought an asylum there. Being 
their allies, the Akras traded with them by bartering European 
goods from the Portuguese for ivory, aggry-beads, blue-beads &c. 

The king sent his people with large amounts of goods, and other 
traders, under one Lamte, had to go with the kings people. While 
they were trading there, a war broke out between the allies and 
some tribes whose king was so cruel as to kill people. The Akra 
traders joined in war against that king, but he was too strong for 
them; so messengers were sent with the traders to report it to the 
king. A large army was ordered to march against the enemy of 
the allies, in which Labades, who were then not yet separated, had 
to join. For the safety of the fetish Lakpa it was arranged to har- 
bour it in a dense forest, now known as Lakpako, which afterwards 
became the site of the town Teshi. — The army suffered great hard- 
ship at Aharamata from want of provision, bad ways &c., and had 
to subsist solely on palmkernels and the clay of the white-ant- 
hillocks. Consequently a good number of the warriors died. That 
wicked and cruel king was, however, captured, brought to Akra, 
and beheaded. The aged chief of Labade died on their return home ; 
hence the second chief, whose successors afterwards separated to 

2 



18 History of the Gold Coast and Asaiite 

Teshi, instructed the votaries of Lakpa in the ceremonies connect- 
ed with its worship. 

After the death of King Okai, Dode Akabi (Akai), an intelligent 
and masculine woman and Princess of Obutu, having obtained pos- 
session of the kings property, usurped the government, knowing 
that after her death the young Prince Okai Koi might aspire to 
the throne. Dode Akrd, whether to avenge the ill-treatment given 
to her ancestor Wyete, or whether it was her nature, ruled both 
the Obutus and Akras with a rod of iron. It was she who invent- 
ed the Akra face-cut-marks, although some are of opinion that the 
first Akra emigrants had those marks in their faces. She also 
forbid men the use of the abusive expression "bulu" or brute to a 
wife, upon pain of death. Her injunctions were very foolisli and 
cruel, such as to catch a lion or tiger alive for her! In the execu- 
tion of such ordres many a life was lost. Before giving the order 
to build her palace, not thatching it with grass, but with clay, she 
is said to have commanded all the young men in her dominion to 
do away with all the old and elderly men. The young folks com- 
plied with that wicked injunction ; but one family alone harboured 
their father instead of killing him. When she was hardly pressing 
the people to build the palace and to use swish-strings in thatching 
it, they were at a loss how to manage it. The old man harboured 
advised his sons to demand a sample of the old swish twine with 
which the palace of her predecessors was thatched, so as to imitate 
it. This being asked, she perceived at once that one of the elders 
must be alive, and forthwith ordered the people to tell her the truth. 
Which being told, the old man was ordered to be fetched, who had 
such a demonstration with her, that she gave up at once that idea 
of roofing a grass house without the natural materials. This was 
the origin of constituting seven elders as counsellors to advise kings 
and chiefs in every town. 

Her death is said to have been brought about by an order to sink 
a well in the hill known as Akabikeiike, now corrupted, Akaeke 
(Akabi's hill). The people, having no proper instruments, were com- 
pelled to sink a well some hundred feet deep! Their rigid task- 
masters were hard upon them, as the Egyptians on the Israelites. 
At last the poor, oppressed and aftlicted people conspired against 
the life of the Q,ueen. To carry out that design, it was announced 
that water was being discovered, but there was a man found in 
the bottom of the well, who forbade their digging any farther. Upon 



Oliaptf^r IT. 19 

which the wicked Queen with her numerous women retinue repaired 
to the spot, arrogantly demanding, who the man was that forbade 
the digging? "He is in the bottom of the well below" was the 
reply. In a passion, she ordered herself to be lowered down to see 
the man who durst oppose her injunction. She was accordingly 
lowered down, when the people exclaimed, "This is your abode!" 
In the twinkling of an eye a multitude of stones and sticks were 
thrown into the well to fill it up. All the workmen engaged at 
the well, as well as those in town, carried stones and threw them 
in. Those coming late had to throw their stones in heaps all around, 
which are seen to this day. Thus ended the wicked and cruel 
reign of Dode Akabi, which is still remembered by two proverbs : 
"Blemakpa no atsaa" = Twine is twisted according to the sample 
of the ancient; "Ke oyi tamoo Tete yi le, otoo T§te sama" = Never 
cut your hair like that of Tete, when your head has not the same 
shape as his,— referring to the Queen, who was not of the royal 
blood of Akra and should not liave assumed the supreme power. The 
mode employed to kill her has been since connected with religious 
ceremonies : — whenever an epidemic, war, death or any other mis- 
fortune is impending, a small hole is dug in the ground, into which a 
cat or any other cruel beast is placed. The parties on whose behalf the 
sacrifice is made, have to pick up three small stones each, wheeling 
simultaneously each stone around the head, and then cast it in to the hole. 
After which the animal is buried, while the parties standing or sitting 
around the hole say, "The wicked one is now being buried." Owing to 
this murder, the Tshis called the Akras "Nkran pon wose ye du". (The 
great Akra, whose saying is the tenth i.e. who fulfil what they say.) 
Prince Okai Koi was very young when his mother was buried 
alive; on coming to age, he desired to know who his mother was, 
as well as her name, but none durst tell it. Hence the Akras have 
this expression, "Moko lee moni fo Okai Koi", i.e. No one knows 
the one who begat Okai Koi. At last an old woman told him all 
the circumstances connected with his mother's death. He, therefore, 
ascending the stool, ruled the subjects with a rod of iron. In his 
days the Akwamus, Akuapems, Obutus &c. were under him as be- 
fore. As he was a tyrant, his sons Tete An tie, Ayi Fufoo, Tete 
Ablo, Ayai, Ashangmo, Okai &c. imitated their father. They often 
murdered the sons of the chiefs and deprived the people of their 
newly married wives; ordering people to climb up trees, they then 
shot an arrow at them, or when stabbing any one with a dagger. 



20 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

they wiped off the blood on the person and said, "You have defiled 
my knife!" The worse among the sons were Tete Ablo and Ayai; 
and the only mild one was Tete. The king used to tell him, "My 
son, do what you please and show your dignity while lam alive; 
when I am dead, your time to reign is past". The mother of that 
Tete was from Shai; his younger brother paid a visit there, and 
behaved very haughtily, having illegal intercourse with a married 
wife; but her husband dashed out the offender's brains with an axe. 
The report of the murder of the King's son reached Akra, and forth- 
with Okai Koi put himself at the head of an army to punish the 
Shais. The king of Shugyi, however, objected to Okai Koi's march- 
ing to Shai in person ; but,- after persuading him to return home, 
went down with his army, and chastized the murderers. 

On account of the cruelties of the king and his sons, Nikoilai, 
the great chief of Asere, and his wife Kuoko Adsheinang, kept their 
son Nikoite (Amoii) at home till he reached the state of man- 
hood. Nikoi had several times expressed his desire to be allowed 
to come out, or at least to accompany his father once to visit the 
capital, but was not allowed. At last, at his repeated and urgent 
request, the father consented to go in his company to the said place, 
where he was kept close to the father when at court. By chance 
the youth, escorted by his father's retinue, went out of court to 
discharge water. When he had done so. Prince Tete Ablo shot an 
arrow and killed him on the spot. The attendants were struck 
with horror. The chief showed the dead body of his son to the 
king and reported the wicked deed of the prince. The only reply 
was, "Never mind, your wife will get you another son, before she 
has passed her age." To get Okai Koi into trouble for all his wicked 
deeds, the chiefs conspired to advise him to have the Akwamu 
Prince (then staying at his court, cf. above page 13) circumcised, 
as he himself well knew that uncircumcised persons were strictly 
forbidden by the great fetish to attend his courts. On the other 
hand they knew that circumcised people were never allowed to 
ascend the stool (or throne) of Akwamu. Prince Odei underwent 
the operation, to his great delight, as several Akra princes, who 
were his comrades, had been circumcised that year. No sooner had 
the Akwamu Prince been circumcised, than the great chief Nikoilai 
with several others told the Akwamus what had happened. 

During those days a son of the king of Labade came to the capital 
and stayed with the young princes of the King. While the boys 



Chapter II. 21 

amused themselves with shooting- arrows about, an arrow of the 
Prince of Labade went straight into the king's harem. He wanted 
to go there and get back the arrow, but his comrades dissuaded 
him. He persisted, was caught by the eunuchs, brought before the 
king, and, by his order, at once beheaded. This shocking report 
was brought to the king of Labade, who quietly submitted to this 
ill-treatment and attended the yearly festival of Okai Koi as usual. 
Rut when the time for celebrating the festival of Labade came on, 
Okai Koi ordered the great chief of Gbese, whose duty it was to 
join the Labades in their religious festivals and ceremonies, not to 
attend, as he was determining to fight them. The chief obeyed, 
and assisted with his army in attacking the Labades, who were de- 
feated and driven to Shai ; some say to the Coast, when one half 
of the people stayed at Ladoku, the rest at Nyedueshi, where they 
dug the well there. 

The Akras, being now tired with the wicked king, advised the 
Akwamus to refuse j)a3'ing the annual tribute. They asked, "How 
are we to do so ?" The reply was, "Since the king has circum- 
cised Prince Odei, who should become your king, you may take 
up that as a cause of revolt. We shall support you !" The Akwa- 
uius accordingly invited the Prince to the capital. Here, while wash- 
ing himself with soap, he was perceived to be indeed circumcised, 
whereupon they refused to pay the tribute. About this time the 
king of Akwamu died, and Odei was denied the right of succeeding 
to the vacant stool. Embarrased as he was at that time, he sent 
repeatedly to Okai Koi to restore the foreskin, a demand contrary 
to reason ! He threatened to attack the Akras, if the foreskin were 
not forthcoming ; but they being twenty times more powerful than 
the Akwamus, no notice was taken of it. Ansa Sasraku (who seems 
to have succeeded to the stool instead of Odei) persisted in this 
demand, so Okai Koi assembled his generals and great chiefs and 
consulted them what to do. They replied, ''Send only one great 
chief to plunder them !" European arms and ammunition were very 
rare in those days, so that every general had but one gun and 
ten rounds each ; the warriors used bows and spears. The Akwa- 
mus had nothing of that kind, but bows and spears ; they had, 
however, hired the Agonas and Akrons (Gomoas) in the Fante 
country, promising them a box of gold dust each, which four men 
could scarcely carry (but which the Akwamus never paid). The 
war was declared and the field was taken. But the great chief 



22 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Nikoilai with the majority of Okai Koi's warriors had arranged with 
the enemy to lire without bullets. Thus they did in several engage- 
ments, till, on being found out, they actually deserted the king, 
placed at their head Prince Ashangmo, the son of the king's brother 
Okai Yai, and marched to Mlafi. On account of this desertion of 
Okai Koi, the annual dance of the king and the people known as 
Berebe got the name "Oshi" : ^'osi otse, osi onye" i.e. you deserted 
your father and mother. After several engagements with the rest 
of the warriors and his body-guard, most of whom had been slain, 
the poor king was driven from the capital to Nyantrabi. Here his 
son Tete said deeply moved to his wicked father: "This is what I 
always told you, father, if all your people were present, I should 
not have so much to tight alone!" They advised the king to put 
an end to his life rather than submit to such a disgrace. He therefore 
painted his face and front with white clay and his back with char- 
coal, mounted his royal stool and again enquired: "My people, do 
,you wish me to commit suicide?" The warriors replied: "Yes, we 
won't have any king to govern us." The poor king then prayed 
that no glory should ever accompany any exertion of his subjects 
who had deserted him, and then shot himself dead. He fell upon 
his face, which bore the sign of justification, and so the glory de- 
l)arted from the Aseres, but we say rather from the whole Akra, — as 
ever since this event, which took place at Nyantrabi on the 20*** of June 
1660, hardly any exertion or military exploit of the Akras for Europeans 
or otherwise has been fully successful or duly appreciated. The king's 
sister with two Princes, the royal stool and few of their people, Hed for 
protection to Tong (Little Popo). It appears that the defeated Akras, 
when pressed by the Akwainus, took with them the head of Okai 
Koi, expecting thus to be left in peace; but this rather encouraged 
the enemy to ask their submission. The Akras attributed their 
conquest by the Akwamus to the Portuguese converting the lagoon 
Kole into a salt-]»it, a profanation which, they said, provoked the 
vengeance of their fetishes upon them. 

In concluding this chapter, we must briefly speak of the appellation 
given by the Tshi people to this small Ga tribe. It is ''Nkran poh 
wose ye du, ketekere, odgm nni amamtb", which means, the great 
Akra, whose saying is the tenth (true) and is durable, carrying on 
warfare without desolation. If we ask, at wliich time was such a 
high name given to this tribe, and what induced the Tshi people 
to do so, althougii there is an old desolation of theirs at AyawasoV 



Chapter II. 23 

A reply to this (juestion is, the appellation was given to the Ga- 
tribe during their glorious days; yet it is api»licable for all times, 
for the present as well as for the future. 

1. The Tshi nation may have found that the Akras are a divinely 
favoured tribe, when they consider how from time immemorial they 
had been trying to extirpate and root them out from the place di- 
vinely allotted to them, by different inroads, expeditions, invasions 
and wars, without obtaining their object. 

2. They apply the title to them, because they had succeeded in 
establishing their power fully over the aboriginal races of Fante 
and other places, whilst with them they had failed. 

3. By nature the Akras are mild and inoffensive, yet unconquer- 
able, independent and not easily governed. Wherever an Akra 
man goes, he is not only respected on account of his national pres" 
tige, but by his personal abilities and qualification, able to endure 
any hardship and privation thrice better than any one of another 
tribe. In wars, in travellings, in voj'^ages, in times of epidemic, 
they are divinely more preserved than any other nation. When 
two or three Akras would die in any of the above emergencies, 
the loss of any other tribes in their company is counted by dozens. 

4. From the beginning, when not corrupted by the Tshi people, 
they were strict observers of their religious rites — a religion which 
appears a .Jewish one, but now corrupted by fetishism; they were 
entirely forbidden to have anything to do with human blood. Even 
when a drop of blood is being shed in an assault, or by boys throwing 
stones, the king and elders are bound to make a sacrifice by way 
of purification, and the parties are fined. We say a Jewish one, 
which we prove by a few leading facts in their sj'^stem of observances. 

a) A kind of baptism of children a week after their birth, when the 
father chooses the best characters among his relations or friends 
to fetch the child from the room into the yard; there he throws a 
few drops of water on the roof of the principal room in the family 
compound, which he receives again in small drops and throws thrice 
on the child and then names it. 

h) Children are named after their grandfathers, grandmothers or 
fathers. The father's precedes the son's name, as for instance Ayite 
Okai, Okai Koi, Okang Ngmashi, Teko Dedei. When the child's 
name precedes the father's, it is by way of resjjcct to superiors 
e.g. Akoitshe Adotei, (Jkaitshe Ayite, Ngmashitshe Okang. In all 
the pure Akra names of male and female children, the fathers name 



24 History of the Gold Coast and Asante 

is called first: Ayi Dede, Ayi Kokg, Ayi Kai, Ayi Tshotsho, Ayi 
Fofo, now Ayile (Ayele), Ayiko (Ayoko), Ayikai, Ayitsho, Ayifo. 
Besides that, children are the heirs to the estate of the parents, and 
not nephews. 

c) The circumcisloQ which every male child of six to ten years 
of age is to undergo ; — slaves of that age are also circumcised. 
This practice admits them to the courts of the principal fetishes ; 
an uncircumcised person — may he be a king of any nation — is 
never allowed to step into the yard of the fetish, but is kept out- 
side, when any ceremony is to be performed by him. Neither are 
persons having superfluity of members and menstruous women per- 
mitted to go inside. 

d) At the yearly harvest-feast called Homowo the door posts or 
walls are painted with red clay, similar to what the Israelites did 
at their Passover, — at which time all differences existing in a family 
must be settled in peace, with several other things which we can 
adduce, but shall treat of in the customs of the Akras. 

e) Their government is patriarchal, and the ruler is styled Lomo 
or Priest, — Lomo is now slightly corrupted for Lumo i.e. a king 
or governor. 

When it shall please the Divine Protector, who has placed such 
a small tribe amidst the numerous populations on the Gold Coast, 
to remove the present superstitious blindness from their minds, and 
bring them to Christianity in masses, they will be seen among the 
tribes as really a favoured people! 



CHAPTER III. 



King Ashangmo's defence of the country against the Akwamus. — His 
being repulsed with the Akras to Little Popo and Tetetutu, and his 
wars with the Dahomians and Angulas. — New settlements and towns 
formed on the coast by the Akras, and emigrants from Dankera, Osu- 
doku, Angula and Fra. 1660—1680. 

The majority of the warriors of Akra with king Ashangmo at their 
head, hearing at Mlafi the death of Okai Koi, returned home, en- 
gaged the Akwamus, and drove them to Fante. The poem com- 
posed by them at that time was: 



Chapter III. 25 

Owu a okum Ukai Koi Adu nui aiii. 

Uwu a okum Ansa Aku wo ani. 

Yerebao, yerebao, yerebesi ! 

The death which killed Okai Koi Ada has no eyes (i.e. is inglorious). 

The death which killed Ansa Aku has eyes (is glorious). 

We are pressing on forward to gore! 

Ashangrng with his army kept up fighting with the Akwamus for 
20 years, but could not establish his power over them again. The 
treachery of tlie generals, who were aspiring to the kingship, was 
a source of constant discord and exposed the country to the attacks 
of the Akwamus. This obliged Ashangrng in the year 1680 to re- 
tire to Little Popo with all the Akras from Labade down to Ningo. 
The people of Lakple in Angula were at that time in Prampram; 
they also fled to that place. It was at that general movement, we 
suppose, when king Anno ofTema or Kpeshi composed this poem, 
after his brother Annokoi had removed to Obutu. 

Kpeshi Aung mitere wo e, Kpeshi Anno mitere wo. 

Labiokg Atsemfo e, Kpeshi Anno mitere wo. 

Ya nyeyaa lo, ba nyebaa lo, Kpeshi Anno mitere wg. 

Kpeshi Aung is starting off to-morrow. 

Labigkg Akemfo, Kpeshi Anng is starting off to-morrow. 

Are you for starting or staying, Kpeshi Anng is starting to-morrow. 

The main body separated from Ashangmo's men and emigrated 
back to Tetetutu, while he and his people marched towards Little 
Popo. When the Angulas joined his army, he fought with the people 
of Bei, then subjects of the king of Dahome, drove them beyond 
Popo, took possession of the place and made his capital at Gredshi. 
The king of Dahome, who had been informed by his people of 
what Ashangrng had done, despatched an overwhelming army to 
attack him in his capital. Hearing of such an army coming against 
him, Ashangmg concealed his small force in the bush behind the 
river Mgmg and allowed the Dahomian army to pass up towards 
the Volta in search of him. Then he contrived means of cutting 
a deep trench between the two rivers Ngmaka and Mgmg and the 
sea, and shut the Dahomian army in. He then attacked them openly 
on their returning from the Volta and gained a complete victory 
over them. He sent one of the prisoners back with one of his eyes 
and ears plucked out, to report the disaster the army had met with 
to the king. Akpo was astounded at such a signal defeat by a 
fugitive, and was obliged to make up with Ashangmg. He invited 
him to the capital Abome, and made him the first general of his 



26 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

forces. Ashangnio, beino' thus elevated, cunningly gave his sister 
Ayitb in marriage to the king, through whose means he escaped 
all the [)lots formed, either by the king himself or his generals, 
against the life of the victorious Akra king, and at last retired safe 
to his capital. That signal defeat of the Dahomian army became 
a byword of the Akras : "Asanmo egbe Akpo", Ashangmo has de- 
feated Akpo, when success crowns an undertaking anticipated to 
be difficult. The successors of king Ashangmo kept up continual 
war with the Angulas, who were known to Bosman as the Kotos, 
a name still applied to them as "Anglo Kotoe". At that time the 
kingdom of Angula was very inconsiderable, the Akras in Popo 
were not very numerous either, but, as Bosman says, very warlike. 
They finally compelled the Angulas to sue for peace, only to gain 
time to form alliances with other tribes, or to ask the aid of the 
Akwamus, old enemies of the Akras. 

During the period when two kings were ruling the kingdom of 
Akwamu, the Akras in Popo asked assistance from the old king, 
and the Angulas, that of the young king. The Akwamus were, 
however, very cunning to assist the weaker one in order that neither 
the one nor the other be destroyed. Sometimes both parties were 
supported by Akwamu warriors. In the year 1700, the king of 
Popo surprised the Angulas and drove them from their country. 
But as Akonno,who was the king of Akwamu in 1702, took a greater 
interest in the Angulas, he re-instated them again in the country. 
This proves that the alliance between the two countries had existed 
for a vevy long time; hence their grudge against Akra is under- 
stood. Those who think that the alliance between Akwamu and 
Angula was made after the expulsion of the former from the Akem- 
Peak, must by the above statement be convinced of their mistake. 

One of the kings of Popo was Ofori, who appears to have been 
the father of king Obli. (He must not be confounded with Ofori 
Dosu, of whom we shall hear in the Danish expedition in 1784.) 
He is described by Bosnian as very brave, feared and respected by 
all the neighbouring kings. The king of Ofra once rebelled against 
the king of Dahome, whose tributary chief he was, and not only 
threw off his allegiance to him, but killed a Dutch factor Mr. Hol- 
wert. King Ofori, hired to punish the rebel, invaded his country 
with an army, and conquered it without difliculty. The offenders 
were apprehended and delivered u^) to the king of Dahome. After 
this victory he was asked not to return until he had conquered the 



Chapter III. 27 

Whydas. He marched at:;ainsf. them and encamped in fheir country, 
waiting for a supply of ammunition from the kinj; of Dahome un- 
der a good convoy. The Whydas attacked this convoy with a strong 
force and cai)tured the whole supply of powder. Ofori, having spent 
his shot and powder, was obliged to retreat home, which saved 
him from the Whydas, who had proposed attacking his camp, as 
they knew he was short of ammunition. The Whydas, being in- 
formed of Ofori's retreat, did not trouble themselves to pursue him, 
being glad to have got rid of such a dangerous enemy. 

The Angulas had })repared to attack Ofori as soon as he should 
give battle to the Whydas. On his way home, hearing of their in- 
tentions, he attacked them, although by this time the Angulas had 
formed alliances with other tribes and were stronger than himself. 
They gave him a warm reception and slew a great number of his 
men. Enraged at this loss, he rushed into the thickest of the enemy, 
;uid was, after a desperate struggle, slain with many of his followers. 

Bosnian says, ''the present king, though more peaceable and mild, 
yet prudently revenged his brother's death on the Angulas — always 
attacking them in their weakest condition, which measure he pur- 
sued so long as to drive them out of their country." 

In 1672 (not 1662) the English came to Akra,*) got a piece of 
land and built James' Fort. 

The owners of the land selected for the building were Adote Ni 
Ashare and his brother Tete Kpeshi, who before were staying in 
Kinka (Dutch Town) with their brethren, when unexpectedly an 
incident took place which obliged them to remove to the elevation 
of ground west of the lagoon Kole, where they settled. Adede Molai 
Kroko, the Priest of Oyeni, was returning from Osu (Christiansborg) 
one night with a number of his people. Upon seeing a certain 
black figure supposed to be a hyena moving in the bush, he fired 
at the figure, which, to their great astonishment, turned out to be 
an old woman. This led to an uproar and quarrel, in consequence 
of which they removed to that spot after paying the customary fines. 

The English asked the piece of land from Adote and his brother 
Tete Kpeshi, though the site selected was the sacred grove of their 
fetish Oyeni; but the brothers gave up the land on condition that 
they should be allowed access to the spot to offer their annual sacri- 
fices; and thus the Fort was erected. 

*) cf. above p. 16. J. Beecham, Ashantee and the Gold Coast, p. .36. 
B. Cruickshank, 18 years on the Gold Coast, I. 21. — Chr. 



28 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

The forts of the Dutch, Eng-lish, and Danes at Akra, during those 
days of dissension between the Akwamus and Akras, invited the 
latter, to flee to the coast for protection from the oppression of the 
Akwamus. Of the Aseres and Aboras, who came down to the coast 
to join the people living there before, the following names are still 
in the memory of the people: Saku Olenge, Akotia Owosika, 0- 
shamra, Ayikai, Siahene, Osu Kwatei, Anyama Seni, Amantiele 
Akele &c. Ayikai Siahene with his people settled near James Fort 
and founded Akangmadshe and Mereku i.e. Bereku quarter. Adote 
Ni Ashare and Tete Kpeshi with their people removed from their 
site beyond the lagoon Kole and settled by the fort, whose descen- 
dants also composed the Sempe and Brohung quarter. 

Dankera having been conquered in the year 1700 by the Asantes, 
a quarrel about the succession to the royal stool broke out among 
the royal princes of that state. A Dutch officer was consequently 
sent there to restore peace. He brought the following headmen and 
noble women to Dena (Elmina) to be protected : Afrifa, Korankyi, 
Amo Panyin, Amo Kuma, Kwaw Nsia, Korama, and Nsiawa, with 
several others. Some of them returned back to Dankera, when 
peace was restored. Korama seems to have been a nearest relation 
of the royal family; she had a son named Otu, who in consequence of 
the recent conquest was surnamed "Ahiakwa", one who met with 
or got nothing i.e. born when their glory had departed. He, being 
an intelligent youth, was employed as a servant by the above men- 
tioned officer who was shortly after appointed commandant of the 
Dutch Fort Crevecoeur and brought down both Otu and his people 
already named to Akra. The Priest of Nai being then the chief 
on the coast, to whom a monthly stipend was paid by the Dutch 
Government, the Dankera headmen and women were consigned to 
his care. After som§ years' residence, a piece of land was obtained 
from the priest through the influence of the commandant, on which 
Otu and his people built houses. Being free and intelligent trading 
people, they acquired riches in a short time, and enlarged their 
quarter very rapidly with the refugees from Dankera, Akwamu, 
Akem and Akuapem. Bobiko, a relative of Korama, then at Akem, 
heard of the prosperity of the Dankeras, and sent her son Amo 
Nakawa to Akra to ascertain the truth of it. Satisfied with the 
condition of his relatives, Bobiko and her people were by their ad- 
vice induced to join them at Akra. But an incident took place while 
Amo Nakawa was on the coast. His wife Ahwanjabea of Akwamu 



Chapter III 29 

went on a visit to her parents at the place, where the king tried 
in vain to seduce her, and Akonug, being defeated in his object, 
in revenge applied a burning tobacco [)ipe to the back of her in- 
nocent child Dako. The child was brought down to Akra witli the 
whole family of Amo Nakawa, when the sad case was told him by 
his wife. He (hereupon made a solemn vow of revenging himself 
one day on the king of Akwamu for that cruelty to his wife and 
child. Hence afterwards Amo Nakawa became the zealous chief 
among the ambassadors of Akra when negotiating with the kings 
of Akem, whose relation he was. He prevailed on the Obutus and 
Agonas to throw off their allegiance to the king of Akwamu while 
the latter was threatened with war. 

All the Europeans established on the coast had their own labourers ; 
some were free people, and the rest their own slaves as the pro- 
perty of each company, who were designated Alatas, a Fante name 
for i»eople of Lagos, Yoruba &c. Thus we have Kinka or Dutch Alata, 
English Alata, and Osu or Danish Alata. These Alatas in each 
town formed their own quarter in connection with the towns' people, 
and were acknowledged as citizens of the place by joining the estab- 
lished band in the towns. The elders among them had the right 
as citizens to become grandees or counsellors of the king or chief 
in a town. Thus the headman of the English Alatas was one O- 
sho or Odshoe (not Kodsho), surnamed Wets he, i.e. housefather, 
who being a very intelligent and powerful man by his connection 
with the English, grew very rich, had numerous slaves himself, 
besides the Alatas, and having been in the country since the Eng- 
lish established themselves here in 1672, became the king of James' 
Town. He had been instructed in the Tshi style of managing a 
state, and had a stool also made and consecrated to him by Chief 
Oto Brafo of Kinka (Dutch Akra). There appears no one to have 
l)een appointed then as the successor of chief Anege ; even if there 
was one, he was more the priest of Oyeni, than a king. Odshg's 
successor Kofi Akrashi, a native of Dutch Akra, easily raised the 
power and fame of that family very gloriously. It was the same 
with a Fante chief, named Kwabena Bonne, who was brought to 
Osu (Christiansborg) with a large family by the Danes. He, although 
a free government agent, had to build his house close to the Castle 
in the Alata quarter. Chief Ahene of Dena (Elmina) also emigra- 
ted with a large family to Akra, and made his permanent stay 
with the Dutch Alatas in the Dutch Town. 



30 History of the C4olfl Coast and Asante. 

The people of Osudua or Christian sborg also emigrated in com- 
pany with the different Adangme tribes from Same in the East, 
and having crossed the Volta, they settled M'ith the main body on 
the Osudoku hill. Before their emigration to this place there was 
a single family of one Tete Manydi and his brother Tete Bo and 
his sister Dede Mosa from Dutch Akra settled here, before the Por- 
tuguese arrived. The family fetishes of Tete Manyoi are Leniogbe, 
i.e. a fetish of the Les, and Nyankumle, which claims pre-eminence 
of Osu. The former is a piece of a round white stone, now lying 
neglected at the west corner of the Basel Mission Chapel. 

An incident is said to have taken place at Osudoku, after the 
time when the Danes had come to this coast, which caused a 
certain family to emigrate to Osuyokpo near Shai, thence to Osu- 
ko near Kwabenyang, who were seeking the protection either of 
the Akras or the Danes. 

Tradition differs as to the real cause of that fiimily's emigration. 
Some people say, that the Les or Agotims, who were driven from 
Poni and Lahe, did not cross the Volta at once, but settled near 
the bank of the river. Being a warlike tribe, they kept up fight- 
ing with the Osudokus, that one chief, named Noete, came with the 
view of asking the aid of king Oka! Koi to fight his enemy. The 
king sent an ambassador, Tete Boako Aforo by name, who escorted 
the chief to the Danes. Noete, having obtained protection, sent for 
his brother Naku Tete and their people, and founded the seven huts 
known as Butaiateng in Christiansborg. 

Another tradition is : An Otufo castom being performed {by a 
woman named Namole for her daughter) at Osudoku, some precious 
beads were borrowed, as people usually do on such occasions. A 
fowl picked up one of the beads and swallowed it, but none saw it. 
In returning the beads, one was found missing; so the owners re- 
fused to accept the rest. They offered to replace it with another 
bead, or even to pay seven persons for the single bead, as was the 
law at that time ; yet the owners declined, consequently a quarrel 
ensued. Namole and her brother Noete Doku with their people 
travelled to Osuko, and found there a hunter of king Odoi Akem 
of Labade, named Kadi, who conducted them to the king. They 
asked the king's arbitration in the matter, but being then engaged 
in settling a dispute between the Akwamus and the people of Bere- 
kuso, he had no time at once to decide their case. But one Noete 
Shai, the interpreter of Llie Danes, happoned to lind some of the 



Chapter TIT. 31 

women who came to sell pots at the Adshiriwa market, who told 
Noete what was the cause of their emigration to Osuko. Through 
his agency Namole and Noete Doku were brought before the Da- 
nish Governor, who undertook to protect them and to settle Iheir 
case. The name of the Governor, as the natives called him, is 
Erisen, which, we suj)pose, was Ei-ik Oehlsen, who died in 1(398. 
Odoi Akem at last came to Christiansborg and told the Governor 
what he was asked by the people to do for tiiem. Their enemies, 
hearing at Osudoku of what the white men would do for them, 
gave the case up and tied from the counlry. The bead lost was 
at last found in the gizzard of the fowl when killed by the remain- 
ing family of Noete and Namole on the day they were to quit 
Osudoku for Christiansborg. The gizzard was cut into very soiall 
pieces, dried and brought down with them, when every member 
of the family took a piece and ate ; hence tlie custom that the giz- 
zard of a fowl is never eaten by a single person, but by a whole 
company sitting around a dish prepared of a fowl. 

The town Osu increased rapidly by people removing from Dutch 
Akra, Labade, and several other places to reside there as labourers 
to the Danish Government, as well as by affinity with the two 
towns above named. It consists of three quarters, Kinkawe, Ashante, 
and Alata. 

The byname of Osu is Abosha and a nickname is Kadigbo, of which 
the latter alone can be explained by guess — they being escorted to the 
place by the hunter Kadi, hence they are called Kadigbo, which means, 
the guests of Kadi. The word can, however, be defined by Kadi and 
gbai) ; in old Ga, ''kadi" means a bahince, and "gbah", big i.e. the big- 
balance. They, although emigrated later than the other Akras, had 
the fortune of becoming the illustrious among the Akra towns by their 
connection with the Danes. Yet the most probable signification of 
that name is "Carrier or Carli gbo'", after the name of a Portuguese 
or Frenchman, being an old coaster, who may have brought those 
emigrants to the Governor. 

La or Labade (Labadai). — The people of La were originally a 
portion of the numerous tribe who seem to have been the first settlers 
on this coast, known as the Les, as the name indicates. The people 
of Gbese in Dutch-Akra, the Lates in Akuapem, the Lakples who 
removed from Prampram to Angula, the inhabitants of Poni, known 
as the Agotims, as well as the former inhabitants of Osu, were 
all of the same tribe. Names of persons and fetislies with La or 



32 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Le as the first syllable, are of this tribe, showing where they may 
hare settled before, such as Lannia (Langma), Lashioko, Lashiele, 
Lafa, Laniogbe, Lakpa, which are names of fetishes belonging to 
this tribe; Late, Late, Lakote, Lateboi &c., names of persons. 

The byname of La is Bonne, which shows their emigration from 
Bonny; they are said to have come to that part of the world with 
the Akras. They emigrated from the interior to that place in con- 
sequence of war, and at Benin and Bonny the same warfare was 
carried on, till they were obliged to quit the place for this coast. 
They also apply the emigration from the sea to themselves and say 
that they landed at Lagu or Dago, the Akras landing in the morn- 
ing, and they in the afternoon. Staying together for some time, 
the Akras left for Laiima. (It may be that the Las first left for that 
place, as their name was given to that hill as Langma or Lamafi 
i.e. the abode of the La people.) Thence they emigrated to Aboasa, 
Adshangote, Nsaki, and Abese by the river near Mayora, and the 
Akras also to Ayawaso &c. A good road was made between the 
two tribes to facilitate intercourse. Yet the La people entered into 
alliance with the Akwamus, which in king Okai Koi's time was 
avenged by beheading the young prince of La. Once, detaching the 
people of Gbese, the brother tribe of La, from participating in their 
yearly feast, Okai Koi attacked the Labades with great slaughter. 
The Gbeses, however, went between the hostile parties and brought 
peace again; the Akwamus, who were allies of the defeated, and 
who might have helped them, came too late, when peace had al- 
readj^ been made. The Akras, not favouring the alliance between 
the Labades and Akwamu, commissioned a party of men to way- 
lay the Akwamu Queen, who had attended the celebration of their 
feast, and was killed on her way to attend the feast of the Labades. 
As the act was cunningly perpetrated close to their town, they were 
charged with the murder, attacked by the Akwamus, and sustained 
heavy losses. To keep up their friendship in spite of the recent 
war, the Labades wisely had recourse to a prophecy that Lakpa 
had predicted the utter destruction of the Akwamus by an unknown 
power, unless they obtained an absolving ablution from him. By 
that means they were again united. The Tshis, who are not very 
obliging to fetishes, easily declared war after this against the La- 
bades, in which, according to La history, the Akwamus were de- 
feated and driven beyond the Volta; the Labades pursuing them 
had to stay for several years at Krgbo, intermarried between them- 



Chapter III. 33 

selves and then removed to Adshimanti on the Akuap«^m hills. 
They heard of the Akwamus having returned to their country and 
preparing to fight them; but the fetish Lakpa objected to their 
doing so and peace was restored. Fi-om Adshimanti the Labades 
[)roposed joining their brother-tribe of Gbese, but Lakpa objected 
to this too, wherefore they removed to Shai and settled at Ladoku. 

We suppose the contrary of what the La history says. The A- 
kwamus were never driven from Nyanawase but once, and that in 
1733. The Labades may liave been driven rather to Krobo by the 
Akwamus. At Ladoku they formed alliances with several neigh- 
bouring tribes, among whom were the Shais and Aggtims. They 
entered into an agreement with them that whoever should be found 
guilty of an intrigue with another man's wife, should be delivered 
up to the injured party, and in the presence of both parties the 
culprit should have his brains dashed out with an axe. A Labade 
man was the first who was found guilty, and was brought to justice. 
The next man was a Shai, the son of the king, whom his people 
refused to deliver up to the Labades to be executed. The con- 
sequence was a war, which raged for some time, till the Labades 
were fain to seek assistance from the Akwamus, The latter will- 
ingly complied, and rested not till they had driven the Shais to 
Shaigodshei. 

After this a war broke out between them and the Abonses, who 
were defeated and made to serve Lakpa. The people of Gble 
(Berekuso) were also defeated and treated like the Abonses. Not 
long after this, king Odoi Atshem L of Labade died and was suc- 
ceeded by Adshei Onano, in whose reign they removed from La- 
doku to Podoku near Tema. 

The Temas or Kpeshis had been weakened by the combined army 
of Akra and Shuoyi, and knowing their weak state, they asked 
the Labades to make a covenant with them to avoid future hos- 
tilities. 

The strategy employed by the Labades was, to select seven chiefs 
from each tribe, who were to meet at an appointed place to take 
fetish-oath together to cement the peace between them. The repre- 
senting chiefs had to bring their own fetish to administer to each 
party simultaneously. The Kpeshi chiefs brought their chief fetish 
Afutuoko to the spot, not knowing that the Labades had laid an 
ambuscade thereabout ■, so both the seven chiefs and Afutuoko fell 
into their hands. Tliis great war-fetish being captured, the majority 

3 



34 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

of the Kpeshis fled from the country. Two songs of that time refer 
to the war with Shai and the capture of Afutugko. 

Ogbe keke wiilo ke-jatsua §ai lurag, 

Sai lurao ni yeo dsidsi le, le eke efeg "Kpa" lo ? 
Ogbe (fetish; Lakpa) assumed a pheasant and shot the Shai king. 
Shai king, who lives on "dshidshi" (country food), does he excel "kpa" ? 

Kpesi Afutuoko, otsole Kpesi, oke ootsole La lo ? 

Temanyo Afutuoko, otsole Kpesi, oke ootsgle Lji lo? 
Kpeshi Afutuoko, thou reposest on Kpeshi, couldst thou repose on La? 
Tema-man Afutugko, thou reposest on Kpeshi, couldst thou repose on La ? 

By their connection with Akwamu the Labades acquired much 
of the Tshi character, hence they got this appellation "Dade ye 
Twi", Labades are Tshis. 

At Podoku the Labades felt a great need of good water and salt, 
therefore commissioned their powerful hunter Sowa to survej' the 
country where such requisites could be easily obtained. Sowa met 
the Ningowas on the lagoon Kpeshi, who were busily engaged in 
making salt. He asked thenj for water to quench his thirst, and 
being shown where their water in calabash pots was placed, he 
not only drank as much as he desired, but broke all the pots and 
greatly disappointed the poor working men and women. This was 
said to have brought on a war between Labade and Ningowa. 

We, however, prefer the following statement. The Ningowas, who 
were long before established near the coast at Wodoku, were the 
owners of the land thence to Teiashi near Christiansborg, and the 
Labades were obliged to ask king Afote Okre to grant theai a 
piece of land to build upon. Adshei Onano was then their king, 
and Numo Ngmasiii his great chief; the estimate of the king's army 
was 8000, whilst the chief's was 7000 men. The priest of Ningo- 
wa, Bokete Lawe, raised objections to the king's allowing the La- 
bades to reside near them ; yet his opinion was overruled. The 
Ningowas being then very powerful, the warlike Labades did never 
dream of making war with them, so they lived in peace a long 
time. The former had a custom of offering a human being alive 
annually to their Angmu, the Black Rock. Sucii victims were 
kidnapped during the night from any town by the Ningowas. On 
the day when the custom was performed, they bad to repair to 
the sliore where Angmu is situated, and after singing and dancing, 
the priest Bokete Lawe was said to pray till the sea was divided 
and access obtained on foot to the rock, where they had to spend 



Chapter III. 35 

the whole day in making- their sacrifices. In returning ashore, tlie 
poor victim was left beliind, when the priest had to pray again 
that the sea might come together and drown the victim. It may 
be the contrary, the victiu) may have been killed and offered. 

Odole, a daughter of the king of Labade, was missing one day; 
in tracing out, they were informed tiiat she had been offered to 
Angmu. The Ningowas were charged with the murder of the girl, 
but they denied it; hence war was declared against them. Bokete 
Lawe was the powerful archer among his people, as Sowa, the 
priest of Lakpa, the famous hunter or sharp-shooter among the 
Labades. The war continued for months, so that the Ningowas 
could not have access to remove their salt from Kpeshi. Hence the 
Labades carried off all the salt and threw it into every reservoir 
(waterhole) and pool belonging to their enemy. This brought on 
a frightful scarcity of fresh water in all the towns of Ningowa, and 
beside that ambuscades were laid by the Labades at any place 
where fresh water might be obtained by them. Tims they were 
reduced to awful distress from want of water. Having studied A- 
kwamu policy, the Labades cunningly proposed now to the Ningo- 
was, that the hands of both priests, Lawe and Sowa, should be cut 
off, so as to have peace again, because they were the parties who 
encouraged the continuance of the hostilities between them. They 
got hold on their sharp-shooter, tied him up and brought him to 
Ningowa. The deluded people of Ningowa readily consented to 
that proposal, when Sowa was found having his hands pinioned 
behind him. Lawe was called upon and required to consent to 
have only one hand cut off to save the whole people from dying 
with thirst. The priest asked in presence of the whole assembly, 
''Children, do you mean to cut off my hand, the hand which draws 
the bow to favour you ? Do you mean to ruin yourselves by cutt- 
ing oiT my hand which defends you, children V" Not waithig for 
the Labades who had made the proposal and ought to have cut 
off their huntsman's hand first, they overpowered the old venerable 
priest, and his hand was cut off' in presence of the whole assembly. 
After which, he assembled the whole of his family and relatives 
of Bobowe, gave out a song, and marched at their head on the 
Krgwe path to the shore, where, as tradition says, he prayed, and 
the sea divided and he went into it with them aU. They may have 
emigrated back to the East. 

The Labades refrained Irom cuttiug olf the hand of Sowa, but 

3* 



36 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

attacked and defeated the Ningowas at once, causing tliem great 
loss. Their king Afote Okre was obliged to ask Adshete Ashabara 
of Tema to assist them. General Ashite was sent to Tema and 
arranged it with them, and the lagoon Sakumo was pawned. Noete 
Yeboa Afriyie, the chief of Osu (Christiansborg), being related to 
the Ningowas, prepared to assist his people. The second engage- 
ment took place, when king Noete was prohibited by the Governor 
of Christiansborg to proceed on behalf of the Ningowas. He was 
enraged and blew himself and his people up with powder. The 
Temas could not do much, so they were completely defeated and 
driven from the country to Tong (Little Popo). 

After peace had been made, the Labades removed from Podoku 
and permanently settled and built the town La. Their friendship 
was cemented by an affinity. Afote married Odole, daughter of 
Odoi Akem, he also gave his daughter Apole (Afole) in marriage 
to the latter, and the lagoon Kpeshi was given as a wedding gift 
to Apole, whose descendants in Labade have the right to the lagoon; 
but Odole got no issue in Ningowa. 

Bote, the son of Bokete Lawe, was trading in Krepe when the 
war broke out, and his father and people emigrated to the East. 
Lala Akotia, another son of Bokete Lawe, who, after his father's 
retiring from Wodoku had removed to the river Sakumo with 
numerous refugees from Ningowa, called Bote back, and the pres- 
aent Ningowa town was founded by them. It was very large at 
that time, but the majority had to leave it for the East on account 
of the unsettled state of the whole country. The village Bote Anno 
was founded by that Bote. 

After the conquest and expulsion of the Ningowas a civil war broke 
out among the Labades. Odoi Akem was the king, and Numo 
Okang Ngmashi his great chief. A sister of Ngmashi was married 
to one of the king's family ; Ablo Adshei and Akpo Adshei were 
her sons. These princes, proud of their double connection, being 
half-brothers to the king and nephews of the great chief Ngmashi, 
often insulted and quarrelled with their half-brothers, and kept the 
whole town in constant disturbance. When any one interfered 
with the amusement of the princes, he was sure to be stabbed by 
them with daggers they usually carried about them. Captain Kwaw 
over the body-guard of their uncle always took up their quarrels 
and fought in their support. At last they removed from the king's 
quarters to their uncle's and settled there permanently. 



Chapter III. 37 

A daug-hter of the chief was to undergo the parental public wedd- 
ing ceremony, a custom which a marriageable girl was formerly 
bound to perform before the usual wedding took place. The girl 
was to perform some fetish ceremonies, during which time her hair 
was platted and besmeared with either powdered camwood or other 
ingredients according to the tribe she belonged to. Being simply 
dressed, she was carried on shoulders of her sex and accompanied 
by her uncle, friends and relatives, paraded the town with singing, 
dancing and feasting. After this she was adorned with plenty of 
gold, precious beads and fine garments. Then she was to alight 
at the gate of the king; some rum was offered to the princes as 
a libation, after which she was put on the shoulders and resumed 
the parade. But the proud nephews of the chief ordered their 
cousin to be carried by men instead of women, and on reaching 
the king's gate, the bearer did not let her down. — This led to a 
quarrel and assault, and at last civil war. The chief being power- 
ful, the king was obliged to ask assistance from the king at Akra, 
and sent the royal necklace of precious beads to him. Who being 
a relative to Old Ngmashi, privately advised him to quit the town 
before he marched there. Ngmashi accordingly did so and en- 
camped at Ledshokuku, and so the war ended. Old Ngmashi was 
then full of years, and his son Tshie conducted the whole affair, 
and ordered a removal to a small fishing cottage belonging to Sa- 
sa Kokoi and Koromante Okai, Fante fishermen, who annually 
resorted there for fishing. Thus the town of Teshi was built. A- 
shite and Kamoa of Lashibi used to reside with the Fante fisher- 
men to help them in curing fishes, and Old Ngmashi refusing the 
title of king, Kamoa was chosen as the first king of Teshi, but he, 
as the "mauklalo" or chief, had the state expenditure on his shoul- 
ders, as Kamoa was poor. 

The people of Aneho or Little Popo are by some supposed to 
be descendants of the Fante canoemen employed at different and 
remote periods on the Slave Coast by several European slave- 
dealers. Supposing that "anae" in the Fante language means "the 
west", and *'ho" means "place", Aneho would be "the abode of 
the people from the west". Others believe that the}' were emi- 
grants from the interior, and settled on the coast. The cause of 
their emigration was this : The king or chief of Hedshirawe in 
the country of Ofra had died, and having numerous sons, they quar- 
relled about the succession. Obodai Nyoiimo, the eldest among 



38 History of the Gold Coast and Aeante. 

them, had alreadj succeeded his father as king. His hrothers com- 
bined against him, and asked the king of Dahome to assist them. 

About the year 1730, Obodai Njohmo with seven captains, his 
family, his family fetish "Egumaga'" (which was carried by his 
sister Anele Koko), his royal stool and a large amount of property, 
consisting chiefly of precious beads, started on horseback to obtain 
assistance against his opponents from the king of Akra. The ancient 
prestige of the Akra emigrants in Popo seemed, at this period, not 
lost, but their power had become weakened. Hence Obodai did 
not trouble himself by asking assistance from them, but proceeded 
directly to Akra. He lavished presents of slaves and precious beads 
on every chief in alliance with Akra, during his march, so as to 
obtain their unanimous consent to assist him. But very unfortu- 
nately for Obodai, he arrived at a time when the Akras were en- 
gaged in a fierce contest with the Akwamus. At Labade he was 
advised by the king to stay there and be accompanied over to 
Akra. He was cordially received by the king of Akra and was 
promised the desired assistance as soon as the Akwamu war should 
be over. He joined the Akras in expelling the Akwamus, but the 
king deferring the fulfilment of his promise, he at last made up 
his mind to stay permanently. He removed from Akra to Christians- 
borg, where the site which Old Lutterodt's house now occupies 
was given to him and his people, upon which a nice quarter was 
built. Obodai became a favourite of the Danish Governor then in 
the castle of Christiansborg; his people, left behind at Little Popo, 
heard of his staying permanently, and sailed in a trading vessel 
to Akra. These were detained by the king of James Town; Obo- 
dai tried to bring them over to Christiansborg, but failed; hence 
the two families of Aneho people in Akra and Christiansborg. As 
Labade was Obodai's first residence, he married one Suoko of the 
place, whose children becanie his successors. 

After the death of Obodai Nyonrno, his son Sodsha Duamoro, an 
intelligent and valiant younger brother of Togbg and Sai Nj^anta, 
was nominated his successor. In his days a civil war broke out 
between him and chief Noete Adowi of Christiansborg on account 
of a broken ship-mast driven to shore by the current of the sea. 
It seems that the latter, having the prerogative over that part of the 
sea-shore, claimed the mast, although it was seen afloat first by 
the Anehos, they being close to the beach, and on that account 
they would not give in. Sodsha removed to his mother's native 



Chapter III. 39 

town Lahade, where he was invested with the dignity of chief or 
nianklalo, which had become vacant by Ngmashi's removal to Teshi. 
By this policy the Labades constitutionally bound over the Anehys 
to their side for ever. 

The Anehos would have remained in Christiansborg, if that dis- 
turbance had not taken place, and, as if their destiny had been 
there, they came back, at least in part. For a sister or cousin of 
chief Sodsha Duamoro, Nywenywerewa was kept by the then 
Governor of Christiansborg as his wife. To avoid her frequent 
visits to the chief at Labade, for whom she had a tender love, the 
governor offered the Anehos a piece of land in front of the Castle, 
where they removed and permanently settled. The stool was left 
in Labade, which obliged the chief to spend the yearly festivals 
there. Thus these poor emigrants have three abodes, a part is at 
James Town, the greater portion at Christiansborg, and the rest, 
with the stool, at Labade. If they could have been united into a 
single town, say Christiansborg, it would have been far better for 
both themselves and those into whose community they had been 
received. It was chiefly through these separate abodes that the 
Aneho tribe lost their former power, influence and glory acquired 
principally by Sodsha Duamoro and several wealthy persons. Al- 
though respected now-a-days by the people of both towns, Osu and 
La, yet their influence is not fully felt and acknowledged by them 
as formerly. When their people become more enlightened, civilized 
and christianized, a change will take place. 

We have hitherto traced the origin o^ the Ga tribe, taking it 
for granted that both Ga and Adangnie tribes emigrated together 
from the East. We, however, at the conclusion of this cha[>ter, 
insert exclusively the origin of the Adangme tribe, as traditionally 
narrated. 

Same, a country which is said to lie between two rivers, Efa 
and Kpola, near River Niger, is supposed to have been the former 
seat of the Adanguie tribes, although they seem to have come from 
the interior to that place. Impelled b}^ continual hostilities with 
the neighbouring tribes, ihej quitted the place ; leaving Oyo (in 
Ga: Ayo) on the north and Dahome on the south, they travelled 
between the two powerful kingdoms, and, being joined hy other 
tribes, carried all before them and settled at Hwatshi. After a 
short stay here, they resumed their march to Tuwg, and attacked 
several tribes on their way, till they reached the plain of Tagologo 



40 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

near Lolovo. Here thej began to separate from the main body. 
Akroyo, sister of Manya, the king of the Krobo people, resided on 
the Lashibi island now known as Akrade. Her husband, the king 
of La, left for the coast, but Manya, desiring to settle on the Krobo 
mountain, left the Tagologo plain, and being followed by the rest 
of the emigrants, they came to the foot of the mountain. Akro- 
muase, being sent by Manya to survey the mountain, was satisfied, 
and the king and his people went up and settled there ; hence the 
name of the place as "Kro" and the inhabitants "Kroli", that is, 
the country and people belonging to Akromuase. The tirst town 
built by Manya was Mdnya, after which Dodshe (Manyayo), Dome 
(Susui) and Bose (Yilo) were built. 

As these emigrants had no king, but every tribe had its own 
priest or headman, they found it very easy to separate from the 
main body, and so dispersed over the country. A portion staj^ed 
at Hwatshi and Tuwo, another portion travelled towards the south 
and settled at Hume and different places, such as Noweyo (Ana- 
yosi), those are the Osudoku people; others went to Angula, Ada 
and Akra. The portion which separated to Lolovo, a place between 
Shai and Osudoku, who were afterwards called Ada people, seems 
to have had four principal men at their head, viz., Adi, Longmo, 
(Lorimo), Tekpe and Dangme (Dan me), and one Tshayi was the 
priest over them. The names of those headmen have ever since 
been attached to the quarters they founded, viz: Adibiiawe, Lo- 
nmobiiawe, Tekpebiiawe and Danmebiiawe. Biiawe means "chil- 
dren's home", hence : Adi's children's home, Lonmo's children's 
home, &c. 

Manya (Madsha) is said to have expostulated with Tshayi "why 
should he separate from him?" but he did not listen to it. Tra- 
dition says, at their crossing the Volta, which was but a small 
stream at that time, a large crocodile was found lying across the 
stream, forming a kind of bridge for them, which facilitated their 
crossing. On account of this, crocodiles became sacred animals for 
worship, and the name Ablao was given to the crocodile-fetish. 
One Apagbe is said to have been the first priest, with whom the 
crocodile dived to the bottom of the river and was no more seen ; so 
his son Tshayi succeeded him in the priesthood. The injunctions 
left by Apagbe in reference to the crocodile-fetish, which the emi- 
grants were absolutely bound to observe, are : Crocodile, leopard, 
and hyena are sacred animals which must never be killed; gold 



Chapter HI. 41 

and ivory must not be touched, neither should they have anything 
to do with human and animal blood. 

Hitherto this portion of the emigrants had no distinctive name, 
till the hunter Kole, priest of the fetish Libi (salt) of Tekp^biiawe, 
happily discovered a large forest and the lagoon Shongo (Sono) in 
one of his hunting excursions. Koi, the then ruling priest of the 
fetish LalO of Adibiiawe, was informed by Kole of his discovery. 
The emigrants thereupon removed from Lolovo and made a per- 
manent settlement in the forest, which gave the name ^^Kglehue", 
i.e. Kole's forest, to the place, and ''Kgleli" to the emigrants, in mem- 
ory of the discoverer's name. Kolehue has been corrupted into Okohue, 
and Koleli, into Okoli. Another name by which they were called 
at first, as it seems a nickname, hence not much in use at that 
time, is, Adragbimili or Adragbimitsheme. This is said to have 
been given them when Manya was expostulating with Tshayi on 
the event of separation. Manya said, "you can separate from us, 
but never from our common dialect", hence they were called, sep- 
arators of dialect or Adragbimili. The derivation, however, of the 
word Ada is variously explained. Some say, after repeated remo- 
vals of this tribe from place to place in consequence of incessant 
invasions, from Okohue to Okghmloku, thence to Togbloku and 
Fo &c., when having settled permanently on the bank of the Volta, 
they said one to another "Wadahe", that is, we have been scattered 
miserably about. 

We suppose rather that Qda or Ada is the name given to this 
place by king Firempong after the name of his capital Da or Oda. 
When the Akwamus were expelled from this side of the Volta, 
Firempong is said to have appointed one of his own captains, and 
another captain of the Kamana refugees then at the place, with a 
body of armed men, and stationed them there, with strict injunctions 
to protect the boundary from Akwamu invasions. The descendants 
of those captains composed the Kabiiawe (Kabubiiawe) quarter, viz., 
Kabiiaweyum of the Kamana refugees, who had settled there long 
before, as shall be seen hereafter, and Kabiiawetshu, of the other 
captain. 

The Adas were still at Okohue vs^hen the Kamana refugees arri- 
ved, and before they were admitted to join them, a fence was made 
at the outskirt of the town, where they were kept until every male 
among them was circumcised. It was not very long after this 
Kanuina ,tribe had been naturalised an Adaunie tribe by the rite 



42 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

of circumcision, when the Akwamus came with force to claim thenj 
back. This led to a long obstinate war, until the known Akwamu 
stratagem was practised, the right thumb of their brave general 
Tshaji of Tekpebiiawe being cut off through Akwamu treachery. 
The old venerable general defended himself and his ungrateful people 
for a long time, and then quitted the country. His son Amana 
was appointed general instead of his father, and it was he who 
proposed surveying the country to tind a suitable place for an a- 
sylum against future invasions of the Akwamus. Accompanied by 
his nephew Okumo of Daiimebiiawe, he discovered the land be- 
tween Okohue and the Volta. The uncle claimed all that part of 
land from Okohue to the seven date-palms near Fo as his portion, 
and the land from that spot to the mouth of the Volta was given 
to the nephew. Thus the two quarters of Tekpebiiawe and Daiime- 
biiawg got the prerogative over the whole land. 

There are other small families, besides those already mentioned, 
who emigrated afterwards from different places and settled in Ada. 
At Okonmloku, one Loi'imowe, a hunter of Lonmobiiawe, discovered 
lake Ngsho or Nyito, abounding in fish and frequented by game. 
Here he was met by a hunter from Agrave, by name Ahaviatshe. 
A dispute arose between the two hunters as to the ownershij* of 
the lake. The Ada-man, being cunning, proposed to decide the case 
by either of them gettiug fire from his town first to the spot. The 
town nearer to the lake would claim the ownership. Both started 
to fetch fire. Lonmowe prudently obtained fire by concussion of 
his fire-arm, and before Ahaviatshe could return with fire, he had 
cooked a dish, ate, and left some for him. The ownership being 
thus proved, Ahaviatshe became a friend to Lonmowe, and through 
them general friendship grew up between the Adas and the people 
of Agrave. A piece of land was consequently granted to the Adas, 
on which the present town Ada was built, on the bank of the Volta. 
Ahaviatshe then proposed removing to reside with his friends, who 
were known generally to be unfortunate people, being often inva- 
ded, which caused them to wander about. Ahaviatshe was told by 
his friends, who opposed his removal, "You go to traSe only in 
death", hence the Kudshragbe quarter got its name. — Ohwewem 
is another quarter, emigrants from Whenyi; Kogbg, from Kpele in 
Krepe land; Kponkpo is a portion of Kggbo; the Sega family are the 
Le refugees from Poni ; the Gbese family from Osudoku ; and the 
Kpony family were refugees from Ningowa*. The Adas are com- 



Chapter IV 43 

posed of 11 (12V) families, viz., Adibiiawe, Lonmobiiawe, Tekpe- 
biiawe, (Danmebiiawe?) Kabubiiawe or Kabiiawe, Kudshragbe, 
Ohweweni, Kogbo, Kponkpd, Sega, Gb^se and Kpoiuj. The ruling 
family was in Adibiiawe quarter, and the first king was Boi. Ow- 
ing to more attention paid to agriculture and fishery by the royal 
family, the two Tshi families of Kabiiawe, who are traders and have 
the wit for ruling and settling cases, got the ruling power through 
the following incident. Ado somewhat neglected the old King Bgi, 
his father, in old age, and the old man being properly attended 
by his nephew Dake of Kabiiawe, the stool was bequeathed to him. 



CHAPTER IV. 



Emigratiou and settlements of the Tshi tribes in the interior. — Awirade 
Basa and his first kingdom in Adanse. — Dankera, the first powerful state 
among the Tshi tribes, and the wars of Owusn Bore. — The formation 
of the kingdom of Amanse known as the kingdom of Asante. — Its in- 
vasion by Ntim and the destruction of the kingdom of Dankera by 
Osei Tutu. About 1500—1700. 

All the different Tshi tribes, as already mentioned in the pre- 
ceding chapter, seem to have been driven by the Moors from 
Central Africa, and settled first between the Kong (Kpong) moun- 
tains and the River Pra. 

Enumerating those tribes or districts, we shall in the first place 
take Amanse. Amaii-ase means the origin or foundation of the 
people, where they seem to have emigrated to, and then dispersed 
over the country. It was a district between Kumase and Adanse. 
A large portion of them separated and settled at Adan-ase (Bosman 
calls this district "Ananse"); which also means the foundation of 
the buildings i.e. the building of the Tshi nation. The next district 
was Asen, i.e. wanseri, which means, numerically surpassing the 
site they then occupied on the right bank of the Pra. North of 
Amanse was the Of e so*) district and that of Takiman. Kwa- 



*) Tradition says, Ofeso and Adweso and Mpgnoa districts were founded 
by Osei Tutus contrivance. There was a noble woman of the Asona 
family at Abegue in Adanse, who removed to Apimkrawa with her 
two daughters, Dwum^and Aso. A foro Bent w inland Berifi Kwatia were 



44 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

bire and Osekyere districts lie N.E. of Amanse, and Mpyiioa 
and Nsiinoa districts on their S., O do mar a and Atshuma 
districts on the N.W. of Amanse, Dampong (i.e. the big- building) 
or Asante Akem on the East, having Okwawu on its N. The 
district of Dank era (i.e. dan kyekyerewa = small, wretched build- 
ing) and Tshuforo tribes crossed the River Ofe and settled in the 
S.W. The districts of Safwi on the W., and Par am a (Wasa), 
Dwabo, Maraso, and Tannofo, all not proper Tshi tribes, N. 
of Dankera. The Akem tribe crossed the Pra and settled in Akem. 
Adanse was the first seat of the Akan nation, as they say 
by tradition : there God first commenced with the creation of the 
world.*) They were the enlightened tribe among the Tshi nation, 
from whom the rest acquired wisdom and knowledge; there the 
first Tshi ruler or king by the name Awirade Basa**) began to 
establish his power over the other emigrants. His powerful lin- 
guist was Okwawe Nfrafo, through whose means he exercised his 
power; hence the proverb, ^'Yekasa Nfrafo, nso yene Awirade" 
i.e. We complain against Nfrafo, we mean, however, the king him- 
self. It appears, when Awirade was establishing his power over 
the people to form the kingdom, his subjects complained against 
his treatment. Fearing to mention his name, all was said against 
the linguist. We do not know his successors, but there was one 
Abu, who seems to have been one of the kings of Adanse, who 



sons of the former, likewise were Aboagye Agyei, Burum Ankama and 
his sister Ampobeng, children of the latter. Before Osei Tutu declared 
war against the king of Adanse, he had taken Ampobeng as a con- 
cubine. To weaken the power of the Adanse king as well as to save 
himself from future combined efforts of those powerful princes, he cunning- 
ly advised his friend Ampobeng to induce her cousin and brother to 
quit Adanse ere the intended war was declared. By his orders Aforo 
Bentwia with his forces went to Ofeso and established his state there, 
likewise went Aboagye Agyei and Burum Ankama to Adweso and Mpo- 
noa. After Osei Tutu had conquered the Adanses, he added those chiefs 
and their forces to his army. 

*) The expression "bo ade, to create (consolidate) the things" may refer 
to the beginnings not only of the world, but also of a state. Chr. 

**) Awirade (or awurade) means "lord". Another tradition says that 
one Opohkobere of Akrokyere was the first king of Adanse, and that 
his successors were, Obeng Adebge, Dwapanyin Afadi (who made several 
gold horns), Obirifo Kumamua and Antvvi Sampa, that all of them 
were captured respectively in wars with Asante, and that Avvirade Basa 
was an influential prince and no king. 



Chapter TV. 45 

instituted the order of family among the Tshis; hence lineage is 
designated "abusfia" i.e. imitating Abu. As the power of the Adanse 
kings was acquired by enlightenment and also by the fame of their 
fetish Bona at Akrykyere, but not by war, it did not last long, 
neither was it very glorious, till they were conquered by the 
Dankeras. All the principal districts or tribes mentioned above 
were independent and had their respective chiefs over them. 

Dankera*) was the district of which Bosman says, ''This country, 
formerly restrained to a small compass of land and containing but 
an inconsiderable number of inhabitants, is, by their valour, so 
improved in power, that they are respected and honoured by all 
the neighbouring nations, all of which they have taught to fear 
them, except Asiante and Akim." Their tributary countries then 
were Wasa, Enkase, and Tshuforo. By trade and plunder they 
grew very rich and powerful. They became so arrogant that they 
looked upon all other nations with contempt, esteeming them no 
more than slaves, and on that account they were disliked. 

Nothing particular is known about the first king of Dankera, 
Bomoreti, and his successor, Okarawilni Apaw. The third sovereign 
was Owusu Bore, who grew very rich and powerful, and made 
shields of gold and gold-hilted swords. Obenpong Akrofi, the king 
of Tshuforo Atoam, died during his days, and after the funeral 
custom was over, Owusu claimed from the estate two twin brothers 
with their 300 retainers as his share. Asiedu Apenteng, the suc- 
cessor of Akrofi, refused to comply, and consequently war broke 
out. Floats were made by the Dankera army to cross the Pra. 
During the heat of action, the Tshuforos removed these floats, and 
being disappointed when falling back, the Dankeras were defeated, 
and the original ivory stool (throne) was drowned and lost. Owusu 
became so uneasy for the loss, that he slept on palm-branches, 
hence their oath ''Dankera berewso", Dankera palm-leaves. 

Asiedu Apenteng, having been slain in the war, was succeeded 
by Ofosuhene Apenteng. He was obliged to remove from Tshuforo 
Atoam to Ahuren, a place near Kokofu and Dadease. This tribe 



'^) Oaukera was a tributary state of Adanse, and became independent 
after a sharp conflict in the reign of Akafo Obiaka. A loan of money 
was advanced to the Adanses, and Awirade Basa became security for 
the amount. Prince (Jti, the son of Akafo, was sent to demand the 
amount, and was disgracefully treated by Awirade Basa by cutting off 
his long beard ; hence the war. 



46 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

continued wandering to ditferent places, owing to the incessant in- 
vasions of the Asantes, till they finally settled in the Akem country, 
with the name Akem Kotoku, as we shall find hereafter. 

The warlike Owusu Bore again declared war against Ansa Sa- 
sraku of Tshuforo proper, who seemed unwilling to submit to him. 
Ansa was defeated and compelled to flee for shelter to Asamah- 
kese, which afterwards became the capital of the Akwanm kings. 
As a sign of his unwillingness to serve him, Ansa gave orders to 
beat a certain drum "perempe" i.e. ^'I wouldn't serve one like you". 
As Owusu was bent upon war, he found fault with Oburum An- 
kama I., king of Safwi, for not having assisted him against Ansa. 
He thereupon invaded his country', defeated him, and carried off 
large amounts of gold in barrels and palm-leaf baskets to Dankera. 
. Abrimoro, the king of Parama, also fell a prey to Owusu, which 
caused him to flee through Safwi forest and settle in Wasa. 

The fourth king of Dankera was Akafo, whose surname is Obiaka, 
which means "there is one more yet". The royal family did not 
expect there would be a powerful king after the demise of the 3 
last sovereigns. He instituted the kwadwom, a song expressive 
of sorrow or heroism of the ancients, delivered in a dramatic 
manner by a number of virgins trained for the purpose. — Dankera 
Kyei was the fifth king. He instituted the harem for kings, brought 
in all his wives there, and set eunuchs and guards about tliem. 
He also increased the number of the fan- and horsetail-bearers, who 
used to fan him and drive away flies from him when sitting in 
public. Amoako Ata I. succeeded him. He also made several sym- 
bols of gold, all amounted to 1000: some on state umbrellas, on 
swords &c. He made 2 gold stools and 12 gold-headed state-canes 
for linguists; even on his drums and tympanum was gold. 

After the death of Amoako Ata I., Asare or Boa Pomsem ascen- 
ded the stool of Dankera. His mother's name was Aberewa Ku- 
kusi, so called for wearing too many jewels. Akoabena Bensua 
was her daughter. It was this Asare Pomsem who invented play- 
ing on the tambourine, i.e. a skin stretched over the upper open- 
ing of a large calabash, which sounds in beating, pomsem, p5m- 
sem, hence his name. 

Having come so far with the kingdom of Dankera, we turn now 
to another district which also had in the meanwhile acquired power. 
It was that district of Amanse, of which Bosman says, "all the 
neighbouring nations had been taught to fear Dankera, except 



Chapter IV. 47 

Asiante and Akim." The district of Amaiise comprised these prin- 
cipal towns, viz., Asumenya Santemaiiso, Dwabenma, Booman, 
Adwampong, Bekwae, Amoafo Pompoiig, Aduiiiai, Asaneso, Da- 
nj^aase, Adankranya, Amoagja and Ahuren. The first king- of this 
district, Kwabia Ahwanifi, resided at Asumenja Santeiiianso. All 
we know of him is, that in his days gold was not known, the 
currency was pieces of iron. After his death Oti Akenteug as- 
cended the stool. He made war with the king of Kwadane at tlie 
place where Kumase was afterwards built, and captured Dareboy. 
At that time the Amanse people had the opportunity of seeing 
that place, and desired to remove there; but they were told that 
it belonged to Kwaku Dompo, the king of Tafo. Oti Akenteng 
was intending to remove tliere, when he was overtaken by death, 
and was succeeded by Obiri Yeboa Manwu. He removed first to 
Kokofu, and, after staying there awhile, negotiated with king Kwaku 
Dompo, and obtaining his consent, he and his chiefs emigrated there. 
As king Obiri Yeboa had emigrated back towards the north into 
the district of Kwabire and settled between Makom, Tafo and U- 
domara, he was obliged to enter into friendly communications with 
the kings there. He sent compliments to Akosa of Makom and 
Kusi of Odomara; after this the boundaries between these three 
kings were shown to him, and then he prepared a site for his 
town. Under a tree known as Okiim near Odenkyemmanaso or 
Crocodile-pool, close to the town of Akosa, he founded the capital, 
and named it Okiim-ase i.e. under the okiim-tree. The capital having 
been founded, the headmen of the Oyokos, cliiefly, the Akoonas, a 
family to which the king belonged, viz., Duabodee of Kanyarase, 
Kagya Panyin of Mamponten, Kwaw Panyin ofFaobaware, Antwi 
of Sawua, and Nyama of Saman, built tlieir towns around the capi- 
tal. Ankra was the chief of this Oyoko family ; but Gyamin and 
Afriyie were left in charge of Kokofu. 

Now the confederate kings or chiefs of Amanse were obliged to 
emigrate to where the capital had been founded. Adakwa Yiadgm 
of Dwabenma removed and settled near Boama Kokoboate, the 
king of Pianyirase, and founded Dwaben. Tlie other king of that 
district was Ntiamoa Mankuo of Abooso. Tweneboa Kotia of Ko- 
mawu, an ally of the Amanse king, staid where he was. Agyin 
of Boman founded Nsuta (by the chief of BeposoV). Maniampon I. 
of Pompon founded Mampon, but Egu Ayeboafo of Bekwai stayed 
where he was. It appears that lie was left there on purpose to 



48 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

protect the frontier against any invasion of the Daukeras. Tlius 
the confederate Amanse chiefs fortified their kingdom, which after- 
wards became the universally famed and dreaded Asante kingdom.*) 

When Obiri Yeboa was at Kokofu, his sister Mann was married 
to chief Owusu Panyin of Aberenkese, having no issue. After a 
long time, the fame of the fetish Otutu in Berekuso reached them. 
Messengers were despatched to Ansa Sasraku, the king of Akwamu, 
to assist that some medicine might be obtained from that fetish to 
administer to the only sister of Yeboa. Their request was granted, 
Manu conceived and a boy was born, to whom the name ot the 
fetish "Tutu or Otutu" was given. Others have the opinion that 
Manu came there in person and was married to Kwadwo Wusu, 
nephew of Ansa Sasraku. If she came to Berekuso at all, her hus- 
band Owusu Panyin may have accompanied her, and when she 
had conceived, they returned home. This prince became the illus- 
trious Osei Tutu of Asante. When his uncle Obiri Yeboa removed 
from Kokofu, his son Afriyie was left there. 

The connection between Dankera and Asante is traceable from 
this fact, that Usei Tutu, the nephew of king Obiri Yeboa, was 
employed as a shield-bearer of Boa Pomsem. This shows that the 
connection was somewhat tributary, as the custom with the Tshis 
is, that all tributary kings have their nephews in the king's ser- 
vice, as horsetail-, fan- and shield-bearers. At all events, this is 
certain that the Dankera king was superior to the Asante king, 
superior in power as well as in glory, and Usei Tutu may have 
been sent there to study the politics of the Dankeras. 

Tradition says that Akoabena Bensua, the only sister of Boa 
Pomsem, had no issue, and Okymfo Anokye, the far-famed fetish 
priest of Awukugua in Akuapem, who was full of magic powers, 
was invited to Dankera by the king, to try his best that his sister 
might be fruitful. Anokye predicted that he could manage that a 
single son could be born, but that this prince would be the ruin 
of the Dankera kingdom. The reply to this was, that the Dankera 



*) On account of this amalgamation or confederation, the kingdom of 
Asante was nicknamed "Nhweadan (Ahweadah)" i.e. Sand-house, Sandy 
Palace. And it proved to be true ; because since the British army en- 
tered Kumase in 1874, the king's palace, mystically representing the 
sandy kingdom, alone was touched by Lord Wolseley, yet the whole 
kingdom has gradually given way, Dwaben, Adanse, Kokofu, Nsuta 
and Marapong have split from the sandy building. 



Chapter IV. 49 

arm}' amounted to 300,000 men ; if tlie prince squandered the whole 
proj.erty of tiie kinodom, and if one third of this army were lost, 
with the two thirds he could hold on ; he must do his best to get 
a male child born." This case strengthens what the Asantes say 
about Ntim, as being the son of prince Osei Tutu. For Tshi prin- 
cesses are known generally as loose characters, especially as AkO- 
abena Bensua and her brother were yevy anxious of obtaining a 
nephew as his successor. 

Prince Osei Tutu privately administered the fetish Ekumasua to 
Akoabena, that she must never be known any longer to her hus- 
band but himself. This being so, she was found to be in the fam- 
ily way, and there and then she advised Tutu to effect his escape 
from Dankera as speedily as possible, because the husband was 
urging confession from her. He escaped with two servants and 
was pursued by armed men. The river Ofe being so overllown 
that they could not cross it, one of his men hanged himself on 
seeing the pursuers; but Tutu and the other concealed themselves 
in a hole of an armadillo. The pursuers, finding the river too 
swollen for any one to cross, and not discovering the fugitives, re- 
turned home. The Ofe subsiding the following day, both Tutu and 
his servant crossed and safely reached Kumase. In memory of 
this escape in the hole of an armadillo, Osei Tutu named one of 
his sons: Para (armadillo). His uncle Obiri Yeboa advised him 
to seek refuge in Akwamu; this fact proves the superiority of the 
Dankeras over the Asantes at that time. Ansa hearing of the arrival 
of a good looking Asante prince in one of his towns, invited him 
to his house. His bold and majestic nppearance as well as his per- 
sonnl beauty attracted Ansa's love, that he there and then took 
him to be his male-consort. It is fashionable with the Tshi kings 
that any woman, to whom they take a fancy, becomes a wife of 
the king. With a male person in a sin)ilar case a connection is 
formed of tender love, estimation and protection. On account of 
this love shown to the Asante prince, all the monarchs of Akwamu 
considered the kings of Asante as their male-consorts. Prince Osei 
Tutu had the opportunity of acquiring the politics of the two prin- 
cipal powers then existing, Dankera and Akwamu. Meanwhile A- 
koabena Bensua was delivered of a male child who was named 
Ntim. While Tutu was staying at Akwamu, his uncle Obiri Yeboa 
was busily engaged in acquiring power over the numerous tribes 
among whom he had established his capital. Disputes with Kusi, 

4 



50 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

king- of Odoinara, about the boundary of the land, brought on a 
war in which Obiri Yeboa was slain, although the Asantes pretend 
that he got sick in camp and died. 

This sudden death of the king obliged the Asante nobles to re- 
call their fugitive prince. Ansa, to protect his male-consort, appoint- 
ed Anum Asamoa, the chief of the Anum people, then residing at 
Nsawam, with 700 armed men to escort him home. These Anum 
people became the Adums in Kumase; because thej^ did not return 
back to Akwamu. A piece of the skin from the elbow of an ele- 
phant presented to him by a hunter, as well as the head of a king- 
fisher similarly obtained, Osei Tutu worked into a crown on his 
way to Kumase. Tradition says that he obtained a large amount 
of amnuniition from the Danish Government on credit, which he 
secured by giving some of his people, whom he redeemed after- 
wards *), on account of which he was surnamed Yeboa Afriyie. 
At the head of the 700 armed Anums and with that curious crown, 
he appeared in Kumase, and was proclaimed king of Asante. With 
his advent a new era began in the history of the Asantes. For 
the royal stool of the kingdom was constructed at this time by 
Okomfo Anokye, who seems to have removed from Dankera to 
Kumase, having become acquainted with prince Osgi Tutu during 
his stay in Dankera. That the monarchs of Asante trace their 
lineage from Etwum and Antwi, wliom they consider as their an- 
cestors, comes from the tender care those two chiefs of Kokofu 
bestowed on their grandson Tutu when a child, but not that they 
were kings of Asante. 

Qsei Tutu, having prepared to revenge his late uncle's death, 
declared war against Odomara Kusi, whom he completely conquer- 
ed. The refugees escaped to Awosu, where the king of the place 
asked them the cause of their ilight and the circumstances connect- 
ed with it. They told him, but as they were not willing to return 
to Udomara, the king gave the name "Gyaoman", "you have de- 
serted your country", to those refugees. Those not willing to leave 
their country staid and built Abesem, Berekum, Odomase &c. and 
became tributary to Asante. Kyereme Sikafoo was appointed by 
Osei Tutu as the king over them, and became liis Busumru. The 
kingdom of Gj^aman was established by the contrivance of those 

*) Ashaute-blohfin, the quarter in Cliristiansborg, probably got its 
name from those Asante sureties residing with Ngete, the chief of 
that quarter. 



Chapter IV. 51 

Odomara refuoees on the territory of the Mohammedans from Kong. 
They built Bontuku as its capital. 

The next king against whom Osei Tutu declared war was Makom 
Akosa. He was defeated and slain, and his nepiiew Aduamensa 
was appointed his successor by Osei Tutu. He formed an intimate 
friendship with Aduamensa, to whom he gave his sister Nyako 
Kusiamoa in marriage, and Opoku Ware was born. But Bafo, the 
brother of the late Akosa, left the country quietly and emigrated 
to Takiman, and sought an asylum with the great king Amo Yaw. 
Bafo was ordered by the king to stay in a village where only three 
old men were residing, which became afterwards the town and 
district of Nkoransa i.e. Nkwakora mmiensa, three old men. 

Upon witnessing all these troubles brought on the aboriginal 
race of that district by mere foreigners, Osafo Akotong, the king 
of Tafo, gave orders to blow a horn "Osei Tutu, sore ho-o twa !" 
which means: ''Get away from the place, you Osei Tutu!" Because 
they were taking undue advantage of the land as well as the fish 
in the Nsuben, which are strictly forbidden to be eaten. Irritated 
by this horn, Osei Tutu declared war against Osafo, whom he 
utterly defeated and captured liis big drums, tympanum, gold guitar 
&c. as well as a whole district of 100 towns. After this conquest 
the king fell sick and was dying, when he was advised by Okomfo 
Anokye to propitiate Osafo for the injury done to him. The latter 
agreed on condition that the king should promise upon an oath 
that he would never kill any of his family. The oath was admin- 
istered to his sister Nyako Kusiamoa, by virtue of whicli no one 
of the town of Akyena-kurom has ever since been subjected to 
the executioner's knife of Asante. This being done, the king got 
well again, and henceforth the iish in Nsuben were strictly forbidden 
to be eaten, but were rather fed with the bodies of executed criminals. 

The fourth war was declared against King Wiafe Akenteng of 
Ofeso. He was beaten and conquered. Thus the whole district 
formerly belonging to the Odgmaras, Atshumas and Kwabiris &c. 
became the property of Osei Tutu. 

Tlie policy then adopted by the king, which became tjie national 
law, strictly observed by all his successors on pain of death, was — 
the naturalization of the conquered provinces with all due rights 
as citizens. Whoever dares tell his son: these people were from 
such and such a place, conquered and translocated to this or that 
town, was sure to pay for it with his life. Neither were such people 

4* 



52 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

themselves allowed to say where they had been transported from. 
Considering- these captives as real citizens, any rank or honor was 
conferred freely on them according to merit, but not otherwise. 
This made the people of the kingdom so united and therefore very 
powerful, that, what Bosman says, '"except Asiante and Akim, who 
are 3^et stronger than Dankera at the time of Ntim", can be un- 
derstood. 

Ntim Gyakari, the youthful son of Osei Tutu, ascended the stool 
of Dankera after the demise of his uncle Asare Pomsem. One of 
Ntim's wives was Rerebere, who having been married over three 
years without issue, enquired tlie cause of it from her fetish Bona 
at Akrokyere in Adanse. The oracle obtained was "she must come 
in person and would conceive". This being the oracle, Ntin) grant- 
ed permission and appointed Obeng Antwi, the chamberlain, nephew 
of Bonsra, to escort her with 300 armed men to the place. For 
her personal expense she got 3 peredwans and 30 sheep. Fortj^ 
days were spent at Akrokyere to undergo all the ceremonies re- 
quired ; but Berebere expressed a desire to visit Bonsra. As she stay- 
ed there another 40 days, the king became uneasy and ordered his 
nephew and Berebere to return home. But to his great surprise, 
she was in the family way from his nephew. Her words were a 
thunder-clap to the old king. "Alas, my nephew, he said, thou hast 
ruined us !" He forthwith called for two of his chiefs, Kwaku 
Dwamara of E'omiina and Apeanin Kwafaramoa Woyiawonyin of 
Abuakwa Atshumamanso, and told them the sad story. Three 
messengers were then and there despatched to Dankera to inform 
Ntim through the linguist Safe and the Queen mother Bensua, what 
folly Antwi had wrought in Adanse. Safe was immediatel}^ order- 
ed to proceed to Adanse with the messengers, with the injunction 
to bring back the unfortunate Berebere alive, but the criminal An- 
twi and his relations must be done away with. Thirty-two persons 
were slaughtered that day at Ayewase, among whom was Obeng 
Antwi and his parents. Queen Abuwa, on hearing what the by- 
standers said against Antwi for having brought calamity into the 
country, replied "Berebere amma a, amane mma" i.e. Had Berebere 
not come, no trouble would have come. The bystanders then echoed 
"Enye obi na okum Antwi", Nobody is to blame, but Antwi who 
killed himself. King Bonsra and his chiefs are said to have emi- 
grated to Akem on account of this case. Of 32 towns only few 
were left in Adanse. Berebere was brouoht to Danlcera and was 



Chaptei- IV 53 

put on a block, and Ntim beiii^- satisfied with the conduct of the 
Adanses who stayed, ordered Safe to thank them, saying: "Se wo- 
reso susurape na oliahini to mu a, wuyi no kyene, na wowe wo 
susurape" = When you catch flying- ants and the large black ant 
(emitting a bad smell) falls among them, yon put the latter aside 
and eat the Hying ants. 

Ntim may have been either told of the past event, or was so 
jealous of the rapid growth of the power of Osei Tutu or the in- 
fluence he had gained over the Adanses, that he desi)atched three 
ambassadors, a shield-bearer, sword-bearer, and a courl-crier, with 
a large brass-pan to Kumase, saying, ^'The kingof Asante and his 
chiefs must fill up the brass-pan with pure gold, and must send 
each the favourite among his wives and their mothers to Dankera 
to become his wives ; besides, their wives must supply his wives 
with *''mposae" = dry fibres of the plantain -tree to use during 
their monthly courses."' Osei Tutu summoned all his great chiefs 
to appear in the capital, and a grand meeting was held at Ape- 
booso. There were present Adakwa Yiadgin, Nsuta Agy'm, Twene- 
boa Kotia, Maniampong, Amankwatia Panyin, general of the Ko- 
ronti force, Asafo Awere, general of the Akwamu force, with the 
ca[>tains of his body-guard. The Dankera ambassadors repeated their 
message in the audience of the assembly, and the reply to it was blows 
given first by Yiadoni and then the other chiefs. Instead of gold, 
they filled up the brass-pan with stones, and sent the ambassadors 
bleeding home without the brass-pan. It is kept as a trojjhy in 
Kumase. This foolish demand of Ntim could hardlj^ 1)0 believed; 
but when Bosman says, ^'Dinkira, elevated hy its great riches and 
power, became so arrogant, that it looked on all other negroes with 
contempt, esteeming them no more than its slaves," no one will 
doubt the veracity of this statement. It took Ntim three months 
to [irepare against the Asantcs. He formed an alliance with the 
Dutch Government, by whom he was supplied with arms and am- 
munition, two cannon and some grenades and iron mails. He also 
succeeded in persuading Ofori Korobong, the king of Dampong, 
another powerful sovereign, who had hitherto been jealous of the 
prosperity of Dankera, to join him against Osei Tutu, The Dam- 
pong royal family were of the same stock of the Agona family 
group with the Dankeras. Dampong, the capital of this tribe, is 
said to have been so large, that no large bird could fly through it 
without fallint!,' to the uround. 



54 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

The generals conimandirig his overwhelming army were Kwame 
Tebi, over the van; Kwadwo Wiafe, the right wing; Kwaku Butu- 
akwa, the left wing; Kwasi Pipira, the rear, and Asiama Tia, the 
l)ody-guard. Bnt Boa Kropa, the most powerful chief of Ntim^ is said 
to have refrained from joining them, on account of a quarrel which 
took place between them. The chief was demanding satisfaction 
from the king for an illegal connection with one of his wives. Ntim 
replied, "I discharge my stool into your gun !" His allies were of 
Wasa, Safwi Bekwai, Safwi Ahweaso, Tshuforo, &c. A large bundle 
of a certain plant was placed on the path the warriors had to march, 
which being cut asunder by the tread of their feet, Ntim was satis- 
fied with the number of warriors, and then commanded the rest 
to return home. 

Since the three ambassadors had been beaten and shamefully 
sent back to Dankera, Qsei Tutu with his chiefs were busily en- 
gaged in preparing against Ntim's invasion, as they knew very 
well what would be the consequence. The king sent to the coast 
to buy arms and ammunition in great quantities. Bosman says, 
"The Dinkiras being foolish enough to assist him themselves, suf- 
fered his subjects to pass with it uninterrupted through their country, 
notwithstanding they knew very well, it was only designed for 
their destruction". Okomfo Anokye also was actively engaged in 
offering sacrifices and preparing war medicines against his old 
enemies, who ill-treated him w^hen residing there. Tradition says, 
that one of the princes, Anim Kokobo, and the king himself, then 
not on the stool, deprived him of some of his wives. He gave 
orders to search for a special medicine plant growing only in Dwa- 
ben, where the Asantes were fortunate enough to find it. From 
this plant sacred water was prepared for the chiefs to wash with, 
and some to drink. The one who drank the last medicine was to 
be a victim in the impending war to ensue success. After his fall, 
Ntim would be slain and his kingdom destroyed. None of the 
great chiefs dared to accept the medicine, till Tweneboa Kotia 
willingly took and drank it, offering his life for the good of his 
country, on condition, however, that none of his offspring should 
ever be subjected to the executioner's knife, whatever his crime 
might 1)6, when once the Asante empire was established. 

The commanders of the Asante army were: Aduenin Pim of A- 
duaben, over the van; Maniampon of Mampon, Egu Ayeboafo of Be- 
kwai, Wiafe Akenteng, EsumdwumaTanl, over the right wing; Twe- 



Cliapter IV. 55 

neboa Kotia, Okvvawu Diavvuo, Osafo Akotong, over the left wing; 
Amankwatia I'anyin, general of the Koronti, Asafo Awere, general 
of the Akwamu; Saman Nantvvi and Okrakose, captains over the 
body-guard; Osaben Odiawuo (tiic son of Obiri Yeboa), Qkra Domsc, 
Okra Pomsem, Ansere Tani and Safe, over the rear; Nsuta Agvin, 
general of the left flank of the van, and Adakwa Yiadom, general 
of the right flank of the van. Agyeinsam, the king of Kohyia in 
Asen, was at that time in Kumase on account of their annihilation 
by the Dankeras in 1697. He also joined, hence the Asantes never 
undertake any war, unless an Aseu chief be among them. King 
Ansa Sasraku of Akwamu sent general Gyarantwi with a force to 
assist the Asantes. At that time the army of Asante was reckoned 
at 60,000 men, and Osei Tutu encamped with his forces at Adunku. 
Ntim, hearing of that, was very eager of hastening his march to 
attack them. He played and sang the whole night, when that news 
reached him, "Dabi a medu Adunku, meda", I shall sleep soundly 
on the day I come to Adunku. Krakose was sent by Osei Tutu 
to ask Ntim, whether he meant war; if so, one of his fingers must 
be cut off; and Ntim did so. This special messenger had all his 
thumbs and fingers cut off in that way, and at last one finger only 
left on both hands. 

The overwhelming army of Ntim reached Adunku and gave battle 
to the Asantes, who kept him at bay for three days before they 
were forced to fall back. Some believe that the war lasted two 
years ; but the bloody battles were fought at Abooten, Putuagya, 
and Feyiase. Ntim's van of 1000 picked men in iron mails, with 
the drummer of the Kwantempong (a small drum placed in the 
armpit in beating) at its head, did much harm to the Asantes in 
every engagement. The chiefs asked Anokye, how is it? But he 
requested them to hold on till he could have him by magic. He 
had prophesied that Ntim was to fall at Feyiase, where, after three 
days engagement, Tweneboa Kotia fell, which was the predicted 
signal of victory, when Asiama Tia and Safe surrendered to the 
Asantes. Asiama Tia was fighting most gallantly, when one asked 
him, "why do you trouble yourself so much for one like Ntim, 
who has just this moment beheaded your nephew, his aid-de-camp, 
and 3^our wife, who once absconded, is among his wives in the 
harem?" The cause of the nephew's beheading was, that once, 
when the Dankeras were victorious, the king painted his right 
arm with white clay. The aid-de-camj), sharing his joy, painted 



56 History of the Gold Coast and Asante 

his arm, as the king- did, hence his death ! Asiauia hastened to 
the camp and found tlie report to be true. On account of the de- 
sertion of these principal men, the Dankeras were defeated and com- 
pletely conquered. 

Ntim being found sitting leisurely with one of his wives at a 
certain game, amusing themselves, having shackled their feet in 
golden fetters, Adakwa Yiadom came upon him suddenly and gave 
him a stroke with his sword, which he received on the valuable 
gold bracelet he had on his wrist, which was taken by Akosa of 
Edwampon and given to Adakwa. The stroke was repeated; the 
king was killed and his head cut off. It is chiefly through this 
bracelet captured by Yiadom that the Dwabens obtained the [pre- 
rogative of placing a king on the stool of Kumase, on which oc- 
casion the king of Dwaben is required to place that sign of power 
three times on the wrist of the new sovereign. The estimate of 
the killed was said to be about 100,000 besides the loss of 30,000 
Akems who came to their assistance. Their king Ofori Korobon 
was lost with all his body-guard. The Asantes were 15 days in 
plundering Dankera, and took thousands of prisoners and a large 
amount of gold. The one who placed the king on the stool was 
the chief of Wono, now called Gyamaase. 

Among the slain on the Asante side was Obiri Yeboa's son O- 
saben Odiawuo, Tweneboa Kotia and Nsuase Poku. Safe was fa- 
voured to succeed the latter, while Asiama Tia was disgracefully 
killed. They had sworn not to kill him, yet a public hole was 
dug, in which he was placed, his arms pinioned behind him, and 
people were ordered to go to privy upon him, which has given 
rise to a conventional expression in Kumase, "Mekoma Asiama 
akye," I am going to say good morning to Asiama.*) The cannon 
captured are now a trophy in Kumase. Other advantages accrued 



*) The most ignominious punishment inflicted on Asiama Tia, appears 
most barbarous, cruel, and a breach of faith on the part of the Asantes, 
who got the advantage of the day by the general's desertion of Ntim. 
But at a closer examination it appears that the Asantes did justice and 
established their power by righteousness. For, before the execution of 
that disgraceful sentence, a court had been held, when Asiama was char- 
ged with high treason. "You, as a general, ought to have done your 
duty to your king and nation, and settled any differences existing be- 
tween yourself and the king at home, but never have acted so treach- 
erously as you have done. You have made us gain the victory, yet 
justice must be done for a memorial to the world," 



Chapter IV. 57 

from this conquest, one ot which was the monthly [laj-notc of the 
Dutch Government to the king for Elmina Castle, which became 
a penjuisitc of the victor till the year 1872, when St. George d'El- 
mina with the Dutch possessions were transferred to the English 
Government. Dankera having become a tributary state after the 
concjucst, Ohuagyewa, a lame princess, was placed on the stool by 
the victor. (Others believe that prince Roadu Akafo succeeded 
Ntim.) The debt contracted by Ntim with the Dutch in making 
war is said to have been paid by <Jsei Tutu, an amount of 1000 
percdwans. 

(Jkomfo Anokye was richly rewarded by the chiefs for his good 
services. The king gave him 300 slaves, 100 peredwans, and a 
large gold ring for the arm; he made him a principal chief with 
seven horns, one big drum, a state umbrella and four hilted gold 
swords, and appointed him to a command in the van of the army. 
He received 100 slaves and 30 peredwans from Maniampon; Okyere 
Rrafo, the successor of Tweneboa Kotia, gave 100 slaves and 20 
peredwans; Oduro Panyin 100 slaves and 20 peredvvans, and Nsante- 
fu the same. Rut Adakwa Yiadom is said to have refused giving 
him anything; hence a curse was pronounced against him, that no 
glory should ever attend any undertaking of his, when acting in- 
dependently of Kumase, whilst conjunctly with them, ho should be 
more glorious. Out of this number of slaves, the priest formed 
the Agona district in Asante. 

We insert the tbllowing as different opinions or statements about 
the war. Some say, what led to the war and conse(|uently the 
overthrow of the power of Dankera by the Asantes was, that A- 
koabena Rensua, the motlier of Ntim, was once very sick. There 
was a certain tribe called the Rgntwumafo, now Atwomafo, i.e. red 
clay [teople, originally slaves, doomed by the law of the country 
to the most barbarous slaughter when any roj^al personage died. 
At such times the unfortunate Atwoma people were sacrificed by 
hundreds and their blood used as the red clay in painting some 
l»arts of the body of tlie deceased as well as persons of the royal 
family, and some of their dead bodies placed in the grave on which 
the cofrtn was laid. Ntim had a wife from this tribe, who informed 
her people concerning the state of Rensua's health. j^They prepared 
to quit the country, as soon as they should hear of her death. She 
was there on a visit to her relations, when that sad intelligence 
reached them. The whole tribe now (led for protection to the A- 



58 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

santcs. The kinj^ sent for his wife and subjects, but they refused 
to go back, which of course broke the peace between Dankera and 
her tributary state. 

The Asantes on that account stayed away from the funeral. The 
king-, after the custom was over, sent an embassy with a large 
brass-pan, with a positive injunction to fill up the brass-pan with 
pure gold, and also to demand from every chief the favourite among 
his wives, wearing each a necklace of precious beads, who should 
become his wives in place of the one escaped to Asante. 

Mr. Hosman and other authors say, that the youthful sovereign 
Bosiante was treated as the equal and friend of the great Osei 
Tutu; that the king of Dankera despatched an embassy in 1719 to 
the court of Kumase, consisting of the most black and comelj^ of 
the ladies of his harem, and that the deputation was treated with 
courtesy by the monarch, who determined to despatch some of his 
ladies to Dankera to return the compliment. One of these dark 
beauties captivated the heart of the king of Dankera, who was not 
proof against the temptation. The lady returned disgraced to Kum- 
ase, and Osei Tutu determined to blot out his disgrace in blood 
t^c. These statements do not appear to be true, and we retain our 
opinion, knowing that Mr. Bosnian speaks of his government having 
despatched an officer to the camp to ascertain the truth about the 
war, which he was unable to know when he wrote his letter VI. 
page 74 — 77. 



CHAPTER V. 

Of the kingdoms of Akwamu and Akem. — The tlourishing state of the 
Akras on the coast. — Oduro Tibo's war with Nyako Kwaku. — War 
declared by Osei Tntu against Akeni, and his death. — ■ Akonno's in- 
vasion of Akra and the neighbouring tribes. About 1530 — 1730. 

Having treated of the history of the kingdom of Asante from its 
commencement to the reign of Osei Tutu, who aggrandized it to 
the highest pitch, we shall in this chapter take up two other Tshi 
tribes, viz., the Akwamu and Akem kingdoms. 

Of the former, we have obtained two accounts, one historical by 
Romer, which is already given in chapter II, and the other tradi- 
tional, in chapter IV. Prince Akwamu, after staying with the kings 



Chapter V. 59 

of Akra, obtained a i)iece of land, upon which ho fonndcd his town 
and state at the Akem-Peak (Nyanaw-ase). Ansa Sasrakn of Tshu- 
foro proper, being expelled by Ownsu Bore, also settled at Asa- 
inankese. To reconcile these two accounts, we say, both statements 
are truthful. Akwainu, being a native of either Tshuforo or Adanse, 
who had already founded his own state before the arrival of Ansa 
Sasrakn, and both being Tshi princes, they may have managed to 
unite in forming the kingdom known as the kingdom of Akwamu, 
pre-eminejjce being given in naming it by the name of the tirst 
settler. 

It was the habit of the Tshi emigrants from the interior, to ex- 
tend their power and conquest into the territories of the aboriginal 
race on the sea-coast. It is but natural that the state of Akwa- 
mu was very small indeed at the commencement, at which time 
the Guan tribes of Agona on the west, the Bereku (Obutu) and 
Anum tribes on the south, and the Guan tribes of Akuapem on 
the east were all under the king of Akra; and that Tshi state was 
not excluded. For by tradition we are told, that in every yearly 
grand feast of the Akra king, the chiefs of Obutu and Akwamu were 
his hammock-carriers, or, at an}^ rate, the chiefs over these carriers. 
To prove that the Akwamus were under the king, is very easy. 
How came it that the Akwamu prince Odci was in the king's ser- 
vice, as Osei Tutu in that of Owusu Bore? Yet those princes of 
the tributary states sent to the capitals as horsetail-bearers or shield- 
bearers, and to study politics, generally became a plague to the 
kingdom. For instance, Osei Tutu in Dankera; it was he that de- 
stroyed that kingdom ; Kwadwo Tibo was similarly employed in 
Kumase, and was the cause of its destruction; Odei at Okai-Koi's 
court became the cause of the ruin of the Akra kingdom. 

With the general aptitude of the Tshi princes for acquiring power, 
the kings of Akv^'amu by war and plunder easily managed to ex- 
tend their dominion over the surrounding tribes. About 1530 and 
in 1680, after expelling the Akras from the country and usurping 
their territory, they became the third, if not the second, powerful 
kingdom on the Gold Coast. (We incline to say the second, because 
theirs commenced just after that of the Akras; Dankera must there- 
fore be the third, yet co-existent with that of Akwamu; Asante 
the fourth power.) Bosman says of them, 'The Akwamu negroes 
are very haughty, arrogant and warlike; their power is very terrible 
to all neighbouring countries except Akini. The nations under their 



60 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

power are miserably tormented with daily pluiiderini;- or rather 
robbing' visits." One of their kings he describes as "of an al)iect 
temper and an inveterate enemy to the Europeans, and though he 
received from the English, Danes, and us an ounce of gold monthly, 
in recognition of the liberty given us by his predecessors to build 
in his dominions, yet he horribly plagued us, and that in so un- 
reasonable a manner, that if he did but fancy any one of us had 
injured him, he was sure to oblige us all three to satisfaction, by 
shutting the passes so closely, that not so much as a single mer- 
chant (native) could get to us." The kingdom was desi)Otic, and 
the king and his nobles, says Bosnian, ''are so rich in gold and 
slaves, that I am of opinion, this country singly possesses greater 
treasures than all those kings we hitherto described on the Gold 
Coast taken together." 

Akem (Akycm, from hkyene, salt), a name given to the country 
by the Asantcs for being supplied with salt by the peo[)le. Bos- 
man says, "Akim was already strong when Dankera improved in 
power". The aboriginal races seem to have been of the Fomana 
and Kamana tribes. Towns under the former were Kyiriahi, Bebc, 
Siana, Gyamase, Supruso, Otweredruase, Pepease, Kwafoben, 0- 
kwakuw (Akroakwaw), Werewaso, Kukurapo, Sonkyeremaso, Amoa, 
Amuanna, Werenkyemadu, Asona, Otapupuase. Oku Panj^in of the 
Aberetufo family was their king. Likewise was Kotokg, king of 
Begoro, over the Kamana tribe, which is supposed to be the parent 
tribe of the Akwamu people. Indeed, when the government of the 
latter was established at the Akem-Peak, most of their towns, such 
as, Asamankese, Akotia, Otiriampa, Yobo, Soabe, Kgde, Subi, Kwae, 
Gyatia, Banka, Osemdu, Ntronan, Morowanan, Tafo, Mmeso, Asafo, 
Seym, Koko, Pram-kese, Trahyew and Anyinasin, were under the 
king of Akwamu, till the Adanse peo[)le began to emigrate there, 
at which period they became known as a powerful kingdom. 

In the enumeration of the Tshi tribes, we mentioned that of A- 
sante-Akem. Danso Birempong and chief Gyambra Amanu ofTshu- 
foro-Atoam, settling among this tribe, formed a very powerful state, 
whose king in conjunction with the one in Akem-Abuakwa joined 
the Dankeras in their invasion of Asante. It was about one of the 
kings or caboceers of this state, that we read in Bosnian, "besides, 
a great caboceer of Akim with all his men were cut off." That 
caboceer may be Ofori Korgbon or Firempong I., whose skull de- 
corates the king's drum in Kumase. 



Chapter V. 61 

The emigration of tlie chiefs of Adaiise to Akem commenced at 
a remote period, and continues even to the present day. There 
was one Agyemang Musu or Aboagye Agyemang of Mamponten 
in Adanse, vvlio is said to have been the first emigrant chief and 
settled at Okakom (Okakum) in Akem. The phice got its name 
from tlie abolishing of Aboagye's way of dealing with his debtors. 
When a loan of money had been given by him to any one, whether 
paid or not paid, the borrower had to pay a similar sum everj^ 
year. This being abolished, the place was called Okakum, killing 
of debt, i.e. when the ca}»ital money is paid with interest, it is 
liquidated for ever. 

Even before the emigration of Agyemang Musu to Akem, there 
was a noble lady, called Boa, who is said to have been the first 
emigrant from Adanse and had settled at Ahwenease. After whose 
arrival the two powerful kings, Danso Birempong, the king of Ko- 
toku, from Adanse Adomannu, and Ofori Panyin, the king of Abua- 
kwa, from Adanse Kubeante Sebereso, emigrated together to Akem. 
The jiredecessors of the former were Yarawere, the first king of 
the Kotokus, and Boadi Nanim, who had died at Adanse. When 
Danso Birempong emigrated, his relative, chief Gyambra Amanu 
of Tshuforo Atoam, joined him with his people. They settled first 
at Ahuren, then at Bomfa, and crossing the river Anun they settled 
at Kotoku, from which place the emigrants got the name Kotoku 
up to the present day, *) Ofori Panyin also with his people first 
settled at Abrakaso, then at Adweso, and at last at Banso. 

After these, Abu Bonsra, the king of Adanse, and two of his 
great chiefs, Kwaku Dwamara and Apeanin Kwafaramoa Woyia- 

*) Tradition says, that a civil war broke out once between Anipong 
Agyei of Tgkoboba and Osei Afweree of Dwaben. (Tliis appears to 
be different from that between Atakora ]\[aniampong and Akuamoa 
Panyin.) The chief of Mampong assisted his brother Ampong Ag) ese ; 
they were, however, defeated by Osei Afvveree ; Ampong Agyei was 
driven to Okwawu, but his brother built Mampong, which unfortunately 
had been again destroyed by the Kumase people. One of the kings of 
Kotoku, either Danso Birempong or Firerapong Manso, had settled at 
the place formerly; therefore prince Kwatai was commissioned to ask 
submission from Ampong Agyei, which he refused. He was thereupon 
engaged by the prince and driven to Abetifi. Another nephew of Danso 
Birempong, prince Tititi, repeated the demand of submission ; but Agyei 
again refusing, he was engaged and driven to Okwawu Dukuma (Duko- 
mau), where tlie Okwawns stayed for some years, and longed for home 
to enjoy their palm- wine and palm-nuts. Very fortunately Eseu Kagya 



62 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

wonyin with their people, fled when Berebere's case happened. 
Bonsra settled at Anj^eem, Kwaku Dwamara at Ahomaso, and 
Kwafaramoa at Akropong. The third emigration was made by 
Anim Kwatia of Adanse Gyambibi. These emigrants acquired power 
in Akeni, and made war with the Kamana people, whose king was 
Kwaw Kotoko, then residing at Begoro. This war was caused 
by an elephant's tusk picked up by one of the emigrants when 
searching for snails. The Kamana people claimed it for their king, 
which the other party would not submit to, and so chief Dako of 
Sinno on the Abuakwa side, and Sumtin Okwawerefi on the Koto- 
ku side were appointed to march against them. The Kamanas 
were defeated and expelled to Gyakiti, where they founded the 
following towns: Gyakiti, Pese, Nyampon, Apatif i, Apaso, Anyere- 
wase, Dasawase and Awurahae. The Begoros who did not choose 
to join their brethren, had Kofi Duro appointed to them by Dako 
as their king. A horn belonging to the king Kwaw Kotoko was 
captured, which Pobi Asomanin ordered Abu of Ati to blow thus, 
"Kwaw se se . . . . wodi to," Kwaw says he could fight, but is pro- 
ved to be unable. 



was despatched by king ( )poku Ware to recall them home, on whicli 
account the Okwawus were nicknamed "Kodiabe" i.e. they are going to 
enjoy palm-wine and palm-nuts. 

On the arrival of king Odiawuo with the Okwawus, one Badu, a 
descendant of the Kotokus, was the ruler of the whole country. Odia- 
wuo thereupon requested Badu to take a fetish oath in allegiance to 
him, whilst his intentions were to kill Badu and his people in revenge 
of what his ancestors had done to the Okwawus. He was attacked the 
same night by the king, but escaped to Tshome in the Krepe land 
It was this Badu who founded the kingdom known as Botoku or Asabi 
kingdom, and which was destroyed by the Akwamus in the reign of 
one Dako, the successor of Nkansa. Odiawuo, having expelled the Ko- 
tokus from the country, went in person to Kumase and thanked Opoku 
Ware for having recalled them. On his return to Okwawu, Opoku ap- 
pointed Esen Kagya, the ambassador, and the sword-bearer Dongwa 
as commissioners of tlie place. Their descendants enjoyed the commis- 
sionership of the Okwawu country from that time about 150 years to 
the year 1874, when Antwi Akomia, the last commissioner, and 40 of 
his people were murdered in cold blood, and their properties were con- 
fiscated by the Okwawu people. They thereby threw off their allegiance 
to Asante and declared in favour of the British government, through 
king Amoako Ata. Okaraprem with the sword on which a gold cannon 
is placed, being a Kotoku by origin, was redeemed by his people, but 
the sword was retained by Amoako Ata. 



Chaptor V. 63 

Abu Bonsra died, and was succeeded by Bekye, and he again 
by Amo Yaw. Kwafaranioa was succeeded by Kutukrunku, and 
Asare Kofi also succeeded Damaran.*) 

These emigrants and their people were recalled by Osei Tutu 
to Adanse; but Kutukrunku and his people refused to go back. 
On the arrival (in Adanse) of Amo Yaw and Asare Kofi with Oku- 
maniri Gyamfi of Ahamaso, Danso of Akokoase and Gyenin of 
Kwnntanan, they had to pay a line of 100 peredwans and swear 
allegiance ; the government of Adanse was transferred from Amo 
Yaw to Asare Kofi of Fomaua, where the ruling power has re- 
mained till now. The chiefs who remained with Kutukrunku were 
four, viz., Danso of Abomosu, Kotia of Asamanmma, Nkansa of A- 
sunafo, and Kyerekye, the renowned fetish priest of Teawia. The 
former kings of Akcm Abuakwa were: Boakye I., Boakye II., Bo- 
akye III., Agyekum Adu Oware I., Agyekum Adu Oware II., Agye- 
kum Adu Oware III. — Ofosuhene Apenteng was the king of the 
Akem Kotokus after the death of Danso Birempong. 

Having endeavoured to bring to view these two tribes known 
as Akem, we shall now cast a glance at the vanquished kingdom 
of Akra. 

About 20 years after the kingdom of Akra had been subjugated 
and nearly all the inhabitants on the sea-coast had emigrated, the 
remaining Akras as well as the refugees who returned home with 
the new emigrants from different places had peopled several fine 
towns. The slave-trade which was carried on at Akra chiefly by 
the Akwamus and also the Gomoas and Agonas, with the Akras 
as brokers, is said by Bosnian to have equalled that of the whole 
Gold Coast together. This trade chiefly assisted the people of 
Akra to rise from the abject poverty into which they had been 
plunged by the Akwamus. 

The first king of Akra on the coast, of whom we hear again, 
was Nl Ayi. The influential chief was Ama Kuma. The Akwamus 
were the lords and masters in the land. Their king Akonno had 
become envious of the prosperity of the Akras, and was seeking an 
opportunity to fight them. 



*) Some believe that Kutukrunku was rather the first king of the 
Abuakwas when at Adanse Kubeante Sebereso. He died there and was 
succeeded by Daraaran, who also died before his successor Ofori Pauyiu 
left for Akem. 



64 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Already during the reigns of the three or four kings who pre- 
ceded Akonno, the Akwamus had monopolized the trade on the 
coast; Akenis were not permitted to buy goods direct from the 
coast. Arms and ammunition were not sold to them at all. Dis- 
sensions, man-stealing and plunder were prevalent during those days 
among the people of Agona, Akrong or Gomoa, Akwamu and Akra. 
In the former wars between Akwamu and Akra the Agonas and 
Gomoas were hired by the Akwamus, who having deceived them in 
not paying what they were promised, the latter paid themselves b}' 
kidnapping them. The worst of all was, that the Akwamus carried 
on that nefarious practice among themselves. A band of strong- 
men had been selected for that practice by the Akwamus. One of 
them, very often, on coming to the coast and happening to lind 
another from his own place, enticed him to the forts and sold him. 
Even an Akra man meeting them on their way to the coast towns 
was not safe, but sure to be sold, unless redeemed by his relatives. 

The merchants then resident at Akra, Danes, English, or Dutch, 
used every means to slnp off from 5 to (300 slaves every month. 
The Akras as brokers for the merchants grew rich by that nefarious 
trathc. Hence the Akwamus were envious of their fortune, and 
began to take measures to crush them. But as the people of A- 
krong and Agona were on friendly terms with them, and carried 
on their trade chietly at Akra, the Akwamus were unable to de- 
clare war against them, fearing they might be attacked from be- 
hind, when fighting with the Akras. Unhappily a war broke out 
between the Agonas and Gomoas. 

Nyako Ako (Nyako Kwaku), king of Agona, whenever a son 
was born to him, ordered travellers and traders from Gomoa Asen 
to be waj'laid and beheaded. He showed the heads to his infant 
child and said, "These are my toys, grow up and play with tliem". 
Thus he continued for a long time, till Kwaw Ehnra Aku, the king 
of Gomoa Asen, got tired of such repeated murder of his people, and 
applied to king Oduro Tibo of Asen Fufu (others believe that Kwa- 
ku Bereli, the king of Mankesim and Amoa Kgbg Adu were asked 
to assist in the tight) to protect them from Nyako Kwaku. The 
reward for his services was paid down, his forces with those of 
Ehura Aku under Kusa Adu marched against Nyako, whose army was 
estimated at 32,000 men. Nyako Kwaku was defeated, his army dis- 
persed, and the king, with a single wife, (led into the bush. This 
Kusa Adu, who liati b}^ this time become an inlluential captain over 



Chapter V. 65 

Kwaw Ehura Akfi's army, was originally a carrier of palm-wine, 
a native of Besabew in Abora. Residing in the capital, he became 
rich by his trade, and after the defeat and death of the king, he 
was made king of Gomoa.*) 

Previous to this war, Nyako had an Akwamu man for his friend, 
who was in the habit of bringing presents of sheep and other things 
to him on every annual yam-custom. It happened that the man 
once brought his son to the capital to attend the feast, and thei-e 
the young man committed a criminal act with one of Nyako's 
wives. He was thereupon arrested to be beheaded, as is the law 
of the country. The man bitterly pleaded for the life of the son, 
made every overture to the king to spare the youth, as being a 
foolish boy. He offered to pay any sum to save the life of the 
youth. At last he consented to receive a fine of 60 peredwans, 
which his friend borrowed from parties and accordingly paid to 
him and was promised the release of his son the next day. But 
early in the morning of the following day, the king's drums, whose 
beatings indicate that a human being has been executed, was heard. 
"What is the matter! who has been executed?" was the inquiry 
of the people, but chiefly the man whose son was under arrest. 
C)ne coming from the palace informed him, that it was his son 
who had been killed. With trembling and a flood of tears in his 
eyes, he stepped inside and found his son really dead. "Has the 
king indeed killed my son after such a large fine had been paid?" 
Being ac(^ompanied by the man who witnessed the payment of the 
fine, he asked Nyako, why he killed his son, for whom so much 
entreaties had been made and a large tine paid? The king's re- 
ply was, "The fine was the rope by which the waist of your son 
was tied up to me by yourself; his execution was a settled case, 
the prescribed punishment for the act!" The sad story was told 
to the wife and relatives at home, and all bewailed the loss of the 
son as well as the large amount of debt they had to pay to the 
creditors. After mourning for some days they repaired to their 
village. 

Subsequently Nyako and his wife, roaming in the bush, arrived 



*) Tradition says, wlien Governor Meredith had been murdered by 
exposure, the British men-of-war had to bombard Winneba. During tliose 
days one of the people misplaced a large property, wliicli Kusa Adu 
very fortunately got possession of. This may be true, but not in Me- 
redith's time. 



G6 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

at tiie plantation of that Akwaniu friend. Here they were found 
by the mother of the youth who had been beheaded. ^'Okrawa ! 
what are you seeking for hereV" she asked. Okrawa related the 
sad story of Nj^ako being defeated hy Odiiro Tibo, and that they 
were seeking for an asylum anywhere. She forthwith repaired 
home and told her husband of it. ''Do you really mean NyakoV 
for I can hardly believe my ears." Her reply was in the affirma- 
tive. The husband sharpened his cutlass and placed it aside, ap- 
pointed a sheep to be killed for dinner, and went back with his 
wife to see Nyako himself. He was found l^^ing on the ground 
upon some cloth they carried with them. On seeing the man, 
Nyako said in a mournful tone, ''I am now your slave!" Upon 
which a flood of tears rushed from the man's eyes for the loss of 
his son, which poor Nyako thought were shed on his behalf. He 
was brought home, presented with a bottle of rum and a sheep, 
and a dinner was prepared. After which he was advised to wash 
so as to break the fast of so many days starvation. While Nyako 
was washing his head and face with soap, the man came upon him 
suddenly, and cut him to pieces ! The remains were put in a basket 
of palm-branches and laid aside. But the dinner was given to feast 
the villagers, who got drunk and spent the whole day and night 
in dancing and singing. 

Early the next morning the body of the unfortunate Nyako was 
conveyed to Akwamu, followed by the man and his friends. Here 
the whole story was told to the king and chiefs, who*rewarded 
the man and comforted him for his loss. 

Oduro Tibo, who was seeking his victim to capture him alive 
or dead, was informed of Nyako being killed and his body con- 
veyed to Akwamu. He thereupon despatched messengers to de- 
mand the king of Akwamu to return the dead body to him; which 
Akonno positively refused to do. Fresh messengers were sent, 
but with no better result; consequently Tibo declared war against 
him. The assistance of Agona was asked by Tibo to claim back 
the remains of their king, but they flatly declined to do so. Akonno 
was attacked by Tibo and Kusa Adu, and defeated, and many cap- 
tives were taken. 

The Agonas, hearing of Tibo's success, required ro have a share 
of the spoil, otherwise they would dispute the passage he was to 
make back. He ordered his men to march on imtil they might 
be attacked, before defending themselves. Which becoming sure, 



Chapter V. 67 

Tibo mounted his royal stool and offered a libation of water to God 
and earthj callino: them to plead his case and defend him. The 
Ai^onas attacked him, but were repulsed with heav\y loss, which 
obliged them to send a flag- of truce to negotiate for peace. A 
meeting was held, at which the Agonas were severely reprimanded^ 
Yaw Menta, an utter foreigner, was placed on the stool of Agona, 
and Tibo, after threatening vengeance against any one who should 
dare to revolt, returned to his country. Since that time the descend- 
ants of Yaw Menta have been the rulers of Agona. 

During Nyako's reign, his mother died, so all his subjects at- 
tended the funeral with the usual salute of musketry ; but the people 
of Winneba were late in doing honour to her memory. On their 
arrival, however, Nyako objected to their firing the salute, and 
being thus put to shame, not knowing what might be the con- 
sequence, they ordered out a cannon from Europe and carried it 
to Anyakrom. The king replied, ''Indeed, muskets were fired by 
my chiefs and people; if the Winnebas will fire a cannon now, 
I agree to it." They fired it for several days at Anyakrom, where 
it remains up to this time. It is customary also before the funeral 
ceremony to make figures or statues of the deceased, either of clay 
or wood, which are placed under a shed outside the town, and 
honoured by daily meat-offerings. But these meals are devoured 
by mice and lizards. Nyako objected to thus placing the statue 
of his mother and the meals on the road ; he said, "Spirits are like 
winds, and therefore the spirit of my mother can enjo}^ the meal 
anywhere else than on the roads. He accordingly ordered wooden 
j'Cgs to be fixed in a large silk-cotton-tree near the town, by 
means of which the tree could be ascended and the statue and 
meals placed on the top of the tree. A sentry was appointed to 
stand by on the top of the tree, and cry to travellers passing by, 
"Wouldn't you look at the statue of Nyako Ako's mother?" Hence, 
when children are cross and trouble their mothers by crying, the 
mothers usually tell them, "Mayest thou weep on and die, even if 
thou couldst do me once the honour of placing my statue and meal 
on a silk-cotton-tree !" 

As the king of Akem had assisted the Dankeras against Asante, 
the next war in revenge was that declared by Qsei Tutu against 
them. Ofosuhene Apenteng was then the king in Asante-Akem, 
and Kutukurunku was king of Abuakwa; both had determined 
to stand independent of the powerful king of Asante. In the year 

5* 



68 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

1700 Qsei Tutu marched against Akeni, and, after two bloodj battles, 
they were defeated, and Ofosuhene Apenteng- was taken prisoner, 
whose eftigy decorated the state-umbrella of Asafo Awere. His 
sister Nyantadam was captured by Oponkoko, brother of general 
Amankwa of Nsuta, and Asiedu Apagya was also captured. Nyan- 
tadam was married to Oponkoko, from whom she had eight 
children, Firempong and his sisters: Awusi, Korankyewa, Biama, 
Atimwa, Bensua, Agyoboa, Ampoma, Oboahema. Ampim was cous- 
in to Firempong, his mother's name was Gyamfi Kese, sister of 
Nyantadam, Thus Akem became tributary to Asante. 

To get rid of paying the yearly tribute, Akram, Apenteng's suc- 
cessor, and Kutukurunku proposed to quit the country for some 
time. Having entered into an agreement with the Akwamus to 
protect six of their princesses, they left. Akram went to Kotoku 
near Okwawu, since which time that tribe of Tshuforo Atoam was 
called Kotoku (by Europeans: Western Akem); Kutukrunku went 
to some place in the forest, some say, to Krepe, but we think, it 
was the Krobo mountain where they sought refuge. 

After roaming in the forest for three years, they returned to 
Akem and demanded back the royal family from the Akwamus. 
From the year 1702 — 1720 the differences between Akem and A- 
kwamu began under king Akonno. The princesses, having got 
married and born children, feeling more comfortable and quiet in 
Akwamu, declined to return. Consequently war was declared 
against them. But unable to figlit, the Akwamus sued for peace, 
delivered back those women and children, and a certain sum was 
annually paid to Akem as indemnity of war. 

In about 1730 Akem again rebelled. Osei Tutu immediately 
marched an army into the disloyal province and fought a bloody 
battle at Koromante, in which the Akems, being defeated, were 
obliged to cross the Pra and placed an ambuscade there. The vic- 
torious sovereign fell into it one Monday, and was slain whilst 
crossing the river, — some say, while ascending the hill which got 
the name Koromante, in memory of the battle. This account of 
the king's death is refuted by the Asantes. They say, the king 
was infirm and not in a good health when forced to take the 
field against the rebellious Akems, and although the army was 
proceeding successfully in its mission, the king very unfortunately 
died a natural death. Opoku Ware, not informing the nobles and 
generals of what had taken place, coffined the remains of the mon- 



Chapter V. 69 

arch, and ordered it to be carried in the rear of the armj', Opo- 
ku revenged his uncle's death and punished the Akerns severely. 
After this he told the nobles of ^Yhat had happened, and the army 
marched back to Kumase. 

As even the natural death of an Asante monarch is a great na- 
tional calamit}^ that in camp is a thousand times worse. Hence^ 
when any of the warriors was asked as to the rumours of the king's 
death, his reply was, "Mekoroe na mante" i.e. I joined the campaign, 
but never heard of it. This became the oath "Koromante", the most 
binding and dreadful of Asante oaths, which still embalms the memory 
of the most powerful and victorious king Osei Tutu. The oath Me- 
meneda Korgmante unites two oaths, for the Asante oath Memeneda 
originated with the death of Osei Bonsu. 

After the bloody funeral custom for the deceased king had been 
performed, the stool was offered to his nephew Opoku Ware, who 
had not only successfully conducted the last campaign, but also 
been appointed by the late king himself. There were two other 
nephews, Dako and Dako, who likewise claimed the stool. Opoku 
tried to settle it among themselves amicably and to share the estate 
with them, but not the stool. They rejected his offers and induced 
a good number of the Kumases to favour their claims, while the 
majority was on the opposite side. This nearly led to a civil war; 
but Opoku prudently checked it and ordered Dako and Dako and 
their people to be killed. They all were beheaded, except one 
girl, thus putting a stop to bloodshed. Opoku was proclaimed the 
successor of his uncle Osei Tutu in the year 1731. 

We must now follow the refugees driven from Ahantang to Akem, 
and after that take a glance at Akwamu and Akra. 

Akram, the successor of Ofosuhene Apentengy') having crossed the 
Pra, sought refuge in a place near Okwawu and Aguogo, known 
as Kotoku. This tribe got the name Kotoku from having settled 
there. The Kotokus seem to have been driven again from this 
place, and made a jtermanent settlement on the left bank of the 
Pra, where they founded the capital Da. It was near Asuom by 
one A ma Kotope at Obobitwaw, who was a native of Tshuforo 
proper, whose descendants emigrated with Ansa Sasaraku, but 
were left here when the latter came to Asaman-kese. The kings 

*) Home have the opinion that the immediate successor of Ofosuhene 
Apenteng was Firempong ^lanso, and that Ampim succeeded him, and 
was again succeeded by Kwilhene Boroni and Gyaberenkum. 



70 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Kwahene Boroni and Gyaberenkurn successively assumed the 
government in Da, and now the royal family found it necessary 
to redeem Nyantadam's children from Nsuta. The sum of 100 pre- 
dwans, 30 sheep and 30 ankers of rum were sent, and the follow- 
ing royal personages were brought to Da, viz., Ampim, Firempoug 
and Firempomma. Before leaving Asante, they were made to swear 
a fetish oath, never to be hostile against them, whenever any of 
them should become king of T)ii. 

Ampim, brother of Firempong, succeeded Gyaberenkum, in whose 
reign there was peace between Asante and Akem, on account of 
the fetish oath he and his brother had sworn. But there was no 
peace on the coast and in Asante, as Opoku Ware took advantage 
of the peaceful time to conquer the north-western, northern and 
eastern districts of his kingdom. 

At last Akonno, during the contest between Tibo and Nyako, 
declared war against Akra for the following reason. 

The yearly feast Homowo came on, when Akonno despatched 
his wives down to the coast to attend the celebration of the feast. 
He advised them to put up with Ama Kuma, his friend, who ac- 
cordingly provided them a whole compound for their accommoda- 
tion and treated them with great courtesy. The feast being over, 
the ladies returned to Akwamu, when Ama was by false reports 
from the coast accused of having had illegal intercourse with some 
of the king's wives. Akonno being very greedy for mono}'', fining 
people very often from mere suspicion, accordingly sent messengers 
to demand 1000 heads of cowries as satisfaction from Ama. The 
latter, though innocent, was forced to comply. Another report was 
sent to the king to say, the fine was nothing at all to Ama, as it 
was not paid by himself, but only by his slaves. This encouraged 
the greedy king to demand another fine of 1000 heads, which Ama, 
paid through the advice of his friends, only to maintain peace. 
Desirous to make war, Akonno sent the third time for a similar 
sum. NT 'Ayi, king of Akra, and his chiefs raised objections to such 
an act of Akonno, which eventually caused the intended war. 

Owing to incessant inroads, kidnappings and sieges, all the towns 
along the coast had been surrounded by close fences of the prickly 
pear (Cactus opuntia), introduced from St. Thomas by the Portu- 
guese, who made of it enclosures for pigs and cattle. In those 
days of dissensions the Akras sent canoes with armed men to Ningo 
and such places to get supplies of this valuable plant. 



Chaptor V. 71 

Akonno marched towards Akra with an army. He was met 
half way by a quite iusufticieiit force, who were driven back to 
the town and besieged. The Akras were soon forced to seek shelter 
in the Fort Crevecoeur. The king- Ni 'Ayi and his party with nearly 
all the warriors entered in time, whilst Ama with a small body- 
guard, being too late, was shut out. He escaped to sea in a canoe, 
but the man at the helm was shot down. Accompanied by only 
two men, he was fleeing to James Fort, where they were murdered 
to the great dissatisfaction of Akonno, who would have rather had 
him alive to extort a heavy ransom. 

Elated by success, Akonno shortly after declared war against 
Osu, Labade and Teshi, who not having assisted Akra, had now 
singly to face the powerful invader. Labade, being unprotected 
\vith cannon, was one night stormed, when a great many of its 
inhabitants were slain or captured and sold to the slave-dealers. 
King Okpoti (Odoi Kpoti) alone lost 1000 of his own people, and 
was obliged, with few of his retainers, to ilee for shelter to Christians- 
borg. The warriors of the three towns congregated in Osu, their 
women and children were escorted by armed men to Sanya. NT 
Tshie was a youth at that time and one of the escorts. At Obenesu*) 
a battle was fought, in which the Akwamus lost their best chiefs*"^) 
and fell back to their camp at Labade, to prepare for another at- 
tack; the Akra army retired to Christiansborg. Sowa, brother of 
Adshei Kwaw, repaired to Teshi with his sons to get provisions; 
on their return they were attacked by the enemy; the father was 
caught, but his son Laye Nam escaped by swimming in the sea to 
Dutch Akra. The Akwamus, enraged at their loss, made a second 
attack, which forced the Akras to fall back to Christiansborg. The 
Akras, having run short of powder, requested the Governor of 
Christiansborg for a supply, who seeming to have some ill-feeling 
against the Labadea for destroying the Ningowas, declined to do 
so. He is reported to have said to them, "Use the powder you 
had against the Ningowas for your defence." Whilst they were 
encamping at Tshabele, a vessel anchored there unexpectedly and 
they obtained ammunition from the captain by pawning their chil- 
dren, whom they redeemed after the war was over. 

*) Obanin-ansu ? most probably Abenne-nsii = skirmishing water. 
The two hf)stile armies were supplied with water from the place. 

**) Tradition says, that Akonno was captured and beheaded by Adshei 
Kwaw, the son of chief No-mashi of Tesbi. 



72 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

The European merchants of Christiansborg- and Akra, who had 
kept themselves neutral till now for fear of stoppage of trade as 
well as troubles from the Akwamus, interfered on behalf of the 
people, lavished presents on the king and chiefs of Akwamu, pro- 
mising to become sureties for the defeated, and so peace was made. 
The heads of the chiefs of Akra and Labade cut during the war 
were returned to the merchants, who gave them back to their re- 
spective relatives (although some say, those heads were kept in 
the castle of Christiansborg). The king of Akwamu then sent 
messengers throughout the country to inform the refugees to return 
home, as peace had been made. So all refugees to Shai, Sanya, &c. 
returned home. He also gave two girls of his royal family as a 
token of his sympathy for the loss the^- had sustained. One of the 
girls was given in marriage to Okpoti of Labade, and the other to 
Dako of Akra. A policy which might eventually have brought 
the Akras under his power, if the descendants of these girls had 
obtained the stools. He nearly succeeded in that plan, had not 
Akwamu been destroyed afterwards, in which time a son born by 
the one given to Dako was a youth, and became the king of Akwa- 
mu with the name Dako Panyin. 

The Akwamus, becoming powerful, desired Akonno, no more to 
pay the annual tribute to Akem. The king seemingly agreed. 
When ambassadors came to demand the tribute at the usual time, 
the king before his chiefs bullied them and put them into prison. 
During the night, however, he released and sent them away with 
the tribute; but at day-break he told his chiefs, the ambassadors 
had absconded. His subjects did not like him ; they held him in 
suspicion as an accomplice in stealing their people. He reigned 
from 1702 — 1726 and died. 

Akwanno (Ansa Sasraku HI.), who assumed the government after 
the demise of Akonno in 1726, not only refused to pay the tribute 
to Akem, but went so far as to kill the ambassadors. He beheaded 
them and put their heads in a bag for the only survivor among 
them to carry to Akem. The Akems could have marched against 
them, but on account of the unsettled state of affairs between them- 
selves and Asante, they were obliged to leave them alone for a 
time, which encouraged them to carry on trade freely and also to 
make war on and plunder the Akras, Akuapems and Adangmes. 
Then it was that the large and biggest towns of Akuapem were 
depopulated; Abotaki, the then ca[)ital of Akuapem, was ravaged 
with fire and sword. 



Chapter V. 73 

Shai, the kingdom of Lanitno (or according- to Bosnian Lading- 
cour), was not spared. This kingdom consisted of the following- 
22 towns about the Shai mountain, viz., Legbedshe, Manjji, Le- 
nodshe, Kpofu, Asinodshe, Salom, Bonase, Mapong-, Dobo, Ladoku, 
Yoma, Abotia, Klekpe, Nagala, JMagbien, Mla^ Drawe, Laga, Ka- 
yikpo, Gbiaka, Hiowe and Ninawe, with the capital at Klekpe. 

Lanimo, the father of Late Odoi, who was the first king of Krobo, 
was both priest and king-, and Sodshe of the town Kayikpo was 
the most powerful general of the priest, having the command of 
16 towns directly under him. After continuous inroads of the A- 
kwamus, thej'^ were advised by the invaders, to cut off the right 
hand of the general to stop the war. The Shais, being- tired, con- 
sented to that request and accordingly cut the general's hand off. 
This grieved him so much that he quitted the country. As he 
was the protector of Shai, the others determined to emigrate with 
him, and travelling towards the east, they settled on the banks 
of the river Godshei, hence Shai Godshei. In memory of Lanimo, 
the defender of the Adangmo tribes, this song was composed: ''La- 
nimo be we, ni momoi ye nma ke tsn," i.e. In consequence of 
Lanimo's absence the whole barn of corn was eaten up by corn- 
flies. The inhabitants of the town Mapong, who were descendants 
chiefly of fallen women of Otufo, and were detested, could not go 
along with them, but settled on the Akuapem mountains. By these 
Mampong in Akuapem is said to have been peopled. The Ladokus 
removed to La and others to Prampram and formed the Klei quarter 
there. The very few fugitives partl}^ went to Krobo, and the rest 
concealed themselves on the Shai mountain, till they increased suffi- 
ciently to become a town. 

It was from these places the Akuamus chiefly obtained captives 
for the European slave-dealers, that the king alone sold in every 
month from 2 to 300 slaves. Hence he became the most powerful 
and wealthy king on the whole Gold Coast. Another resource for 
the king was the heavj^ fines demanded from people who had cri- 
minal connection with his numerous wives he had married in 
every town and village, wliom he did not keep in the harem, but 
let them free in order to get people into trouble. When the offen- 
ders' relatives were unable to meet the fine, the offender and se- 
veral members of the family were sold from the country. The 
king and his selected banditti alone spent an amount of 1000 slaves 
worth in rum everv veai"! 



74 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 



CHAPTER VI. 

The warlike and victorious reign of Opoku Ware. — His wars against 
Amo Yaw of 'J'akiman. — The great improvement in the Akra king- 
dom in the reign of King Ayikuma Tieko, and his preparation against 
Akwamn. — Firempong declared war against Akwanno, and the troubles 
on the coast. — The three kings of Akem and their being hired by the 
Akras to fight the Akwamus. — Their expulsion to Krepe, and Akem's 
supremacy on the coast. — The battle of Benna and the invasion of 
Kumase by Abirimoro, — Safwi and Gyaman ravaged. Subjugation of 
Buron-Kyempim and Ntamang. — 1731 — 1749. 

Opoku Ware on his accession to the stool restored peace, and 
requested the fugitive Bafo, vs'ho had taken refuge at Nkoransa, 
to return to his district. The povi^erful king of Takiman, Anio Yaw, 
objected to this request. Meanwhile Opoku had advised Bafo's re- 
lations at Makoin, urgently to request him to return home. By 
those messengers Bafo not only informed the king of his willingness 
to do so, but also stated how he could manage to defeat Amo Yaw 
and make his kingdom tributary to Asante, on condition that he 
should rule over it. When all was arranged between the king 
and Bafo's people, Opoku requested Amo Yaw to send back Bafo. 
He rephed, ''No one placing himself under the protection of the golden 
stool of Takiman can ever be delivered up; it is therefore im- 
possible for me to comply with Opoku's request." Besides this, 
he ill-treated the Asante traders to his kingdom. Amo Yaw was 
too powerful a sovereign to submit to a demand from such an in- 
ferior king as Opoku. Both Amo Yaw and his sister Dwamarawa 
were so rich that the}^ counted gold as stones on the street. The 
latter often asked, "What do people mean by poverty? I wish I 
could know what it is!" Tanno, the principal fetish, often warned 
her never to use such expressions, as poverty might overtake her 
unawares. She, however, did not believe this. 

Bafo meanwhile kept up constant communication with Opoku, 
informing him how things were going on at Takiman. At the 
same time he was the chief adviser of Amo Yaw. This monarch 
asked Bafo, "How do the Asantes manage, although not so power- 
ful a state, to conquer great kingdoms, as Dankera and others?" 
He replied, "My people remove the firelocks from their muskets 
and bury them in the ground. They are then loaded to be used 
by the warriors, who order the guns "tow! tow!" that is, fire! 



Chapter VI. 75 

If not heeding the first or second order, they must obey the third 
or fourth, and fire on repeatedly." Amo Yaw, having placed so 
much confidence in Bfifo, believed all he said, and ordered all their 
firelocks to be removed and buried. This being known to Opoku, 
he marched against Amo Yaw with an army. The overwhelming 
forces ofTakiman mustered and encamped to repulse the invaders. 
The treacherous Bafo marched out with the king against the Asan- 
tes, and encamped close to the king, letting Opoku know his own 
position in the camp, that the Asantes might shoot there without 
bullets. When the battle commenced, the deluded Takimans said: 
"tow, tow !'" to their guns. Opoku rushed swiftly upon Amo Yaw 
and Bafo, and took both prisoners. The Takiman army was routed 
and multitudes made prisoners. A certain Asante, before going 
his rounds for plunder, placed a loaded gun on two forked sticks, 
and, in hearing of his prisoners, addressed it thus — ■ "You gun, take 
care of these prisoners till I come back; should any one dare to 
escape, shoot him dead!" The poor prisoners were obliged to ask 
permission from the gun, as school-boys and girls do if they want 
to go out for water or otherwise. Thus every warrior managed 
to catch plenty of prisoners and large spoil. 

By Bafo's advices, Amo Yaw and his sister Dvvamarawa with 
himself were placed in irons; the whole treasure of the kingdom 
was carried off by the A.santes, whose power was greatly increased 
by this conquest. Several improvements were, by the advise of 
Amo Y"aw, made in the government and social condition of Asante. 
He taught Opoku to use gold and silver weights, to claim the estate 
of a deceased chief or general, to make several laws by which 
offenders were fined to increase his power and keep down the 
subjects. Dwamarawa, who once boasted of riches, was now ob- 
liged to sweep the market-places and the most stinking parts of 
Kumase. In doing this she used to throw away her smoking-pipe 
from her mouth. In her glorious days the pipes she threw away 
were snatched by 1000 maidens who stood around; as there was 
no one about her now to pick them up, such pipes fell to the ground, 
and consequently thousands of them were lost. 

The king one day called the army to the capital, congratulated 
the chiefs and generals on their success, and requested them to 
thank Bafo for the assistance he had rendered to Asante; Amo 
Yaw now perceived how foolish he had been in taking the advice 
of Brdb. The king requested Bafo to return home; but as it had 



76 History of the Gold Coast aud Asante. 

been agreed upon, that he should rule the country, and as he had 
meanwhile advised the Mohammedan subjects to flee till his return 
to Nkoransa, his treachery both to Amo Yaw and Opoku came to 
light; hence the expression "treacherous as Bafo." He obtained the 
rule in Nkoransa and recalled the Mohammedan refugees; thus it 
became a tributary state to Asante. Amo Yaw's persistent en- 
deavours in advocating despotic rule led to a conspiracy of the 
chiefs and generals, in which he was killed. 

Ayikuma Tieko had acceded to the stool of Akra after the death 
of NT Ayi. Being an intelligent king, he established the regal 
power by recalling his subjects who were dispersed about the coun- 
try or had emigrated to Little Popo in consequence of the Akwamu 
invasions. His friendly connection with the Dutch Government, 
and the improvement he introduced in the country, encouraged the 
fugitives to return home. He abolished capital punishment, and 
the p)ractice of pa^nng double dowry for wives. Previous to that 
time dowry was given twice: the first, to obtain the wife, and the 
last, when she died. 

As brokers to the slave-traders, the king as well as several of 
liis subjects had grown rich in the country; yet they were tribu- 
tary to the Akwatnus. The king, knowing how powerful his an- 
cestors were in times gone by, when the Akwamus were vassals 
to them, was never pleased to undergo that state of servitude under 
their former subjects. Hence he was meditating some means or 
other to get rid of that heavy Akwamu yoke. It happened one 
day that some dispute arose between the governor of the fort and 
the king. Some say, the Dutch Governor, being invited b}^ the 
Governor of Christiansborg to dinner, had the king in his company. 
At the party the Danish Governor is said to have given a stroke 
in the face of the king, which he returned some days afterwai-ds 
to the Danish Governor, when on a visit to his town Akra. This 
greatly annoyed the Dutch Governor, who said, the case had been 
settled already, the king ought not to have revenged himself after 
all. Others sa}'-, it was the Dutch Governor himself who struck 
the king's face. On that account the king did no more visit the 
Fort for a good length of time, which gave uneasiness to His Ex- 
cellency. His time to go on leave was coming on, and apprehend- 
ing that his successor inight have cause of sending a bad report 
of him to the Governor General at Elmina, he called upon the 
chiefs of the town to negotiate on his behalf, that the king might 



Chapter VI. 77 

be induced to have the difference settled before the arrival of the 
new Governor. At hist the king opened his mind to his chiefs, 
that, should the Governor take upon himself to support them with 
arms and ammunition to break down the power of Akwamu, then 
alone he would consent. That being- told the Governor, wiio knew 
what sort of a plague the Akwamus were to both white and l^iack, 
he readily consented, and the case was amicably settled. 

To ascertain the number of warriors of both Akwamu and Akem, 
the Governor travelled to both places and distributed pipes and 
tobacco to every warrior. On his return he assured the king of 
success ol" their intended war against iVkwamu. Every arrangement 
on behalf of the Dutch Goverimient for supplying arms and am- 
munition was entered into, Prince Ayai (Tete Ahene Akwa), son, 
and Okaidsha, nephew, were given as security for the amount of 
supply of arms and ammunition to be required. These matters 
being settled, an opportunity to give a hint to the Akem kings had 
to be sought for. 

In the meanwhile Firempong had assumed the government of 
Akem Kotoku after the death of his brother Ampim, during whose 
reign there was peace between Akem and Asante on account of 
the fetish-oath administered to them previous to their leaving 
the place. 

Besides, Opoku Ware had assured Firempon, when he presented 
him with a young tamed elephant, that he would never take up 
arms against Akem during his life-time. Kutukrijnku was still the 
king of Akem Abuakwa. Akwanno, the Akwamu king, had refused 
to pay the tribute to Akem and killed the ambassadors, after that 
arrested and plundered 300 men with their loads belonging to 
Firempong. The cause was this : Prince Kotiko was sent by his 
father with those people to buy goods from the coast. On their 
return home, they had a dispute with Okrapa (a female slave of 
Akwanno), which he made a pretext for hostilities. When goods 
and people were seized, Akwanno released four men to accompany 
the prince to tell his father what he had done, challenging him to 
come out for his property.*) 

Firempong Man so thereupon informed Kutukrunku of Akem-Akro- 

*) Others believe that the king of Akwamu at that time was Mann- 
kure, and that he and Firempong began their quarrel at Kumase, and 
Osei Tutu was about to pacify them, but one Ofosu Twitvviakwa in- 
stio-ated the kino- not to do so. 



78 History of the Gold Coast aud Asaute. 

pong that he was preparing against Akwamu to claim back their 
[iroperty, wishing him to join with his arm,y. With an army of 
40,000 they marched and attacked Akwamu, but were repulsed 
with a loss of Kutukrunku, Gyamankoroa, nephew of Firempong, 
and several others after three days' engagement. Firempong re- 
treated and encamped at Anyakurom ; from thence he asked the 
assistance of Oduro Tibo of Asen Fufu and Teteakoro II. of Adyu- 
mako. Damaram succeeded Kutukrunku, and encamped at Apira- 
man. It appears that Kudsha was king at Akra, who sent out 
some detachment of his army to join in the war. Thus reinforced, 
Firempong marched against Akwanno. He captured one of his chiefs, 
Boadu. Yet the Akwamu women cherished the hope of success, 
and said, so long as general Amanya Kwaw was commanding the 
army, there was nothing to fear. But at last this general also was 
caught alive, and both he and that chief were beheaded by Ba 
Kwante, who sung, ^'Makum Boadu, makum Amanya Kwaw, brafo 
ne me, brafo ne me!" I have killed both Boadu and Amanya Kwaw, 
I am a hero ! The invaders, however, also sustained painful losses, 
Damaram, Gyamedua, nephew of Firempong, and several others 
being killed, and 3'et Akwamu iiad not been defeated. But the in- 
vaders had also captured many prisoners and large spoil. Oduro 
Tibo founded the town Barakwa with the prisoners he obtained, 
and got a horn in acknowledgment of his services from Firempong, 
which is blown ''Oduro Tibo e, meda wo aseawusio!" Pobi Aso- 
manin succeeded Damaram, and both he and Firempong retired 
from the held to Akem. 

The Governor of Christiansborg at that time was illiterate, a 
sailor by profession. He did not care much about any trade ex- 
cept watch repairs and the like, and had quarrels all the time with 
the people of Christiansborg, who on that account traded chiefly 
with the Dutch merchants at Akra. When any of his officers was 
caught by them, they sold him to the merchants at Akra. Some- 
times he loaded the guns with stones and lired into the town. He 
iiad even made a statue of himself, of wax, which he placed on 
the wall of the Fort. The people, on seeing that, imagining it was 
himself, fired guns at it; at last he set the town on fire. This 
brought Akwanno down to the coast, who settled the dispute be- 
tween the governor and his subjects and got large presents for it. 
Keeping ill-feelings against the Dutch merchants at Akra for in- 
stigating his subjects of Christiansborg to trade with them and 



Chapter VJ. 79 

also <ight with him, the governor told Akwanno to attack Akra 
again. The king returned to Akwamu and sent 1000 armed men 
to invite the governor to his capital. The Datch Governor, suspect- 
ing a trick, sent order to Elniina for arms, ammunition, provisions 
and gunners, and prepared for the expected attack of the Akwamus. 
He advised the people of Akra, to send down those who would be 
unable to fight, and some women and children to Little Popo. This 
was the third emigration of tiie Akras to that place. 

In .January 1733 Akwanno invested Akra. The siege went on 
during four months, and caused a frightful famine in the town, the 
number of deaths occasioned by hunger exceeded those slain in 
the war. This induced king- Ayikuma Tieko of Akra to send two 
of his chiefs, Okai Paemseyeko I., Amo Nakawa I., and Ama Safe, 
with the royal necklace of precious beads, the pay-note, the national 
state-cane Asempayetia and the golden crown of the late king- Okai 
Koi with several presents to Akem, to ask the aid of the three 
kings : Ba Kwante, Firempong Manso of Akem-Kotoku and Owusu 
Akem. The ambassadors had to make their way via Coast Bere- 
ku and after a circuitous walk of two months they reached Akem. 
The Dutch Government also sent arms and ammunition by an 
otiicer to the kings, for which Ayai (Tete Ahene Akwa) a son^ 
and Okaidsha, a nephew of the king, were given as security. The 
ammunition was packed, as is reported, in fishing baskets, to pre- 
vent detection by the Akwamus. Amo Nakawa easily induced 
the Obutus and Agonas to throw off their allegiance to AkwaiMU. 
The kings gave their consent to assist the Akras, but being at war 
with the Asantes, and for the safety of their wives and children, 
they made a treaty with Opoku Ware, not to come behind them. 
Of course, they only told Opoku that they were going to demand 
a certain tribute from Akwamu, which they had refused to pay ; 
but he did not know that they had been hired. The king of Asante 
allowed them five mouths time to return, on condition to pay him 
r)00 men for the permission granted. 

He knew that they could not stand the power of Akwamu, and 
if weakened by them, he might easily conquer them himself. But 
Akwamu was ripe for judgment lor all their wicked deeds ! Forty 
grains of corn were given to the ambassadors to tell the king,^ 
that every day one grain had to be taken from the number, and 
that, as soon as the grains were finished, the Akras should know,, 
that they were upon their enemy. 



80 History of the Gold Coast and A saute. 

About the month of June, a few days after the ambassadors had 
been sent home, the Akems started, which obliged Akwanno to 
raise the siege of Akra. After a sharp contest with the combined 
forces of Akem, Akra and Akuapem, Akwamu was defeated and 
a large number of prisoners was taken. Their women and chil- 
dren, never expecting a defeat, were not prepared for fleeing, and 
all at once they came upon them. As the rainy season had set 
in, the.y surrendered themselves to their enemies. Thus was A- 
kwamu driven from the Akem-Peak to the banks beyond the Volta. 
In their precipitation the Akwamus hid all their gold in the ground 
and marked the places with daggers and the like. These hidden 
treasures are occasionally discovered by Akuapem and Akem farmers. 

There seems to have been a cessation of hostilities after the cap- 
ture of both Boadu and Amanya Kwaw, the chief and the general 
of Akwamu, before their entire expulsion. The war being carried 
on in the bush, the Akwamus did not know the cause of it; but 
when they got to know that it was done by the instigation of the 
Akras, they suddenly and violently attacked the Akras. The A- 
kems having retired for awhile, the Akras alone could not stand 
them, and so they were driven for the fourth time to Little Popo. 
Ayikunia Tieko having died, Ofori Tibo was then the king of Akra, 
Ama Wusu Ahyia, chief of Gbese, Ni Tshie, chief of Teshi, who 
being an elder cousin to the king and chief of Akra, was the chief- 
leader of the refugees to Popo. Chief Otu Ahyiakwa and his war- 
riors having been annihilated in his expedition in aid of the Dutch 
Government against the Commendas in 1694, Amo Nakawa I. was 
made to succeed him. He died during the flight of the Akras to 
Popo. Nl Tshie and Dako, the son of the deceased, ordered his 
remains to be carried during the whole time. In crossing the Volta 
first with the remains of Amo, the Angulas tried to resist them, 
but they were easily driven back, and being no more molested, they 
reached Popo safely. 

Owusu Akcni, having heard of what his friends had suffered 
from their enemy, came upon the Akwamus at once and drove 
them clean from the country, pursuing them along the stream Nsaki 
to Gyakiti on the bank of the Volta. In their flight a number of 
bush-hogs were roused and crossed the Volta, which encouraged 
the fugitive Akwamus to cross on the same fordable path of the 
river; hence bush-hogs became sacred animals to the Akwamus 
[i.e. wild hogs are not eaten by them]. 



Chapter VI. 81 

Having crossed, they sought an asylum in the country of the 
king of Botoku in Krepe. The king of Botoku assured the Akwa- 
mus that he could afford them protection, and that Owusu Akem 
and his army were nothing to him. He ordered all his Krepe 
subjects to get under arms and array themselves for their defence. 
Although they v^^ere numerous, yet the Akwamus could not con- 
fide in their being able to protect them. After a week only, the 
Akems arrived and gave them a battle. Numerous prisoners were 
taken by the Akems, among whom was the king of Botoku him- 
self; the Akwamus escaped to Pekipong. By the rising of the 
dust one day Owusu Akem perceived that the Akwamus were 
marching from Pekipong towards the south, which made him sup- 
pose that they were on the way to attack the Akras who had 
taken refuge at Little Popo ; he accordingly ordered a march be- 
hind them. The Akras were attacked by the Akwamus at their 
place of refuge, but under the command of the old Nl Tshie, they 
furiously resisted for a whole day. The fighting took place the 
next day again, which might have finished up the poor refugees ; 
but all on a sudden, their old friend and benefactor Owusu Akem 
arrived with his brave Akems. Being out-numbered and out-flanked, 
the Akwamus were utterly routed; king Akwanno Kuma was caught 
and beheaded by old NT Tshie. Their scattered remnant sought 
refuge in Hwatshi, some in Tshiriamim, and the rest gradually 
came back to Krepe. At that time Okansa, the king of Asabi, 
ruled over all Krepe. They fought with him and conquered the 
country. They drove the Nkonyas from their country and founded 
their town Akwamu on the site it occupies to this day. Owusu 
Akem advised Nl Tshie to lead the Akras back home, that they 
might obtain salt and all necessaries of life from the coast by them. 
Thus encouraged they returned home. 

The byname of Mansai in Krepe was "Mansai Peteprebi, Okum 
Akem" which means "The invincible Mansai who conquered Akem". 
That small Krepe force could never be able to conquer the power- 
ful Akem force under their brave king Owusu. The fact was this, 
the king knowing to have got permission for five months from 
Opoku to carry on war with Akwamu, whom he had driven from 
Nyanawase to Krepe and utterly routed, was obliged to hasten 
back to Akem, in order that the king of Asante might not get an 
opportunity to attack his country in his absence, as not keeping 
to the five months permission granted. Hence on his hastening 

6 



82 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

homeward with very numerous Krepe and Akwamu captives, Man- 
sai people attacked liis forces, yet he did not choose to return the 
fire, but marched on; hence they imagined to have driven the A- 
kems. They, however, got a troph}'^ consisting of a royal drum 
and three large ivory horns in their possession from the king of 
Akem, which they captured at that time, and which they give as 
a proof of the superiority of their force over that of the Akems. 

The old enemy had been cleared off; the Akems now proposed 
to storm the fort of Christiansborg. But the governor, hearing of 
it, sent a large present to pacify them. Yet they were not satis- 
fied by it, but persisted upon coming upon him. Unfortunately 
there was no ammunition in the castle; however, all his subjects 
took refuge inside. A fetish priest, as is reported, proclaimed that 
the Danes were God's children; if they were slain, the world would 
turn upside down. The Akras, not believing the oracle of the priest, 
wanted to march to Christiansborg. But they were after all cooled 
down by the declaration that the high fetish, to punish them for 
disobeying his orders, had quitted Akra and gone to reside at La- 
bade with Lakpa. Yet 40 men were caught among those who could 
not reach the fort in time from Labade. 

1733—1742. The reign of the three kings of Akem, Ba Kwante, 
Firempong Manso and Owusu Akem. Numerous prisoners having 
been obtained by the Akems and their allies, 500 of them were 
paid to Opoku. The Akems neither sold nor killed their prisoners, 
as the Akwamus used to do, but retained and naturalized them; 
hence after some years they forgot their country. 

They got the trade on the coast into their hands, and were in- 
trusted with the protection of the Forts. Firempong had charge 
of Christiansborg, Ba Kwante, of Crevecoeur and .James Fort. B'irem- 
pong therefore shaved his hair and put it with eight ounces of gold 
into the foundation of that part of the Fort which was then built. 
As protector he received a stipend of 32 ^ per month from the 
Danish Government. All the trade with the Danish merchants 
was placed in his hands. But he had never seen a white man; 
the reports he used to hear from traders, especially the Akwamus, 
were that the Europeans are a kind of sea-creatures. He there- 
fore expressed his desire of seeing a European, and Mr. Nicolas 
Kamp, the book-keeper, was commissioned to Da, the capital of 
the Kotokus, to be seen by the king. A grand meeting was held 
for his reception. In saluting the assembly, Mr. Kamp approached 



Chapter VI. 83 

the king, took off his hat, and when bowing to salute him, he 
thought he was an animal who would jump upon him. The king 
fell down flat from his stool, and cried loudly for his wives to 
assist him. The drummer Adam Malm, whose native name was 
Kwabena Njankum, and Noi Afadi, the government interpreter, 
did their utmost to convince the poor king that Mr. Kamp was a 
human being, and that his movements were the mode of Europeans 
in paying their respect to superiors. The king got up from the 
ground and sat on the stool, ordered his wives to sit between him 
and the European and his men. By this he could cool down his 
fears. Upon seeing the cue, i.e. a tail-like twist of hair hanging 
down the back of Mr. Kamp (as people were then in the habit of 
wearing as the Chinese do now-a-days), he said, ''Dear me, all 
animals have their tails at the extremity of the trunk, but Euro- 
peans have theirs at the back of their heads!" The interpreters 
explained to him that it was no tail, but hairs so twisted. All this 
while the king's wives were watching every movement of Mr. Kamp 
to know whether he was a man or an animal. Not being satisfied 
yet with all he had seen, the king requested Mr. Kamp to take off 
his clothes, which he declined to do, saying he might do so at home, 
when no lady was present. The meeting retired and Mr. Kamp 
went to his quarters, where a table was prepared for him. During 
the repast the king's wives stood by peeping at him ; some said, 
'"'He eats like a man, really he is a human being!" After all 
Mr. Kamp took off his clothes before old Firempong, who now 
could touch him, when he said, "Ah, you are really a human 
being, but only too white, like a devil!" Another meeting was 
held; after the king had satisfied himself by a touch, and every 
arrangement having been made, Mr. Kamp got a present of two 
slaves and returned to the coast. This mission revived the com- 
merce with Da and Akem ; and they traded very briskly in pure 
gold dust, not like that which had been mixed up by the Akwamus. 
When sufficient goods were in store, 1 or 2000 dollars worth of 
wares could be sold in a day. They were very fond of the real 
Danish guns, seven for 32 i\ those from Holland, ten, and the Eng- 
lish, twelve for .32 ^, and the traders came by 2000 at a time. 

Opoku Ware became envious of the success of Akem, who had 
now the whole trade in their hands, besides the numerous Akwamu 
captives they had naturalized. Fie began to think of measures 
whereby to crush them down ere they became more powerful than 

6* 



84 History of the Gold Coast and Asante, 

himself. Ba Kwante about 1702, while still young, had been taken 
as prisoner of war to Asante, but ransomed by payinj^ 1000 ounces 
of gold. Opoku, however, called him his vassal, although he had 
been redeemed. Under pretext, Opoku sent ambassadors to Akem 
to tell Ba how lenient he was in not attacking them when making 
war with Akwamu, he therefore wished them to declare themselves 
his tributaries. His friend Firempong having died in 1741, and his 
cousin Ampim having succeeded him on the stool of Da, there was 
no obstacle in his way to declare war against Akem. 

Ba was too fond of drink, especially the Danish liquor, which he 
used very freely with his chiefs, 20 ankers every month. Of all 
Akem kings, he alone was as much given to drink as the kings 
of Akwamu. Being under the influence of liquor, he told the am- 
bassadors of Opoku that their master should be careful, otherwise 
he would cut off his head and the heads of his chiefs and hang- 
them at his drums ! Upon this, war was declared. Owusu Akem 
proposed to Ba, that they had better remove to Krepe and allow 
their armies to carry on skirmishes alone with Asante till they 
weary them. But Ba objected to it. If Owusu alone had been the 
king of Akem at that time, he would have known how to deal 
with the Asantes. 

The Akems had not only the trade on the coast and the pro- 
tection of the Forts in their power, but also a sort of jurisdiction 
on the coast. The Akras were not very willing to submit to them, 
especially when violating their religious days. A scoffing song 
against king Ofori was: '^Ofori Shadsho, you have a hoelike rump, 
beware, when fetish-wheats are planted, no horn should be blown!" 
The Dutch government, however, acknowledged Lete Boi (Boi Tono) 
as the Akra king; what the,y marked on his state-cane was: "Akra- 
ese coning Liitte boy : A. D. 1734." This was the j^ear when the 
Akwamus were expelled. The jurisdiction of the Akems lasted but 
a short time, from 1733 to 1742; hence they could not establish 
their power on the coast. 

When preparing to meet the Asantes, the Akems asked the as- 
sistance of Akra, Akuapem, and Adangme as their friends and allies. 
But only chief Dako Panyin of Otu-street in Dutch Akra, with 
his own people and few Akras, and a small force from Akuapem 
went to their aid. The king of Agyumanko was asked by Ampim 
to assist them. He sent his nephew Ampoma with the women and 
children of Da to Otabi, king of Asafo Dankera in Fante, for pro- 



Chapter VI. 85 

tectioii. Opoku had also hired some Faiites and had some Hausa 
warriors to assist him. During- the later part of 1741 some skir- 
mishes were carried on at Ahantang-; there the king of Agyumanko, 
Firempong's nephew Dwawere, and Kwaku Moteng, captain of the 
Apagyafo (the fire-striking band), were slain. Anipim fled and took 
an asylum by Takwa Dako of Takwa Kyiase. But Dako betrayed 
the king, and he was attacked and killed. His nephew Kwahene 
Broni succeeded him. Another engagement took place at Amantara 
Tebeso, and Kwahene was captured, but was made free and died 
shortly after that. Gyaberenkum, his successor, reigned only one 
year and 40 days, and was succeeded by Karikari Apaw. Chief 
Dako also lost most of his people at the same place, which became 
the oath "Ahantang of Otu-street in Akra." 

But two bloody battles were fought in 1742, near the river Benna. 
The Akems were numerous and fought with great determination, 
kept the enemy at bay for a long time and the battle was inde- 
cisive. The loss was considerable on both sides, and the Akems 
might have gained the day; but it being the rainy season, the fire- 
arms on both sides could not be used, whilst the Hausa warriors 
resorted to their bows, and gained the day for the Asantes at the 
third engagement. Owusu Akem having received 25 wounds fell 
on the field of battle, which caused his chiefs and generals to shoot 
themselves on the spot. Karikari Apaw also fell, and his generals 
did the same. Ba committed suicide during the night, and his chiefs, 
generals and warriors followed his example. Thousands of the brave 
Akem warriors were lying slain in heaps around their dead kings. 
Thus the way was obtained bj' the Asantes to capture 4000 pri- 
soners, and Akem became a tributary state. The women and chil- 
dren of Da, sent to the care of king Otabi, were also betrayed to 
the Asantes. After the conquest they went over to Fante and 
shared the prisoners with Otabi and his subjects. Prince Ampoma 
being among the prisoners was sold, but fortunately one Perese of 
Otbsu Ansa in Asikuma redeemed him for ten oz. He brought him 
home to the royal family and was paid 60 oz. Tradition says that 
the survivors of the royal family buried the heads of their kings, 
with the whole treasury of the kingdom in a large grave in the 
bed of a turned off stream, which they turned back again, to cover 
the grave. The Asantes searched in vain for the heads of the 
fallen kings. Had the whole Akra, Akuapem and Adangme forces 
combined with Akem, the Asantes could have been conquered then 
and there. But their time was to come ! 



86 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Opoku Ware was putting the conquered country in order, when 
a very sad account reached him from Kumase to say that Abiri- 
moro, the king of Safwi and Wasa, had invaded Kumase and se- 
veral towns, and had destroyed the towns and killed all the royal 
family. They pounded the royal family in large wooden mortars! 
Upon receiving this sad intelligence, the king commissioned Osei 
Afweree of Dwaben to get the fine of 1000 peredwans each from 
the Abuakwas and Kotokus and to place new kings on the stools, 
appointing at the same time Nsuta Amankwa, Owusu Sekyere of 
Mampong and Komawu Basewa to assist Osei Afweree in that im- 
portant mission. With Bekwai Poku and Kokofu Brayie the king 
started from camp in forced marches to pursue the invaders. At Ko- 
rowadaso they were overtaken, attacked, and completely routed. He 
proceeded to the capital and destroyed it. King Oburam Ankama 
as well as Abirimoro were taken prisoners and beheaded. One thou- 
sand prisoners of Safwi were sacrificed in honour of those royal 
personages they had massacred. One of the princesses was Akyi- 
awa Kese of Dwaben. She was not killed, but carried away pris- 
oner to Safwi. After the elapse of some years, she was brought 
home by a trader, to whom large presents were given for that act, 
and whose family was for ever exempted from being killed in A- 
sante. Otim Nketiawa and Aberefi were the only female survivors 
of the whole family. By them the royal family was again increased. 
Opoku Ware returned to Kumase with large spoil and numerous 
prisoners. Nantwi was commissioned to inform Osei Afweree and 
others in Akem camp, how the invaders had been treated, and that 
the Kotokus must be forced to remove from Da and settle over the 
Pra. Pobi Asomanin was placed on the Abuakwa stool and left in 
Akem, after the fine of 1000 peredwans had been paid; although the 
amount was 1000, yet 3000 peredwans were paid. Obeng w^as made 
to succeed Karikari Apaw and also paid 3000 peredwans, after the 
32 gold-hilted swords and the offering sword of Apaw had been 
plundered by them. Obeng and his people were forced to cross 
the Pra and settled by one Opong, who sold a piece of land to the 
king for 30 peredwans, on which Dampong, the fifth Kotoku capi- 
tal, was built. Dampong means dependig on Opong, the owner 
of that place. Having settled the Kotokus, Osei Afweree and his 
co-commissioners and their forces were marching back to Kumase, 
when four sharp-shooters of Kotoku were ordered to lay an ambush 
by the river Kwadutwum, and Osei Afweree was shot and killed; 
hence the Dwaben dreadful oath — Kwadutwum. 



Chapter VI 87 

Opoku, knowing that Karikari Apaw was forbidden by his fetish 
the use of snails, ordered a gold snail to be made on his offering 
sword, while Kankam was appointed its bearer. On account of 
this conquest the kings of Asante are generally extolled: ^'Owusu 
Akyem antumi amnio wo kyem so"; ''Bakwante ne wo nni nkra'' 
= Owusu Akem could never strike on your shield; Bakwante did 
not take leave of 3'ou [or: B. and you have no communion]. 

Among the 4000 prisoners was a prince, the heir to the stool of 
Akwamu, who was not known to be such, till nine years later. 
Opoku Ware thereupon treated him very kindly, gave him many 
presents and sent him back to Akwamu with the name Opoku 
Akoa (Opoku's slave). As there was then no right heir to the 
stool, he then and there was made king, and therefore changed his 
name for Opoku Kuma. The king was annoyed on hearing that 
his vassal had changed the name given to him, so ambassadors 
were sent to ask him why he did so ? His reply was, ''If I were 
called Opoku Akoa, I should lose my influence on my subjects." 
A tine of 100 slaves was imposed upon him, and his people re- 
fusing to pay the fine, he administered an oath to the young men 
of his capital, after he had got them drunk, and in one night, he 
attacked some of his own subjects, caught 100 prisoners, and the 
fine was paid. In one of the inroads of king Pobi Asomanin of 
Akem against Akwamu, Opoku Kuma and Agyam were killed. 

After these conquests Abo, the king of Gyaman, was also de- 
manded to return back to his people at Odomara, but refused to 
comply. Opoku therefore marched to Bontuku, its capital, and made 
it tributarj' to Asante. Numerous refugees having fled to Kong, 
Opoku marched his army to the capital, where they arrived after 
three months' travelling. They never expected that there was such 
a large town in the world. For the whole army appeared in the 
town as a handful of men, so they were frightened. Yet they 
forced themselves to keep courage and to deal with the Queen 
mother, whose son had gone out to war. The old queen thanked 
her stars that Opoku was so fortunate to have come in the king's 
absence, otherwise his whole army would be swallowed up. She 
amicably returned 500 refugees to him and made some valuable 
presents thereto. Opoku also presented her with 100 of the cap- 
tives and named her "Aberewa Poku", a name she delighted to 
be called by. After this the king hastened his march from such a 
large capital to Gyaman, and Kofi Sono Ampem was made king 



88 History of' the Gold Coast and Asante. 

of the place, after which Opoku returned home. The new king- of 
Gyaman repaired the delapidated kingdom and kept peace with 
Asante till the time of Adinkra. 

Asen failing to pay tribute, he ravaged it with fire and sword. 
Tshuforo next fell a prey to his ambition, and Wasa and Fante 
acknowledged his superiority. 

As already remarked above, Opoku Ware was during the whole 
of his reign engaged in completing and consolidating the conquests 
of his predecessor in the North and North East countries. The 
Nta country was then governed by the king of Yebo, a nominal 
province to Mampong. Thence coarse woolen blankets for baskets, 
silk cloth, &c. were brought for sale to Asante. Owusu Sekyere 
of Mampong, who had the charge of that province, despatched mes- 
sengers there to levy men for him to offer them as sacrifice in honor 
of his late father. But the king of Yebo did not allow the mes- 
sengers to do it. Therefore Owusu Sekyere consulted the king, 
and forthwith war was declared against the Ntas. The warlike 0- 
poku embraced the opportunity, marched an army and conquered 
the whole country. Some refugees having escaped to Yane, capital 
of Dagbama, Okuru Karikari, the king of the place, was attacked, 
but unwilling to fight, easily submitted after a short struggle in 
which Koranten Pete I., commander of the Asante van, fell at Sabe. 
As the king of Yane had submitted, a fine of 3000 slaves was 
claimed from him, in payment of which Okuru wisely included 
1000 Yebo refugees. 

The king of Namonsi at Mimira was asked to submit ; refusing 
to do so, he was attacked and defeated. King Akarasi 1. of Dwaben 
got the charge of that province, while Yane was given in charge 
of Koranten Pete II. The king of Krupi was also asked to submit- 
refusing he was captured alive after a short struggle. Owusu Se- 
kyere got charge of this place. The camp being fixed here, Opoku 
Ware demanded from Osubri, the king of the Ntshummurus, who 
resided in Basa, whether he would quietly submit? Because Osu- 
bri very often disturbed the trade carrying on then at Krupi mar- 
ket by seizing and killing Asante and Hausa traders coming there. 
Osubri not submitting, Akarasi I. of Dwaben was commanded, being 
joined by a detachment of the king, to give him battle. Osubri 
was caught alive, and his arin^^ dispersed after three days' fight; 
numerous prisoners were taken, but most of the fugitives fled to 
Karakye, seeking protection from Odente, the far-famed fetish of 



Chapter VI. 89 

the place. The king despatched his son, prince Adu Kwanfeni, and 
Konadu Amim, and linguist Damang Safe of Dwaben to demand 
the delivery of those refugees from Odente, who told the messengers, 
that he would never have a quarrel with the king, but was under 
him; the refugees must be given back. This brought Odente into 
connection with Asante, but chiefly with Dwaben, to which pro- 
vince Karakye was attached. After the war four chiefs were brought 
to Krupi, took fetish-oath and paid 1000 men, who were given to 
Akarasi, and were shared by him and Damang Safo. Adubron, 
a quarter in Dwaben, was made up with these prisoners. The 
rest of the refugees, the king allowed Odente to claim for himself. 
Only two towns, Badshamso and Akaneem, the king ordered to 
provide provision every year. Osubri was sent to Kumase to be 
under arrest till the campaign was over; the figure of a raven was 
on the top of his state-umbrella. 

The camp was broken and the army crossed the Volta to Ye- 
dshi. Atalafiram was the king of the place, who, unable to fight, 
easily submitted. They were added to the king's basket-carriers 
and were fined for 100 men, and the horns of Atalafiram were given 
to Nsuta Amankwa. The Guans at Prai were attacked and sub- 
dued, and were given in charge of Pampaso Afireyie. King Akotre- 
fenim ofKomawu was ordered to give battle to Diako, king of the 
Guan-nation, but was driven back, so Diako encamped at Pae. O- 
diawuo of Kwawu was ordered to assist Akotrefenim to conquer 
them, but crossing the Volta, they fled and emigrated to Krepe 
country under king Dako of Asabi. (They are supposed to be people 
of Pekipong, Pareman, Tosen, Peki and Tongo.) As Akotrefenim 
had failed to conquer the Guan-tribes, no province was given to 
him, but their land. On that account he was fined 300 peredwans 
and forced to abdicate. Okyere Barafo succeeded him. — Agyei 
Badu and Akuamua Panyin of Dwaben were Okyere Barafo's chil- 
dren. The army now crossed the river Prow (Buro), and Dawia, 
the king of Atabuobu, was asked to submit; not willing to do so, 
the king's bodj^-guard of Abohyeii and Oyoko under Asaman Ankra, 
Kany erase Okyere, Mamponten Kagya and Ahenkuro Sei were 
ordered to give him battle. Dawia fell and his people were sub- 
dued and given to the charge of Ankra. Kwame Kyere, Dawia's 
nephew, was placed on the stool. The king crossed the River Prow, 
met his body-guard there and commanded them to march home- 
ward, having subdued and brought under his kingdom a large terri- 



90 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

tory, and obtained prisoners by thousands. But before breaking 
the camp, Nsuta Amankwa was ordered to attack Oduroman, His 
brother Oduro fell in the attack, hence the Nsuta oath "Oduroman". 
They were subdued and given in charge of Amankwa, but those 
who escaped fled to Krepe; they are the people of Owusuta and 
have ever since been subject to Nsuta. 

The people of Daboya and Bona negotiated for peace, paid 300 
persons and swore allegiance to the king. 

The army now resumed its march in triumph home, having cap- 
tured Osubri, Dawia and the king of Krupi. 

Not long after this conquest Opoku, who had extended the Asante 
kingdom more than any of his predecessors or any of his successors, 
died in 1749.*) 



CHAPTER VII. 

Origin of the inhabitants of Akuapem and its formation into an inde- 
pendent state by the Deputy Prince Salbri of Akem. — Of the eight 
successors after him to the reign of Obuobi Atiemo. — The reign of 
NT Ayai, known as Tete Ahene Akwa or Mumotshe and Okaidsha. — 
The reformation of the state of Akra by him ; expedition to Little 
Popo, and his death. — - Chief Okaidsha's civil wars ; his visit to the 
camp of Dade Adu and his death. — Chief Wetshe Kodsho's reign and 
expedition got up by him for the purpose of establishing peace in the 
country. — The reign of Teko Tshuru, and the civil war, commonly 
called Kotoku and Twerebo-war. 1733 — 1777. 

Akuapem i.e. Nkoa apem, which means, thousand subjects, is the 
name given to this small country by Ansa Sasraku, the king of 
Akwamu. It lies between 5^ 42' and 6^ 5' North Lat. and between 
00 3' and 0^20' West Long., and is bounded South by Ga (Akra), 
East by Adangme and Krobo, North and West by Akem. The 
following 17 principal towns form the Akuapem state, viz., Bere- 
kuso, Atweasing, Aburi, Afwerase, Asantema (Obosomase), Tutu, 
Mampong, Abotakyi, Amanokurom, Mamfe, Akropong, Abiriw, O- 
dawu, Awukugua, Adukrom, Apirede and Late. If the latter town 
is reckoned as two, viz., Ahenease and Kubease, and Abonse is se- 
parated from Awukugua, we get 19 towns in the whole. 

The inhabitants belong to three, or strictly speaking, two different 
tribes. Akropong, the capital, and Amanokurom are peopled by 

*) A table of the Kings and the Eoyal Family of Asante will be given 
in the Appendix. 



Chapter VII. 91 

emigrants from Akem, and the rest of the country by aboriginal 
tribes. For after the expulsion of the Akwamus from Nyanawase, 
there seem to have been some refugees of the place, who were 
of the genuine Akan tribe, with a mixture of different people, such 
as Berekus and Guans, who had been subjects to the Akwamus. 
These joined the aboriginal tribes and are known as Afwerase, 
Aburi, Atweasing and Berekuso. We venture to say thus from 
two reasons: 1. not all the Aburis speak pure Tshi, for the last 
20 or 30 years ago their Tshi was just as that spoken by the Guans, 
although it is greatly improved by this time. 2. Nkunkreng, the 
place the Aburis are said to have emigrated from, sounds not like 
Tshi but rather like Guan or Kyerepong; we, however, consider 
those people as Akwamu refugees. 

It has been told in the first Chapter that the Guans and Kyere- 
pongs were numerous aboriginal tribes on the coast, and seemed 
to have been driven thence to the mountains by the Akras, who 
immigrated after them from the East. That they were then sub- 
jects to the king of Akra and were called not Akuapems but Guans 
(or Shuoyi) by the Akras. When the kingdom of Akra was de- 
stroyed by the Akwamus in about 1680, the remnant of Akra as 
well as the Guans and Adangmes came under the Akwamu yoke. 
At that time their large number was greatly diminished by in- 
cessant plunder, inroads, and emigration back to the East. It 
was said that the five Kyerepong towns, viz., Abiriw, Odawu, A- 
wukugua, Adukrom and Apirede were .50, and the two Late towns 
30 under their king Ani Kotia, but all was reduced to the present 
number through the different troubles from the Akwamus. 

The cause of the emigration of the Lates to Nkonya, Karakye, 
&c. was the fetish Koiakom. It was then the highest fetish of theirs, 
for which a bullock was offered every year. The offering prepared 
was carried to the mouth of the cave, in which Konkom was said 
to lodge. The priests and the worshippers had to retire after the 
offering had been placed there, when Konkom had to come out 
from the cave and to select such parts of the meat as he chose, 
and the rest he left. Some naughty fellows took upon themselves 
to see who the fetish was that used to select the best part of the 
offering. Hiding themselves at a certain place, they saw that a 
certain figure in the form of a man, but with a single eye, a single 
arm and a single leg, came out to the offering. They rushed upon 
and dragged him out from the hole. This offended Konkom that 



92 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

he entirely left the Lates for Karakye. To punish them for that 
desecration, Konkoni before quitting Late promised them a wonder- 
ful harvest, and therefore advised them to burn all the corn and 
rice they had stored in barns. Which they accordingly did, and 
the consequence was a famine so fearful that they lived on roots 
and such things for a while, and then quitted the place. The people 
ot Ntshummuru, then at Karakye, asked the emigrants: "From 
what place are you coming?" They replied, "From Tshi-Date", 
which was corrupted for Odente and applied ever since to the fe- 
tish Konkom. The remnant of the 30 towns came together and 
formed the present Ahenease and Kubease. Hence Ansa Sasraku 
gave the name Akuapem, i.e. 1000 men capable of bearing arms, to 
the country. The Akuapem history says, that it was the Aburis, 
the advance-guard of Ansa Sasraku, who first revolted from the 
yoke. Abuwa, the queen of the place, accused her subjects to Ansa, 
who, knowing how brave they were, did not give them battle at 
once, but ordered their loaded arms to be tilled with water whilst 
they were working at their plantations on one Wednesday, and 
then attacked them. Several principal men were then captured and 
killed; hence the oath, "Aburi Wukuda (Wednesday)"; from that 
day they forbid working on Wednesdays. For such treachery the 
Aburis appealed to the king through his nephew, prince Opong 
Tenteng. Not obtaining redress, they went to war. The prince, 
who took their part, was slain. They took the body and tied to 
the place which the Basel Mission station now occupies, and founded 
the present Aburi. The Atweasings were at that time at Kubesing 
near Akem-Peak, when the Akwamus were driven from thence. 
They in company with the Berekusos removed tirst to Anamrako. 
The former removed to Atweasing and founded that town, which 
now has become united with Aburi, and the latter to Berekuso. 

In those days the Akuapems were not governed by any princi- 
pal man, but every town had its ruler. The remaining five towns 
ofKyerepong, viz., Abiriw, Qdawu, Awukugua, Adukrom and Api- 
rede, had their ruler at Awukugua, where a large market had been 
established by one chief Awuku, and on account of that market 
the town got the name of "Awukugua". Through marriage the 
ruling power was removed to Adukurom, a village founded by one 
Boamo, but which got the present name by one Akem-man Adu- 
manuro, who was a native ofAnum, then at Nyanawase, the capi- 
tal of the kings of Akwamu, and one of Ansa Sasraku's execu- 



Chapter VIT. 9'S 

tioners, resident in Boaino's village, and b}' generosity his name 
was given to the place i.e. Aduknrom = Ada's town. 

The Lates also had their chief at Kubease, who had children from 
a wife of Ahenease and also from one of his capital. The children 
of the former wife cared properly for their father in his old age, 
so that on his dying-bed he bequeathed to them the stool, and thus 
the chieftainship was removed from Kubease to Ahenease. The 
other towns had their chief at Abotakyi, a very large town in A- 
kuapem, which was afterwards destroyed chiefly by the Akwamus 
and Asantcs. 

Chief Asiedu Kesc was the founder of the Late state and was 
succeeded by Gyadu Nkansa, in whose old age and at his hour of 
death prince SAfori arrived in Akuapem, just at the beginning of 
his successor Ohcne Berentiri's reign. Sediesa (Asare Diesa) wa& 
chief over the Kyerepongs and Ofee Agyemang over the Aburis. 

As those different states were not governed by a king, the coun- 
try was very often in a state of civil commotions, chiefly between 
the Guau and Kyerepong tribes. One Okyame Aworobeng of Mamfe 
was the first man who bought a good number of Danish guns, by 
which he committed great havock amongst the Kyerepongs and 
Lates. He took many of them prisoners and kept them in his. 
village Amamprobi. At the accession of Safori, the chiefs of the 
different states conspired against Aworobeng, and at their request 
he was deposed and his younger brother Mensa Atshekpato took 
his place. To revenge this degradation, Aworobeng armed a dozen 
of his confidential slaves, attacked the Kyerepongs and Lates, and 
killed hundreds of them. On his way home he put an end to his 
life between Akropong and Mamfe, and was buried on the spot. 
His village with land adjoining was granted to Safori by all the 
chiefs of Akuapem. 

The cause of Akuapem becoming an independent state is by pop- 
ular tradition reported thus : Ansa Sasraku had two haughty neph- 
ews, Oteng Abransamadu and Oteng Agyare. These young princes 
used the middle of the breasts of 3'oung women of Akuapem as 
targets in exercising their newly bought arms. The chiefs reported 
this wicked conduct of the princes to Ansa Sasraku, and the result 
was, that they were sent down to the Dutch Governor at Akra lo 
be trained on the coast. On their arrival, they refused to eat any- 
thing, so the Governor was obliged to coax them for three days 
before they consented to taste food. Their wives were ordered. 



94 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

there and then to prepare some dishes for them, and were told by 
them privately, that the}'' should bring two razors along- with the 
dishes to shave off their beards. The wives accordingly brought 
the dishes with the razors, and after having washed themselves, 
they cut their throats with them. The Governor was grieved to 
hear of the suicide committed by the princes, and despatched mes- 
sengers to report it to the King. His Majesty's reply to the Go- 
vernor was, "I have heard nothing" ! The Governor thought the 
first messengers were incapable of carrying out the commission, 
so he despatched other messengers to tell the king that he was 
ready to pay any amount to satisfy him. The king's last reply 
was, ^'I will accept as satisfaction ahum ne aham, nnonno ne nha- 
ha", that is, everything in the world : stones, trees, dust, gold, 
silver, copper, brass, cloth, fowls, sheep, quadrupeds, birds, &c. This 
message greatly annoyed the Governor. He called a meeting of 
the king and chiefs of Akra and consulted them what was to be 
done. They told the Governor that they were tired of the Akwa- 
mu tyranny, they would unite and tight for their independence. 
The Akuapems were informed of it by the Akras. Chief Ofee 
Kwasi Agyemang, then at Gyakiti, who appears then to have been 
the nominal king of Akuapem, was also informed by the Akuapems. 
He brought a small force in aid of them, and battle was given to 
Ansa Sasraku by the combined forces of Akra, Akuapem and the 
Gyakitis; but they were unable to stand the brave Akwamus. So 
the assistance of Ofori Panyin of Akem was asked, and prince Sa- 
fori, brother of the king (and governor of Akem Akropong), was 
ordered to march a large army to assist. The Akwamus were then 
conquered and driven across the Volta. In this war Ba, the king 
of Krobo, was also asked to join, when seven maiden hostages were 
sent to him by Ofori. 

Tradition and history differ widely on this war. Romer as well 
as the Akras say, the war was fought b,y the three kings of Akem, 
Firempong Manso, Bakwante and Owusu Akem, and that is true 
account. For the war being fought in the j^ear 1733, and Firem- 
pong, the principal king among the three, died eight years after 
that. His nephew Karikari Apaw then succeeded him in 1741, at 
which time war broke out between Asante and the Akems of Da 
and Abuakwa, known as tiie battle of Benna in 1742. 

When both Bakwante, Karikari Apaw and Owusu Akem were 
slain and the Akems were conquered, the Kotokus, who were the 



Chapter VII. 95 

principal warriors in the campaign, were entirely translocated from 
Da across the Pra to Dampong. The conquered land of Akwamu 
was left entirely to the Abuakwas, then governed by Ofori Panyin, 
hence he was known as the king who fought and deputed his blood 
relative Safori to the government of Akuapem. Otherwise not the 
Abuakwas, but the Kotokus would have had the prerogative in the 
rule of the conquered places. For it appears that not only the A- 
kuapems, but the Akras also were for some time under the juris- 
diction of Ofori Panyin, as already narrated. But that jurisdiction 
was very short, as the Dutch Government and whole Akra acknow- 
ledged Lete Boi, alias Boi-Tono, as the king of Akra in 1734; hence 
Dutch Akra is called Boimang. To prove that the jurisdiction over 
the Akras lasted but a short time, and then became a mere alliance 
is, that the kings of Abuakwa were compensated by obtaining the 
pay-notes of both king and chief of Dutch and British Akra, which 
satisfied them, while the Akuapems, not obtaining any thing of 
that sort, obliged them by serving the Deputy Prince Safori as their 
king as we see by the following account. 

After the conquest of Akwamu, prince Safori retired from the 
camp to Amamprobi, and summoned all the Akuapems to come 
there. He requested them to untie the cartridge-belt from his loins, 
which means, to pay him so as to retire home. At that time they 
were so poor, having no gold-dust, money, or even cloth to wear, 
that they used dresses of Obofu, the bark of a certain tree, beaten 
to answer the purpose of clothing. Hence they asked Safori to re- 
main as their king, which he consented to do, and informed Ofori 
Panyin of it. 

To cement that agreement, the new king requested them to take 
an oath of the fetish Kyenku at Obosomase. They all met at A- 
botakyi, and the fetish oath was administered to them to the effect, 
that they would never throw off their allegiance to him or any of 
his successors for all times to come. This being done, the whole 
mass of people was organized into a regular Tshi order, viz., the 
live Kyerepong towns formed the right wing division. Late and 
Mamfe, Tutu, Mampong and Asantema (Obosomase) the left wing, 
and the Akems of Akropong and Amanokurom known as Komang 
i.e. defenders, and chief Ofee Kwasi Agyemang of Gyakiti with 
the Akwamus of Afwerease, Aburi, Atweasing and Berekuso, who 
are Tshis, formed the centre force. In reward of the services ren- 
dered by Ofee Kwasi to the Akuapems, previous to the arrival of 



9& History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Safori, he was nominated as the Manklalo, or chief in general over 
the centre force, being- next in rank to the king. Through one 
Bagyiri of Abiriw, who gave land to the king, he removed from 
Amamprobi to Nsoremu, thence to Mpeniase, and founded Akropong, 
the capital of Akuapem, so named in memory of Akropong in A- 
kem, the first town of Safori. 

The successors of Safori were, Okyerema Manukure, Ofee Boa, 
Ofee Ntoakyerewo, Ofee Amanapa, (the three last may have been 
more or less connected with the family of chief Ofee Kwasi Agye- 
mang, being named after him,) Maniamfem, Fianko Betuafo, Sakyiama 
Nteng, and Kwapong Kyerefo. Of these eight kings very meagre 
traditions have reached us, because the periods the}' reigned were 
very short. From 1734 — 1777 or thereabout, nine kings had reigned 
at an average of not more than four or five years, if we admit the 
Akuapem traditions as correct. Fianko Betuafo is said to have 
bought cloth and given to his chiefs, to enable them to appear in 
public, and also to have bought chairs for them to the same purpose. 

Sakyiama Ntong, we suppose, was one who joined the expedition 
against the Angulas in 1750, when their assistance was craved by 
the Adas, in which war the two kings Twum Ampoforo of Akem 
and Sakyiama seem to have been captured by the Angulas. Staying- 
there in captivity for some years, the former was redeemed and 
reinstated, but was afterguards deposed and killed by his subjects. 
Whether Sakyiama was likewise redeemed is uncertain.*) 



After the return of the Akras from Little Popo, Ni Tshie (Note), 
the chief of Teshi, who was the principal leader of the refugees^ 
staid in Dutch town to assist his cousins, Ama Wusu Ahyia, the 
chief of Gbese, and Asa, the king of Christiansborg, in the admin- 
istration of government. It was chiefly through his energetic ef- 
forts that a collection was made towards redeeming the two princes^ 
Tete Ahene Akwa and Okaidsha, the securities for the amount 
of ammunition bought from the Dutch government in the Akwa- 
mu war. 

Kuru, brother of Nl Tshie, is said to have paid the share of the 
collection for Teshi and Gbese. It was through his large trade with 
Fjuropeans that the surname Abrotsiri-Akara i.e. '^Minor Europe" 

*) Both Twum Ampoforo and Sakyiama Nteng were ransomed ; but 
the latter died in his war against Sokgdei in Krepe, hence the Akua- 
pem oath "Sokgdei.'^ 



Chapter VII. 97 

was given to Teshi. The amount having- been paid to the Dutch 
government, the two princes returned home. 

Tete Ahene Akwa succeeded his father Ayikuma Tieko, and 0- 
kaidsha, his father A ma Wusu Ahyia. The former was the king of 
whole Akra, the latter the chief of Gbese. 

These princes might, by their connection with the Dutch govern- 
ment, have become the reformers of Akra, because several of their 
sons were educated. But unfortunately, they had to encounter 
gross disorders in the country in consequence of repeated inroads 
of the Akwamus, and the intrigues of different usurpers. 

Besides this, gross su|>erstition prevailed and destroyed every 
good thing that could be introduced by the princes. The people 
detested education. Even Mulatto children were forced to adopt, 
the ways and habits of the natives. Those who could not stand 
it were obliged to reside permanently in Christiansborg, where 
education was given, or they enlisted as soldiers to the Danish gov- 
ernment. The evil effects of that deplorable state of things are 
felt to the present day! Yet those that had European blood in 
them, although in the native habits with no education, eventually 
became the protectors and deliverers of their country from the 
hands of their enemies — men as Tete Tshuru, Ayikai Tshuru, A- 
kotia Owoshika, Kodsho Saul, and others. 

King Tete Ahene Akwa, commonly known as Momotshe, soon 
after his accession commenced reforming and improving the state 
as well as establishing order among the chiefs. Then the report 
came that a war had broken out in Little Popo, where several of 
his relatives and people had settled. Ambassadors were sent to 
the king, earnestly asking his assistance. The king readily agreed 
to assist them; but the chiefs and people dissented, sajdng, Popo 
had never been a lucky place for them. If an expedition started 
to the place, not all would be willing to return home, as several 
of their relatives would entice them to stay there. The Dutch gov- 
ernor of Akra also was against the king's marching an army to 
Popo, and therefore advised him to stay; yet go he must, as he 
had already given his word of honour to the ambassadors. Pre- 
parations were made in spite of his people's objections. Hence his 
own relatives from Abora and a few headmen from James Town 
down to Ada started with the king. The majority promised to 
follow afterwards. 

This expedition greatly impaired the magnificence and glory ol 

7 



98 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

our kings, as all the roval insignia were carried oft' and never 
brought back again. Even his son Teko Ding, nephew of the rich 
Boiini, declined joining his father from fear of losing the rich 
estate in case the uncle should die in his absence. As the king 
expected a reinforcement by the majority of his warriors, the ex- 
pedition marched very slowly indeed. Some Angula chiefs, how- 
ever, joined the king, but the Akras never did. Spending several 
weeks in every town along the coast, the king at last reached 
Little Popo. Where after waiting a good length of time for his 
people, the king died from grief, without taking the field against 
the enemy. His remains were brought in a ship to Akra and in- 
terred in the Dutch Fort. But his people declined returning home 
from fear of being killed by chief Okaidsha on account of the hideous 
nmrder they committed on the king's nephew Ayikai Guahyia. They 
therefore dispersed in the country, which greatly diminished the 
number of the Abora force. Prince Teko Tshuru, after staying a 
considerable time in Popo and Krepe, returned in his old age and 
was made king. His half brother Teko Ding, who had got pos- 
session of the rich estate of his uncle Boimi, had endeavored in 
vain to become king, which disappointment was a punishment for 
his refusal to join his late father to Little Popo. 

Chief Okaidsha ruled during the king's absence. Being a very 
passionate prince, he dealt violently with those chiefs who had 
usurped power and refused to submit. He kept up constant war 
in the country, even with his own people of Gbese. He made 
alliance with all the towns on the coast against Asere and Otu- 
Street people and fought with them. Chief Sodsha Duamoro was 
one of his powerful allies, and Dako (Akpo) Fauy'in was the chief 
of Otu-Street. In memory of this civil war, Sodsha made a horn 
which blew ''Woko mJi Okaidsha ma Djiko do wo na," i.e. you 
fought for Okaidsha and were blamed by Dako. Chief Wetshe 
Kodsho of James Town with several others did not escape free 
and so he kept all of them to their places. 

During his days king Kusa Adu*) of Gomoa Asen, who gained 



*) It was not Kusa Adu, who was of the Asona family, as Kwaw 
Ahura Ako, the first king of Gomoa Asen was, and to whom on that 
account the stool was given, but it was Dade Adu, the third king in 
the line of Kusa Adu. The government of Gomoa Asen became here- 
ditary in Kusa Adu's family, as large property was left by him to his 
successors, hence they became more powerful than Kwaw Ahura Aku's 



Chapter VII. 99 

the stool by merit, acquired so mucli fame and power that he was 
called Dade Ada i.e. Adu the iron or powerful. He marched against 
Yaw Menta, whom Oduro Tibo had forwarded to the government 
of Agona. It appears that after the death of Nyako Ako, the A- 
gonas had not entirely given up man-stealing and plundering of 
both Fantes and Akras. Having defeated and chastised Yaw Menta 
and his people, Dade Adu encamped at Dshoma near River Densu 
(Humo). He invited Okaidsha to visit him in the camp. A grand 
preparation was made by all the chiefs of Akra from Christiansborg 
to Teslii, who came to his camp, where a grand reception and rich 
presents awaited them. He gave Okaidsha two big drums, made 
an alliance with the Akras and promised to assist them in any 
thing they asked him for. After this he proposed to attack the 
Akuapenis, who were troublesome to the Akras, as the Agonas 
were to the Fantes; but Okaidsha interceded saying, they acknow- 
ledged his power, and also constantly assisted in roofing the public 
court at Akra. Thus the matter dropped, and the king marched 
back to Gomoa. 

After this alliance between Gomoa and Akra, two twin brothers, 
Akwete Oteni and Akuete Okuru, were left as hostages in Gomoa 
Asen by their own people. When redeemed afterwards, they intro- 
duced the custom of making offerings (abamdshti and hadshiadshamo) 
to souls and twin children. 

It was a custom among the Akras, never to coffin a deceased 
king who had been a priest to their national fetish. Chief Okai- 
dsha had died and the educated princes among his sons proposed 
to coffin their venerable father; but the other members of the royal 
family objected to this. His remains were nevertheless coffined. This 
led to a contest between the people and the educated princes who 
v^^ere (as government officials) backed by the soldiers in the Dutch 
Fort. His remains were honorably interred in the fort. This originated 
tiie oath of Gbese: "Okaidsha adeka" i.e. Okaidsha's coffin, because 
several lives were lost when the people were fighting to gain the 
remains of the chief. In consequence of this riot the feelings of 



successors, viz., Kwaw Aliura Ako, Kusa Adti(?), Okuntu, Okwasi, KoH 
Wusu, Kwabena Cure (4. April 1800), Kofi Osua, Kwaku Apeteto, Kwaw 
Bentum, and the present Kwadwo AkrampcX. The other line runs thus: 
Kusa Adu, Endu I., Kwadnmanu, Dade Adu, Kwaku Ata, Endu II., 
Kwadwo Ako, Ogwang Ako, Kwabena Otebi, Tanng (deposed), and the 
present Kwadwo Kum. 

7* 



100 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

the princes were so embittei-ed, that they preferred to reside per- 
manently at Elmina. On the other hand the people of Dutch Town 
became more averse to education. 

Wetshe Kodsho of James Town became the influential chief in 
the country after the death of Okaidsha, and Dako I'anyin had 
been waylaid and killed in his travelling-basket by some unknown 
part}^ when returning back from Akem. Some say, he went with 
100 men to assist the Akems against Asante in the battle of Benna, 
when the Akras were asked by the Akems to assist them. In that 
battle he lost nearly all his men, hence the oath "Ahantang", be- 
cause skirmishes between Asante and Akem began at that place, 
from which the oath got its name, or the loss of 100 men "Oha 
ntam*'. Others say, chief Dako went on purpose to Akem to get 
the assistance from the kings to fight with the Akras on account 
of the recent civil wars between himself and Okaidsha. Although 
Teko Tshuru was then the king of Akra, being an old man and 
not moneyed, his influence was less. Had the stool been given to 
Teko Ding, who had the rich estate of Bgimi, the government would 
have been more glorious as far as money concerns. 

In those days rivalrj' among the Dutch and Danish, as well as 
the Dutch and English merchants, manstealing and scarcity of pro- 
visions were in the highest stage in the country. The kidnappings 
by the Agonas had been checked by Dade Adu, but Akra women 
were not safe at Mlafi and other Volta towns, when travelling there 
to buy corn. As pillaging and plundering during that period was 
too general, the farmers of Akra could not make their farms more 
inland; so scarcity prevailed nearly every year, that people were 
forced to travel to Krobo, Ningo and such places for food, where 
they were never safe. 

As chief Wetshe Kodsho, the most influential man, who should 
have thought of checking this evil, was indifferent, the public held 
him in suspicion as an accomplice in that state of things, in revenge 
of the recent troubles he got from Okaidsha. At last an expedition 
of whole of Akra was got up by him to chastise the plunderers. 
The Angulas heard of the expedition, were frightened, retreated to 
their towns and asked for peace. The messengers were answered, 
it was not intended against them, but the Volta Towns' people, who 
had (led yonder; they ougiit to be warned to desist from their 
practices, that trade might flourish in the country. The Adas were 
ordered to join the expedition, and the Mlafis were attacked and 



Chapter VII. 101 

driven across the Volta. The Krobos were also warned, and the 
expedition marched back ; but chief Kodsho passed through Akua- 
pem for the same purpose of establishing peace in the whole country. 
This restored peace in the interior of the country, though on the 
coast the rivalries of the European merchants continued. 

In 1777 a civil war broke out in the country, which was called 
the Kotoku and Tvverebo war. Kotoku means, a bag, a name given 
by the natives to Mr. Niels A. Aarestrup, governor of the Danish 
settlements, and Twerebo means flint, a name given to the Dutch 
governor of Akra. The former, calculating the large number of 
the Danish subjects, accepted that name as suitable, because he 
could be able by means of his numerous subjects to "bag" his ene- 
mies. The Dutch governor accepted the name "flint", on account 
of his subjects being brave. 

The real cause of the war was not known to the natives, but 
they were only called upon by their masters respectively and were 
armed to fight against each other. King Obuobi Atiemo of Akua- 
pem as well as the Krobos were ordered to come down to Chri- 
stiansborg. King Naku Odang of Christiansborg and chief Ako 
Dsharam of Labade, the chiefs of Ningo and Ada, allies of the Da- 
nish government, were summoned to come with their forces; arms 
and ammunition were distributed to them. Obuobi Atiemo with 
his forces of Akuapem alone got 500 guns, three puncheons of rum, 
three bullocks and 1000 heads of cowries, powder and lead not 
known. King Teko Tshuru, chief Oto Brafo of Akra, chief Ngma- 
shitshe Okang Mensa of Teshi, the chiefs of Ningowa, Tema and 
Poni, king Obiri Korane of Akem, allies of the Dutch government, 
were also called to Akra and got arms and ammunition. 

A night meeting of all the kings and chiefs of both parties was 
held at Tunyean (Victoriaborg), in which they said, "We see no 
reason why we should kill ourselves on account of differences be- 
tween two foreigners! You Danish allies are quite aware that 
3'ou can never stand us, we therefore advise that every one of us 
must fire without bullets. And that 3'ou flee before us to the town 
of Christiansborg so as to have the matter dropped." They all 
agreed to this proposition, and one Thursday was fixed, on which 
the engagement was to take place. Visits were paid to both towns 
simultaneously till the day fixed came on, when each army, beating 
its drums, arrayed itself at Tunyean and engaged each other 



102 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

The Danish allies accordingly fled into Christiansborg; while the 
Aseres, the left wing of Akra, passed to the eastern side of the 
town. They were met by a party of Labades there, were fired 
at, and a captain commanding the Aseres' force fell. This captain 
is supposed to have been the headman of Abora quarter with the 
name Abeo-Twerekoanna, of whom it had been foretold by Saku- 
mo, that his fall would insure success to Akra. His body was con- 
veyed to the town and put down as a bait on the road to Akra, to 
allure them to come out for it. The cannon in the fort were posted 
in its defence. They attempted thrice to capture the body, but 
were repulsed with loss; fortunately they succeeded at last and got 
possession of it. 

This greatly annoyed the Akras ; however they proposed again 
a meeting of all the chiefs and elders to be held at Labade, to 
settle that misunderstanding. Labade had been evacuated during 
those days. Oto Brafo, Obiri Korane and some of the principal 
chiefs with a few of their body-guards were seen passing one mor- 
ning to hold the meeting at Labade, when the Labades took the 
party to be hostile and advised the rest to open fire on them. 
Prince Osuapem, the son of king Obiri Korane, and several others 
were wounded, but the fire was not returned till they reached 
Labade, where the chiefs of Teshi had been waiting for them. 
Being thus treated by the Danish allies, the Akra chiefs went in 
conjunction with their friends to Teshi. The fires being heard by 
the farmers in their plantations, they returned to the town and 
reported it, that a very large army was seen in the afternoon march- 
ing to Teshi to escort back the chiefs who had been driven there. 
The Danish forces opened fire again on the army, but it was not 
returned till the chiefs were conducted home; and having been 
brought home, they determined to brush out that disgrace and to 
punish the Danish allies for their treacherj^ On account of this 
civil war the prickly pears used as a fortification around Christians- 
borg were doubled, and gates were placed on the ways leading to 
the town and were shut ever}'' evening at six P. M. 

Oto Brafo at the head of the Dutch allies encamped at Otonsrang 
(near the Supreme Court-house Victoriaborg) and gave battle to 
the Danish allies. Under the heavy fires of the cannon and rockets 
from the garrison of Christiansborg Castle as well as those of the 
allies, the latter were driven clean into the town .and took asylum 
in the fort, and the town was taken by the Dutch allies. In me- 



Chapter VI I. 103 

niorial of this victory, Oto Rrat'o is said to have washeu liiniself 
in the market-place of Christiaiisborg. Tete Diao, Mensa, Odai 
Anteo and Tete Akrong-, all of Gbese, were the bravest men among 
them. A detachment of the Labades, who could not get admittance 
into the fort from reaching the place late, are said to have con- 
cealed themselves under a rock on the seashore. It would have 
met a complete annihilation, had it not very fortunately met a force 
from Teshi, which protected it. According to Akuapem tradition 
the Dutch allies were beaten and driven into the town, and they 
would have set it on fire, had not night overtaken them. They 
also say that a cannon ball was shot from the garrison of Chri- 
stiansborg into a cannon in the Dutch Fort, and the Dutch Govern- 
ment asked for peace. 

The loss on the Akuapem side alone was 35 men killed, and 200 
persons wounded; that of the other warriors is not known. How- 
ever chief Ako Dsharam of Labade fell in the action, and his re- 
mains were interred in the castle of Christiansborg with due hon- 
ours. Another principal man of Christiansborg among the slain 
was Yeboa, elder brother of Tete Ashong. The whole expense of 
the Governor on behalf of the Akuapems was 500 arms, six pun- 
cheons of rum and six bullocks, 1000 heads of cowries as "sub- 
sistence" and 1,600 heads as compensation for the o5 men slain, 
besides monthly stipends to king Obuobi Atiemo and all his chiefs 
and interpreters. What the Governor spent on the kings and chiefs 
of Christiansborg, Labade, Ningo, Ada and Krobo is not known. 
The loss of life of the Dutch allies, and the expenses of the Dutch 
Governor are likewise unknown. We ask, what were the conse- 
quences of this waste of money and loss of life for both the Dutch 
and Danish Governments? Bitter feuds, ill-feeling, commotions, 
pillage, and what not, raged among those tribes, as we shall find 
in the subsequent chapters. When such people rule a country, 
what can be expected, but woe and destruction, not only of life, 
but of good morals, unity and peace! Governor Niels A. Aarestrup 
left the country for Europe on the 24*'^ June 1777. 



We insert the following tradition from cousin Philip Reindorf 
about chief Okaidsha. 

He was born of Teko Adu Emiri (Edu Emil), the son of A ma 
Wusu Ahyia of Asamang-kese in Beremang Province, now called 
Eastern Akem, and Kokoi Mota Bara, a female descendant of the 



104 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

stool, relative ofOfori Aiikama, the successor of Boa Ankania, king 
of Akrokyere in Adanse. When the Dutch West African Company 
took the Gold Coast-territory from the Portuguese, it seems that 
the contest between the Akems and the part of the Akwamus who 
unfortunately killed Boa Ankania (under the command of the king's 
son Asare, afterwards nicknamed ^'Okum-ose", the leader of the 
insurgents) was still seriously raging. Consequently, as the Dutch 
Company desired that the war should come to a permanent end, they 
offered to assist the Akems then residing in Akra to exstirpate the 
insurgents, who were then hovering over all the bush. And as 
the Akem Chiefs had to give surety to the Director General of the 
Company for the good conduct and faithful performance of the sti- 
pulations and agreements that were to be entered into between 
them and the company, and for due payment of the amount for 
the arms and ammunition they were to be furnished with to carry 
on the war, Okaidsha and others were given to the director Mr. Ni- 
colas as security and hostages. This took place when he was a 
child; he was sent to Holland by Mr. Nicolas. 

During his absence a great change took place in the political life 
of the country. The Akems in pursuing the Akwamus left Akra 
with the exception of a few old men and chiefs. The names of 
them as far as they have come down to us are these : Ofori, Adu- 
Nkurang, Owusu Ahyia, Abonua, Alien kwa Sono, Ayikai Osiahene, 
Obuamang, Tete Amarakese, Damte, Firempong, Otu Ahyiakwa, 
Dako Ampim. It seems that at this time Christiansborg and James 
Town had not yet been built. 

On the departure of the Akem army from Akra and its suburbs 
in pursuit of the Akwamus, the residuary element of the Ga lineal 
body assumed the power of exercising the functions of the monarchy 
subjected to the dictations of the Guans, who form the fetish order; 
the remaining Akem element, in order to have the help of the fetishes 
invoked in behalf of their men who were engaged in the fight 
with the Akwamus, acquisced thereto. 

Now you will find that in the time we are are speaking of, there 
were living in the town of Akra people of three different races: 
first, the Aborigines Guan; second, the immigrants Ga; and third, 
the Komang, Otshi and Akan. The body of the latter race kept 
very reticent concerning the matters relative to the town, leaving 
them to the others and relying upon their efforts to induce the 
fetishes to support them to conquer the enemy. 



Chapter VII. 105 

At this time the people witii one consent elected a prince, by 
father an Otshi, and by mother of Ga descent, named Ayikuma 
Tieko, to be king of Akra. This personage claimed Okaidsha as 
a nephew by virtue of his father being a relative of Okaidsha's 
mother. More also he was Ama Wusu Ahyia's son or nephew 
by a brother. 

The Dutch Company, having failed to obtain satisfaction from 
the Akems, brought Okaidsha back from Holland to Elmina, some 
time after Ayikuma's death, intending to substitute him as king in 
the place of his ancestors, the Akan-race; but the people were 
bribed by Ayikuma's son named Tete Ahene Akwa to oppose the 
succession of inheritance in Akra being reverted to the Akan rule. 
(Here we will find that originally the inheritance in both the Gwan 
and Ga races was by male line, that is, a Son ; but this was con- 
verted into the Tshi system during the time of the temporal reigns 
of Ofori and a few of the Akan Royals.) Hence Okaidsha was 
long detained at Elmina by the then Director to his great incon- 
venience. 

It seems that, before Okaidsha was sent to Holland, he had mar- 
ried and had a son, named Adu Ama, after the names of both his 
father Adu Emiri and grand-father Ama Wusu Ahyia; or perhaps 
he had him after he returned to the coast. He sent this son to 
the Hague in Holland through the company to be educated, for which 
he was nicknamed Adu Ama Broni, whose descendants are living 
now at Gbese (Ussher Town), Akra, and at Elmina. Okaidsha was 
kept till this son returned to the coast. Tete Ahene Akwa having 
been installed king of Akra by the unanimous voice of the com- 
bined body of the three races, as there are several of the Tshi de- 
scendants who were at that time indulging in certain political airs 
which did not belong to their ancestors, and therefore feared that 
on Okaidsha's accession to the stool he would reduce them to their 
proper places. About some of these chiefs we shall speak presently. 

When Adu Ama Broni (Adama Broni) i.e. Edu Ama white man 
arrived at Elmina, he met his father there, who was prevented 
from coming down to Akra. He assisted his father to the best of 
his ability, and as he had been employed in the service of the 
company, used his influence for his father's release. All these pro- 
ceedings between the son and the company were conmumicated to 
the Akras, and this caused a division among the people: some fa- 
voured his coming, and others opposed it. The Director decided 



lOG History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

in favour of his coming, and proposed to comnianicate it to the 
Principals in Holland. When this was reported to Tete Ahene A- 
kwa, he said that he had been solicited by the Popos to go and 
help them to fight against an hostile tribe. He left Akra after 
having bribed the Guans not to oppose his march, and the Ga 
clement with some Tshis, who were in his favour, to follow him 
clandestinely one night, taking with him all the propert}'^ belonging 
to the Akan Royals, without making any preparation towards going 
as a warrior. 

Two years after he had left, Okaidsha arrived in Akra, and found 
the town in a most dissipated and unsatisfactory state. He first 
built a house close to Abonua-house on the site now forming the 
open space north-westward in front of the Ankra family house, 
whicli were all included in houses which he built for his wives 
and famil3\ After having built and established himself, he began 
to question about the property which he ought to have inherited 
from deceased members of his family. This question brought another 
era of troubles. He persisted on having Tete Ahene Akwa brought 
back from Popo by those remaining chiefs whom he suspected to 
have hand in the runaway's affairs. But Tete Ahene Akwa refused 
to return, stating that he had gone for war and the Akras had 
better follow him to fight and finish the war, before he came back 
to give Okaidsha an account of the property and the stool. Okai- 
dsha got into a rage and mustered all the forces he could and start- 
ed to overtake him ; but unhappily the Dutch and the Danish Go- 
vernments interfered and stopped him at Christiansborg, where he 
stayed, refusing to come back until he had Tete Ahene Akwa either 
dead or living. The Dutch Government sent a man of war with 
soldiers to bring him. Some say that the Dutch failed, while others 
say that he was at last surrendei'ed to the Dutch force by the 
people, and when he was brought to the ship, he poisoned himself 
during the night and was found dead the next morning. His corpse 
was brought to Akra. Okaidsha, not knowing him in life, doubted 
the body to be that of his opponent, although many others, besides 
Tete's own daughter, named Momo, who was then married to the 
Danish Governor at Christiansborg and was living there, came and 
identified him and claimed his corpse and buried it. Some say 
that Memo's mother was a niece of Okaidsha's, or that she belonged 
to the family of Okaidsha on the mother's side, that is Ofori's fam- 
ily. At present her descendants consider themselves as connected 



Chapter VII. 107 

with Okaidslia's by this relationship and form one laniily, sympa- 
thizing with each other in every disaster. Tete Ahone Akwa's 
children and all the people, chiefs, and captains that went down 
to Popo with him remained there from fear of being killed by 0- 
kaidsha. 

Okaidsha's indignation having been thns pacified, he returned 
from the camp on the suburbs of Christiansborg to Akra. During 
the time he was in tiic camp, his followers dug up the reservoir 
now at Christiansborg known as Tunma Ayi (Tuhmawe-Ayi = Ayi 
of Tun ma we). 

As I have stated before, some chiefs of the Tshi race intrigued 
with the Ga and Guaii races to oppose Okaidsha's return to Akra, 
when he was at Ehnina. Okaidsha now seized the opportunity to 
avenge himself of the injury by picking up quarrels with such chiefs 
and noblemen or their successors, whom he thought to have been 
injurious to him. He began by fighting Ama Kuma, a chief or 
nobleman at Shuowumona, and killed him. This Ama Kuma was 
another son of Ayi Kuma Tieko and therefore a half-brother to 
Tete Ahene Akwa. He next had to fight Ayikai Siahene, whose 
ofiice was to perform the ceremony of installing the candidate on 
the kingly stool. Ayikai Siahene addressed Okaidsha in a debate 
as ''Agyaba nnam," that is, my father's son hero or sharpness, and 
probably he was his half-brother. 

Dui-ing the reign of Tete, Ayikai, being the one who had in- 
stalled Tete on the stool, boasted that he had cut off Okaidsha, and 
was greatly respected. He kept the Akem Royal household fetish 
called Afieye (Afriyie) and from that he had all the priests of the 
Guan seven fetishes, and subjects thereto belonging, rallied around 
him, and assumed a perfect royal power after Tete left Akra. He 
belonged to Guanmoa, now corruptly pronounced Gumoa or Gomoa 
in B'ante, and therefore had a privilege to interfere with the Guans. 
He appropriated all the moneys and things that people offered to 
the fetishes, and the receipts of the ferry on the river Sakumo, which 
were generallj^ shared among the headmen of the seven quarters 
in which each fetish lived. When Okaidsha, being engaged with 
several other matters, seemed to have taken no notice of all these, 
he was nevertheless on the alert, and one day called him to account 
from whom he derived that power. Ayikai stated that it was from 
one Ama, a lieadman over Sakumo people then living at Lomo- 
tshokuna at Asere. — Ama could not be asked; he either had died 



108 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

or gone down with Tete; but his brother Odoi Kotei was siunmoned 
to a meeting and asked. He said, Ama had not given an_y power 
to Ayikai, hence the song, see below.*) Ayikai resorted to other 
excuses, had seduced the aborigines to take him as their king, and 
had appointed one Yaboi as the priest of Nai fetish, Odoi Blem as 
priest to Sakunio, and to several other fetishes the same. 

Okaldsha claimed that his ancestors, the Akan representing the 
Komang, were those who saved botli the Ga and Guan races from 
the oppression of the Akwamu insurgents, and that they had lost 
not only their king Ankama, but their great state Adanse also. 
He therefore claimed that he alone had a right to use the power 
Ayikai was assuming, and therefore Ayikai must surrender every 
thing to him. Ayikai refused, and summoned all the Guah element 
to his side, viz., the priest of Oyeni, Tete Kpeshi, and his family, 
and the Berekus, besides the Gomoas who were his own people. 
(The Bereku or Mereku people lived at Tafo and Sakotshoishi, and 
the Sempe people also at Oyenina. Oyeni was next in rank and 
age to Nai, the paramount fetish of the Sempe people.) 

Okaldsha summoned to his part all the Tshi elements, viz., La- 
kote nukpa, whom he made the priest of Nai, Ama Wusu Ahyia's 
people, Adu Nkorang's people (these two chiefs were then living 
in Gbese by Nai's priest), Tete Amarakese's people, called Onam- 
oko (living with the priest of Kole at Sakotshoishi at Asere), O- 
boama's people, called Otuopai, living then at Shuowumona at Asere 
(himself and his people living with the fetish Amugi in Abora) tS:c. 
When things were going on like this, the Ga race remained neutral, 
as they did not wish to provoke the displeasure of one party by 
taking the opposite side. There were also Tshi elements of the 
Agona family. (The Tshis were divided into several families, as 
at the present day.) Because Ofori brought down Damte of Tshi- 
foro, Firempong of Oda or Da, and Otu of Dankera; all these be- 



'') Miinnyae nkorodo, wamma no biribia e, 
Odoi Kotei se, Ama amma no biribi. 
E, wamma anye yiye. 
E, Odoi reko o, miinnyae nkorodo ! 

Give up your prattling, nothing had been granted, 

Odoi Kotei says that Ama didn't grant it. 

It was falsely given. 

Oh, Odoi is off", give up your prattling. 



Chapter VII. 109 

longed to the Agona family, and therefore did not interest them- 
selves in behalf of their brethren, the Asona and Aknona families, so 
lon<!; as their fetishes Dantu &c. were not touched ; they too, there- 
fore, remained neutral. KntOkaidsha was quite enough accommodated 
by providence with all he might require. A (ight ensued between 
the two respective bodies. The Guans were driven out of the town, 
and their leader Ayikai Siahene is said to have been caught and 
executed. Okaidsha had such marked success in every undertaking, 
that he was surnamed ^'Aforoso" (= he has surmounted), "Oka- 
frafra" (= he bites fiercely). 

The Guans, who form the present quarters in .James Town known 
as Amanfti, Oyenina, Sempe, IViereku and Akaiimadshe, having been 
thus beaten and their leader being killed, went up into the bush 
and afterwards returning built towns on the other side ofKole, viz., 
Gblamgte and Kolebu. When they were living there, they sent 
messengers to Dade Adu, the king of Gomoa, to help them to fight 
and conquer Okaidsha, forgetting that he also belonged to the A- 
sona liimily, and not the Apiade family, to which their leader had 
belonged. Dade Adu came down with a very large force to the 
suburbs of Akra. He encamped at Aberekuma and Anya, and sent 
for the chiefs of Agona and Aburi, thinking really that he would 
fight with Okaidsha and conquer Akra, which he had long coveted. 
Hut to his sad disappointment he was told by the chief of Aburi, 
who Okaidsha was. He was then led with J03' and pleasure to send 
for Okaidsha, who went to Anya in company with all the chiefs 
of Akra, who expected to see Okaidsha thrashed for his conduct 
as he deserved. But fortunately Adu received Okaidsha with more 
spirit of friendship and familiarity than Okaidsha himself thought. 
Previously the chief of Aburi had given him a hint not to fear. 
The meeting was very grand ; four chiefs or kings ruling the Guans 
in Gomoa, Agona, Akuapem and Ga, three of whom, if we take 
Okaidsha to be an Asona, belonged to one large family, and only 
the chief of Aburi belonged to the Abrade family. Thus to meet 
together with much pomp and glory was a pleasant meeting indeed. 
Although Okaidsha went as a common man, yet Dade Adu received 
him as a superior to himself, both for Okaidsha's age and birth 
as some say that he was much older than Adu. Every thing that 
a king should have was given to Okaidsha by Adu; he pronounced 
a blessing upon all his efforts, exhorted him how to manage his 
kingdom, and to rule without fear of any one. He also pacified 



110 History of the Gold Coast and As ante 

him with good words to reconcile to the peo[)le, in conse(}uence of 
which Okaidsha afterwards reconciled to the Guan party in Akra. 
He married a cousin of the chief of Amanfa, named Kpakpo Amo- 
aforo, called Amanua Kwafo, and gave his sister or one of his re- 
latives as wife to him, and by this intermarriage a permanent peace 
was established between the people of James Town and the Abora 
and Gbese people. 

About this time the English West African Company came, and 
Okaidsha arranged with Kpakpo to stay under the English, and 
in doing so they were called English people. The company's chief 
trader lived in the company's house with their servants called A- 
lata. Okaidsha haying arranged all this, removed all the fetishes, 
which were harboured at Asere quarter, to Gbese, where Nfii was 
alread}'. He removed Sakumo from Lomotsiiokuna, deposed its 
priest Odoi Blcm, and bought a slave whom he made a priest in 
the room of Odoi. He removed also Kole from Sakotshoishi and 
Okudsham from Firempong-we. The followers of these fetishes, 
and Adu Nkorang, Ama Wusu Ahyia, Tete Amarakese, Oboamang 
and Ayikai Tshuru and their people, he made his own attendants, 
but refused to occupy the stool of Sakumo, which was left by Tete 
Ahene Akwa. 

It is said that there were three stools at Akra at that time: the 
Ga stool, made of ivory, the Adanse stool brought by Boa Ankama, 
made of wood and decorated with gold, and the Guan stool which 
was dedicated to the king of Akra by Sakumo. The latter was 
never to be carried out of the town. 

Tete Ahene Akwa took the former two down with him to Popo, 
and Okaidsha determined that, unless these two stools were brought 
back, he wonld not accept the latter, and he refrained from inter- 
fering or participating in the worship of the fetishes. He deprived 
Abora of all Tshi descendants, hence the phrase ''Obi nni Abora", 
Nobody is at Abora. He did all this for the purpose of showing 
his dignity as the heir of Ofori. 

The people for some time had nobod}^ at their head in worship- 
ping the fetishes, principally Sakumo. The fetish prophets there- 
fore instigated the people to appeal to Momo, to nominate some 
one of the family to act as their mouth-piece to the fetishes, Okai- 
dsha still retaining them in his custody. And she did so. The 
tradition says that a sister of Momo was married to a nephew of 
Okaidsha, and they had a son named after the grandfiither Teko; 



Chapter VIII. Ill 

the father of this son was dead. Momo consulted Okaidsha, and, 
obtaining his permission, gave him to the fetishmen; he was wrapped 
in an ephod and tai^en around the town. This originated the usage 
still prevailing, that before a king is instated, the chief of Gbese 
must be consulted and his consent formally obtained, and the king 
must, on the death of any fetish priest, officiate in all the fetish 
houses especially in those of the three principal fetishes, viz., Nai, 
Sakumo, and Kole. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

General Constitution of the countries. Tshi form and Akra form of Cov- 
ernment. — Construction and worship of the Royal stool. — Law about 
succession; collection of revenue. — Organization of their armies. — 
Different bands and their symbolical mottoes. — Preparation for war; 
symbolical means of communication. 

The Governments established in the country are of two kinds. 

The Tshi form of Government is an absolute monarchy, in which 
the king or chief has unlimited power over life and property of his 
subjects. Those Tshi chiefs coming into the Protectorate have, 
however, moderated their claims on their subjects, by coming in 
contact with the European form of government. The Royal stool 
is by order of the king, who established a dynasty, constructed and 
carved, generally out of ''osesew" or any other hard wood. It is 
generally worshipped as a kind of national fetish. Human sacri- 
fices were sometimes offered to it, but generally the blood of a ram 
and it is annually painted with the blood of the victims, and the 
subjects are taught to fear it, as the Jews, Christians, and Mohamme- 
dans are taught to fear God. The stool of Asante was made by 
(Jkomfo Anokye, who told them that the stool was possessed with 
the spirit of an albino, or white negro, and therefore, no white man 
should ever be sacrificed to it; hence the Asantes never sacrifice 
or behead a white man or albino as an offering to the stool. 

The successors of the king were formerly his younger brother 
or his first son, but subsequently his nephews. Among the different 
traditions showing why nephews became heirs, we choose the follo- 
wing: The priest Anokye advised the king in whose reign the stool 
was made, that in celebrating a yearly feast in its honour, yam 
must be used. That first king was Sei Tutu, in whose days yam 



112 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

was not known in Asante, but was indit^enous in Takiman. Amo 
Yaw, the king of" the place, had strictly forbidden the export of it 
into another country. The king- of Asante sent messengers to him, 
requesting a favour of a few seeds to plant. His request was not 
granted ; alleging as his reason that yam was a noble plant, and 
unless one of his noble royal blood be sent in exchange, it could 
not be spared. The king thereupon consulted with his wives, that 
one of them should give up a son to purchase the seed; but none 
consented to his request. The king was in great distress, till his 
sister offered one of her sons and obtained the seed, which was 
planted in Asante; hence nephews became heirs to the stool. In 
celebrating, therefore, the grand yam-custom, it was settled by the 
sister, that 300 persons must be slaughtered, not for the stool, but 
in honour of that royal personage, who was sold to obtain yam. 
In course of time, the number of the poor victims was reduced to 
200, then to 100, afterwards to 80, and at last to one person, on 
every yam-custom.*) 



*) The above tradition may be true, yet it seems that the occasion 
has not taken place in Asante, but in one of the kingdoms established 
prior to that, for both in Adanse and Dankera — the first ruling powers — 
brothers and nephews have been heirs from the beginning up to the 
present date. 

Yam is said to be indigenous in Mehnye, a country north of Taki- 
man. When the country was conquered by Opoku Ware, access was 
obtained to the place, where not only the seeds were obtained for cul- 
tivation in Asante, but the people were ordered by Opoku Ware to 
contribute yams as part of their annual tribute for the celebration of 
the Yam-Custom. 

There are seven principal original family groups or clans, called „A- 
busuabah-ason" among the Tshi nation, to which ten minor ones are 
connected. The principal original family groups are: Asekyiri, Asona, 
Agona, Oyoko, Aduena, Asgkore and Abrade (Asenee). The first Adanse 
kings were of the Asekyiri family group ; the kings of Dankera, of the 
Agona family, the kings of Akwamu of the Abrade family, and the first 
three kings of Asante of the Akoona family, but those from Osei Tutu 
downwards are of the Oyoko family group. The Asona family group is 
the most numerous and is found in sevex'al states, viz., Akem Abuakwa, 
Akuapem, Wasa, Fante, Agona, Ofeso &c. If they could be united, they 
would form the most powerful body on the Gold Coast. This family 
group appears to have been once most powerful, but at what period, 
we are not certain. 

In all these families, succession is principally with brothers and sisters 
of the deceased (and sometimes even any competent person of the same 
family, but from another town), as for instance, Kwaw Ehura Ako, the 



Chapter VIII. 113 

Okomfo Aiiokye (or tlie soothsaj'er Anokye) was a native of A- 
wukiigua in Akuapeni, and by orig-in of the Guan tribe. The Guaii 
people are the most superstitious tribe on the Gold Coast, and it 
was through Anokye, as it appears, that superstition and fetishism 
was introduced into the Tshi tribe. Princes of the Tshis rule by 
power and wit generally, whilst the princes or priests of the Guans 
ruled by fetish influence, as wall be seen in the Ga or Akra form 
of government. 

As the government of the Tshls is an absolute monarchy, and 
the political as well as military power is in the hands of the king, 
he according to their custom arranges his subjects into three prin- 
cipal divisions : general chiefs, commanding the centre force or 
van, and the right and left wings; and also two other divisions: 
chiefs commanding the rear and the body guards. These five di- 
visions constitute the kingdom. In all political and military matters, 
the king sits with these generals and chiefs of the different divisions 
to decide. For all minor cases, he sits with the chiefs and captains 
of his body-guard, \vho reside in the capital. The generals also 
have sub-chiefs and captains under them, who form together a sort 
of jurisdiction under the king. The generals and captains get their 
appointments directly from the king, who also increases the number 
of warriors to every new general or captain, enlarges the funds 
of a captain, and inherits the property, a part or the whole of it. 
The stools of the general chiefs are hereditary, as that of the king; 
but captains are often appointed by election or merit. 

The Ga or Akra form of goverment was formerly an absolute 
fetishocracy. In it the supreme power was formerly directly, and 
is now indirectly lodged in the hands of a set of impostors known 
as foretelling priests, who are rightly named by the Akras "wou- 
tsemei*' i.e. fathers of the fetish or originators of fetishism. Women 
are also admitted to be members of this class. Originally the head- 
man among the foretelling priests, called "lomo" (now corrupted 
into "lumo", a title now given to kings, rulers, and governors), 
seems to have had the ruling power over the people. Just as we 



first king of Gomoa Asen, was succeeded by Kus;v Ada of Abora; hence, 
when there is no brother, the nephew takes the mother's place. In this 
light, we find no vital difference in the form of succession with the Tshi 
people and that of the Akras. The lawful son is the lieu- in an Akra 
family, when there is no brother or sister, whilst in the state, the law- 
ful son is the heir, when there is no lawful half-brother of the deceased. 

8 



114 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

find it still in the government of the Angulas, where the king or 
^'kong" (konge, a Danish name for a king) is the chief foretelling 
priest of their national high fetish Ligble, who assumes the govern- 
ment bj the fetish's own election from any tribe whatever, and 
not by hereditary right or by the people's election. Such a pro- 
phet-priest-king is represented by an ordinary man in public; the 
former is the in-door-king. But by an undue exercise of that power, 
the lomos forfeited that privilege, and it was conferred on the offi- 
ciating priests of the national high fetish, who were called ''wu- 
lomo" i.e. fetish-man or fetish-servant. And thus this class of people 
became the ruling family, instead of the former, from which a priest 
was elected, who was acknowledged as king or chief in every town, 
and had to serve in the fetish-yard, keep the place clean every 
day, and administer the holy water (some leaves and water in a 
country trough) for the worshippers to wash themselves with on 
fetish-days. He instructed the people in the laws of the fetish, 
ruled over the people according to the instructions of the fetish, 
offered sacrifices in behalf of the people, and prayed for them. But 
such priest-kings were ruled by the advice of the foretelling priests, 
who were considered as the mouth-piece of the fetishes or their 
representatives, as through them the whole constitution was framed. 
Hence the government of the Akras was a fetish-hierarchy. Some- 
times it happened that the priest-king was at the same time a 
member of the foretellers. In such cases, the government was an 
absolute fetish-monarchy, as the government of king Okai Koi seems 
to have been; he possessed three important powers of the govern- 
ment. Hence it has become an established law of the Akras, that the 
priest who is the king should never be a member of the foretellers, 
neither should any one of the latter become king. Even a prince, 
becoming a foreteller or predictor, forfeits not only the stool, but 
also his becoming a "lomo"' i.e. the acknowledged principal fore- 
teller or prophet; because he would connive at the tyranny of the 
ruling family, or would support them in such ways. The Akras 
are not ruled directly by the priest or king, but by the foretelling 
fetish-priests. 

The form of government somewhat resembles that of the ancient 
Jews. The priest might be also a prophet, and at the same time a 
judge, as we see with Samuel. When the Israelites asked for a king, 
and Saul was appointed, the three offices became separated. 

Coming into contact with the European and Tshi forms of gov- 



Chapter VIII. 115 

ernment, that of Akra became more patriarchal. The Akra king 
was at the same time the priest of the national high fetish. Bnt 
gradually, to avoid violation of the sacredness of the priest in ap- 
pearing often in public, and especially when the seat of government 
was removed from Ayavvaso to the coast, the two powers were 
separated. The priest retained his priestly stool, and the honour 
of a king was conferred by the priest on a second person, who is 
held as a vassal to the fetishes and is under the priest. For that 
honour conferred, the king has to undergo any expense to get a 
wife lawfully married for the priest; when the priest dies, the king 
is bound to sleep and watch in the fetish-house, until he has got 
a new priest in his room. The priests are the owners of the lands 
in and about the town by right, as it was among the Egyptians in 
ancient times, because the lagoons which are held as fetishes, and 
whose priests they are, were in the land prior to the immigration 
of the inhabitants. But the king retained the political power; yet 
the foretelHng priests exercise their influence over both priests 
and kings. 

The office of a king or priest is hereditary; they are succeeded 
by their half-brothers, whose mother was lawfully married, or by 
their lawful sons. The Tshls are succeeded by their brothers or 
nephews, according to the age of the mothers, i.e. the son of the 
elder sister succeeds the uncle; after him, the son of the second 
sister, thus throughout the family. Sometimes the succession is 
left entirely to the sons of a single sister. With the Akras, the 
son inherits the stool only, but the nephews the estate, imitating 
the Tshis; though both nations had the same law of succession, till 
the Tshls changed theirs, as already remarked. Formerly no one 
was made a king or priest, unless he had performed the custom 
of "kromotsunwo" or *'butunwo" (a custom which entitles one to 
have access to the fetish-house, a rank among his company, and 
to wear sandals and use an umbrella), and had taken a wife accord- 
ing to the established law of the countr3% If the one to be nomi- 
nated as king or priest had not performed these customs, the chiefs 
and elders would undergo the expense before he was appointed. 

In former days the priest had a good revenue from runaway 
slaves protected with the fetish; he got presents from influential 
and rich people, who either washed themselves with holy water, 
or made vows in sickness or in any undertaking. The priest of 
Nai (sea) could claim a duty of ^ 16 = ^ 3.12 and rum from every 

8* 



116 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

captain anchoring in the roads at Akra, besides annual presents 
from the merchants &c. The ferrying of Sakumo was the large 
revenue to the king and the priest of Sakumo; the rate of ferrying 
was: 25 strings of cowries for a slave, a bullock and ivory; five 
strings for a sheep, and two strings per man. 

The rate was raised afterwards to one head of cowries for a slave* 
a bullock, and ivory, and 12 strings a sheep. At that time all the great 
merchants, such as a Mr. Hansen, Mr. Bannerman, Mr. Richter and some 
Europeans, offered each a passbook to the king, in which accounts of 
their people running up and down were kept, and paid quarterly. At 
present the rate is one shilling for a bullock, and 3'^ per man. 

The amount collected on Monday and Tuesday belongs to the 
priest; that on Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturda.y, to the 
king and chiefs; and that on Sunday to the ferrj'^-men. The priest 
of Lakpa claims the whole property of people dying in August and 
September, in Labade, Teshi and part of Christiansborg. The priest 
of Oyeadu at Akra claims the whole property of women dying in 
child-birth. The fishermen collect two porgies (per canoe) for the 
king and priest of Nai in August and September. No tax is levied 
for cultivation of the land. Besides these petty incomes, the chiefs 
collect small fines from people summoned to their courts. 

The Tshis are very exact in collecting tribute and lines, from 
their subjects. When gold is dug and a nugget is obtained, the 
king claims one third of it. They are able rulers and administrators. 

There are three sources from which the revenue is collected: 
1) The conquered states have to pay annual fixed tributes in human 
beings, cattle, poultry, and native manufactured cloths. Of the 
human beings, some are kept for domestic purposes, some are en- 
listed as soldiers, and the rest sold for public expenses. 2) Swear- 
ing of oaths. If one swears the oaths Kgromante (in memory of 
the death of Osei Tutu in 1730), Memeneda (death of Osei Bonsu 
in 1823) and Ntamkese (Adahkese, also of Osei Tutu's death), — 
the fine is 110 peredwans each, in Asante. Of the oaths: Kwadu- 
twum of Dwaben (in memory of Osei Atweree's murder in 1743); 
Oduroman of Nsuta; Yawda of Mampong; "Bekwae-hohtwuma" 
of Bekwae, — the fines vary from 20 — 30 peredwans each. Of 
the oaths: Kwanyako (death of Ata and his chiefs by small-pox 
in October 1811) or Ahenebanimsubri and Wukuda, all of Akem, 
the fine formerly was 20 peredwans, but is now ^ 1.10. Of the A- 
kuapem oaths: Sokodei, Kwabenyan, Wukuda, and Ntamkoko or 



Chapter VIII. 117 

Sareso, the fines vary from ^'3 to 10 or even 30; the latter is strictly 
forbidden. Mankata-Wukuda in Fante (in memory of Sir Charles 
Mc Carthy's death in 1824), the fine formerly was ^ 32. Of the oaths: 
Momotshe Tong-, Ga-Hogba, Ahantang, Okaidsha-adeka, Osu-So, 
Tgdshei, &c. of Akra, — the fines vary from ^ 32 to 32 shillings. 
Swearing of oaths has nearly disappeared in Fante and Akra, and 
people are only summoned before kings, chiefs, and English Courts. — 
3) Swearing by the king's life or by a deceased king (Taramekese) 
is punished with death in Asante, but in all other states the parties 
are heavily fined. 

The king's officials and household servants (ahenkoa) scour the 
country to collect fines from people who have sworn the oaths or 
are going to swear them. 

As Christianity is introduced and people are getting more en- 
lightened, especially as the Gold Coast has become an English Col- 
ony, the priests are much neglected and left with very small re- 
venues on which they can hardly subsist. Kor are the kings and 
chiefs much better off, for they are also losing their power on account 
of the infiuence of Christianity. The Constitution has run out 
its three stages: the prophet-stage, in which the foretelling priest 
held the reins ; the priest-stage, in which the high-priest of the 
national fetish had the reins; and the king-stage. The best method, 
therefore, left to the educated community is, to reorganize the whole 
structure of government on Christian principles, before we shall 
be acknowledged as a nation. 

The power of the priest over lands and revenues is gradually fall- 
ing into the hands of the kings. However, the chiefs of every 
quarter in a town claim a right over any piece of land belonging 
to the quarter, as defenders and protectors of those sites. Hence 
a quarter near the sea-shore generally has less land. Hence it is 
self-evident, why the whole territory of the Akwamus was not 
occupied by the Akras, after the former had been driven from it, 
but allowed to be sold back to them by Akwamu refugees. If kings 
had been owners of lands from the beginning, that could never 
have taken place. 

Both forms of government had nearly the same character, when 
the European form was not known. The TshTs under Asante as- 
sumed the despotic form of their masters, but the coast tribes grad- 
ually moderated theirs, till at last it assumed the patriarchal form. 

The Akras are divided into two parts: I. Akra proper, with 



118 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

seven towns: James Town, Dutch (or Ussher) Town, Christiansborg, 
La (Labade), Teshi, Ningowa, Tema; and 11. Adangme, also with 
ten towns. These 17 towns formed the kingdom of Akra with a- 
bout 100,000 inhabitants at the time of the battle of Katamansu. 
But when adding Obutu, which is a brother tribe of the Akras, 
and the Volta towns, acknowledging Taki as their king, we may 
say, there are now about 200,000 inhabitants. Every chief was at 
liberty to make some by-laws and settle disputes in his town; but 
all difficult cases were submitted to the king in Dutch Town, before 
this place had become an English Colony. 

The Akra form of government may be said to consist of three di- 
visions. The king or chief and his grandees have to make their own 
laws for the town people, and have the political power in their 
hands. The military power is partially vested in the principal head- 
men of the quarters in a town, known as Akuashong. But they 
cannot undertake to make war, unless the chief with his grandees 
sanctions it. The last power is vested in the companies, who also 
transfer any difficult case to the assembly of the principal headmen 
or "akuashong". They even have to submit such difficult cases to 
the chief and his grandees. If a war case, it is reported to the 
king: in Ussher Town and submitted to his decision, and then it 
becomes a general concern of all the Akras. Although the king 
of Ussher Town is the head of all the petty chiefs, yet in times 
of war every individual man has to provide himself with arms, 
ammunition, &c. to carry on the war; for there are no public funds 
for that purpose. The Akuashong, having the military power, lay 
in store for self-defence a good quantity of powder and lead against 
sudden emergencies. The king and all the chiefs and influential 
men also lay" in store some quantity of powder and lead for per- 
sonal defence. Every youth of the age of sixteen is bound to buy 
a gun or gets one from his father, otherwise he is never esteemed 
a man worthy of his country, and the company, to which he may 
belong, look down upon him. The general mode of exercising one- 
self in the use of fire-arms is either by hunting, or at the funeral 
custom, when guns are fired in honour of the deceased. 

When the Danes, Dutch and English had their respective govern- 
ments on the Coast, the consent of each government was necessary 
before their subjects could take part in a general war of the Akras. 
But otherwise each government had to carry on war alone with 
its subjects. 



Chapter VI II. 119 

TheTshis alone have an organized order in their army. They have 
special captains appointed for the main divisions: the van. the right 
and left wings, and the rear. The kings of Asante have not only to 
appoint captains over their army, but they have to organize it and also 
to increase it, as the occasion may be. Before a captain is appointed, 
the king has to collect recruits in readiness. They may be either cap- 
tives of a recent war, or his own subjects whom he bought as slaves 
when they failed to pay a certain sum imposed on them as a fine 
for an oath they had sworn, or they may have been bequeathed 
to him by a deceased chief or captain. Over a number of from 
500 — ^1000 men thus obtained, the king appoints a captain, on which 
occasion a grand public meeting is held, and the body of men pre- 
sented to the captain as his soldiers and slaves. Those subjects 
bought have to remain in their own towns, but the captives have 
to stay permanently in the town of the captain, whilst himself stays 
in the capital. Other presents are made to the captain by the king, 
a name is given to the band or ^^asafo", and now the captain and 
his men are handed over to any of the generals over the five main 
divisions. 

The following are the different bands or "asafo" which have been 
instituted by the kings of Asante : 

1. OseiTutu: Koronti, Akwamu, Asakara, Kyidom, Dumakae, and 

Samang. 

2. Opoku Ware: Ananta, Koronko, and Fante. 

3. Kwisi Bodum : Nkonsong. 

4. Osei Kwadwo : Asabi, Apagya, and Hyiawu. 

5. Osei Kwame: Apagya, and Ankobea. 

6. Osei Bonsu : AtenI, Akomfode, Atipiri, Anamarako, Apente, Pi- 

aiikg, and Anumsa. 

7. Osei-Yaw : Apesemaka. 

8. Kwaku Dua: Mawere, captain: Berentuo; Nkonsong, capt. O- 

wusu Ansa Titrawa; Asabi, capt. Boakye; Ayebiakyere, capt. 

Kwasi Gyambibi; Somehene, capt. Akwasi Abayie; Ampoti, 

capt. Osei Hj^eaman; Twidom, capt. Osubri; and Pinkye- 

domko, capt. Kofi Dei. 
But the Akras have to arrange themselves according to their 
towns along the Coast. In truth, they are naturally brave, but the 
only organization existing in their army is made up by the different 
companies or bands existing in every town. It ma}'' be interesting 
to give a short account of the different bands, their names, and how 



120 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

the drum of each band is beaten. The sound and meaning of the 
beating is mostly important on the field of battle to avoid collision. 
Although there are more than two dozen bands known in the country, 
one dozen will suttice for an illustration. They are: 

1. Asonkofo — Independent band. 

2. Apagyafo — Fire-striking band. 

3. Akgmfode — Priestly band. 

4. Amferefo — Audacious band. 

5. Atuafo — Attacking band. 

6. Ntiafo — Kicking band. 

7. Kyiramimfo — Fraud-detesting band. 

8. Ohwammirifo — Black king-fisher's band. 

9. Ampotifo — Stand-to-no-trash band. 

10. Apesemakafo — Otiicious band. 

11. Piankofo — Invincible band. 

12. Ahkobeafo — Body-guard band. 

Each band has its peculiar symbolical mottoes for beating the 
drum; yet other symbols are often added to that by the skilfulness 
of the drummer. 

1. The independent baud beats the drum: "Bu-aso, bu-aso ne yeir^ 
kurotwiamansa ba, mmu no abofra!" Which is: We are axe- 
breakers; a leopard's cub should not be deemed a boy (should not 
be disrespected). 

2. The tire-striking band beats : "Ogya framframfram (fwerenfwereh- 
fweren)! Yeforo ekoko bi, yeasiaii ekoko bi; yebeforo ekoko bi a 
niuiare wo so!" Brilliant tire! we ascend a hill, we descend a hill, 
and will ascend a hill upon which is a bush full of thorns. 

3. The priestly band: "Opoku takyi, odoto rehitn! Yenom nsu mere 
enam wo; yeadah kyikyiku."' Chief pelican, the dense bush is 
shaking; we drink water where fishes abound, we have become 
a torpedo. 

4. The audacious band: ''Wosu, wosii, wofre yen ; yekum onipa a, 
yeyi n'abasa." When weeping, upon us they call; when we kill a 
man, we take off his arms! 

5. The attacking band : ^'Kyere onipa, kita onipa, yebo osonoba 
to !" Catch a man, take hold of him, we beat the hinder part of 
an elephant's cub. 

6. The kicking l)and : ^'Hona beka, bona beka, bona beka yeiiT^ 
Who dares to touch, wb.o dares to touch, who dares to touch us? 



Chapter VIII. 121 

7. The fraud-detesting- band : "Kuntum, okuntumpa, kekagu! Yeko 
jempira." Hyena, hyena, bite and throw off; we tight, but are not 
wounded. 

8. Black kingfisher's band : ''Oiiipa reko, onipa reto, onipa repira."' 
A man fights, and a man is killed, and another is wounded. 

9. The stand-to-no-trash band: ''Wotwe no bebrebe a, emma, pini 
do!" When you draw it excessively, you cannot get it; clear off I 

10. Otiftcious band: 'Tope asem aka, yepe oko ako!" We wish for 
a case to settle and a battle to fight. 

11. The invincible band : ^'Mogya regu, mogya regu, mogya regu." 
Blood is being spilled. 

12. The body-guard band : "Masiesie meho, meweu meho, enam 
m'akyi, enam m'anim, na mede te ha yi." I have prepared my- 
self, I keep guard of myself, they walk behind me and walk before 
me; hence I stay here. 

Not only by the drums of the different bands s^'mbolical mottoes 
and designs are displayed, but they are also to be found in the 
beating of the kings' or chiefs' state-drums as weAl as in the flags, 
and on swords and state-umbrellas. In order to make these signs 
(symbols, emblems, devices) better understood, we classify them 
as showing ofltice, rivalry, nobility, heroism, incompetence, reliance 
on providence, &c. Signs indicating office: a state-umbrella with 
a sword on the top of it, belongs to the king's sword-bearer ; such 
a captain is allowed to beat his drum : ''So akofra ! I carry the war- 
sword." Of rivalry: — ^ One of the horns of king Dowuona sounds: 
"Gyan kokroko, m'ani wo ko so! Great or excellent Gyang, my 
mind is upon war!" To this the rival chief responds, also by a horn: 
"Asem kankah (wokae kuu), mma wo were nimfi o ! Never forget 
what you have said before" i.e. your mind being upon war, for I 
am prepared for it. Of nobility: — a rich and powerful king would 
have a horn to blow: ''Otamfo, kata w'ani! Cover thy face, thou 
envious man." To which is responded : "Yeboa Oko birempgu, 
obirempoh ba obirempou, meye odehye dadada. The noble Yeboa 
Oko, the oftspring of nobles, I am already noble !" Of heroism : — 
the horn of Boaten, the king of DVvabeu, is : ^'Woye okatakyi, wo- 
ye obarima! You are brave, you are a valiant man!" — Of in- 
competence: — a chief may pretend to fight with another chief, who 
is not his equal in power, and orders this to blow: "So dae ye atoro, 
so dae ye atoro papa, Dreaming is really a falsehood." The late 
king Karikari of Kumase, upon his accession to the stool, deter- 



122 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

niined to fight against the English Government. He ordered one 
of his executioners to extol him thus: ^'Karikari gjambi, Ayeboafo 
a ode ntutea beko aperem ano. i.e. Karikari hero, the champion 
who will fight at the mouth of cannons with his narrow guns." 
When Sir John Glover entered his capital with his forces, Karikari, 
who boasted to fight the English, had run away. In his palace 
one of his favoured horns had been left behind; it was brought to 
chief Kwadwo Mensa of Aburi. Then and there the chief ordered 
one of his retainers to blow: ''Karikari, woye korokoro, Karikari, 
woye korokoro kwa!"' which means: Karikari, you are a prattler, 
Karikari, you are a vain talkative fellow. Thus we see what the beat- 
ing of drums and blowing of horns mean. When in an assembly of 
kings and chiefs such a display of nobility, heroism, &c. are extolled, 
then the horn of King Taki sounds in a broad tone: "Kpo avuo, 
kpg avuo tome!" which means: Just look at the ears of these dogs! 
No chief is allowed to imitate the symbol of another band, unless 
the one has been conquered or has willingly permitted it. 

What keeps the warriors together in time of war, are the flags 
and drums of the bands, or the tune of the horn of the king or 
chief. Where the flag and drum are, there the captains are found. 
The Hags and drums keep the men of the band together, whilst 
the tune of the horn keeps the whole body of a town together, 
otherwise every warrior stays with his own relations in camp. 

The bands are more for defensive than offensive warfare, hence 
no captain can command his men to attack an enemy without first 
consulting the Akuashong. But an Asante captain has the power 
over his men for defensive or offensive warfare. 

Furthermore it is most necessary, that every band must have a 
fetish of its own, be it their drum or anything else converted and 
consecrated as such by the company, — and that every such fetish- 
drum thus consecrated, dedicates a member of the band as its own 
foretelling priest, b}^ whom future events are made known to the 
company, and sacrifices also made in their behalf in times of peace. 

In times of war every member of each baud has to apply to his 
own priest, or sometimes to another priest, for advice, for charms, 
for medicines &c., and also for what sacrifices are to be offered to 
insure his safety during the campaign. Thus no warrior ever joins 
an army without first consulting the priest at home, although the 
priest is bound to accompany the band whose foretelling priest he 
is, when engaged in war, there also acting as their adviser, fore- 



Chapter VIII. 12,3 

teller, doctor, &c. Thus it is obvious what sort of influence the 
foretelling^ priests exercise, not only on the government, social life 
&c., but also in the wars of the Akras and nearly all the other 
tribes. All such fetishes of the different bands have their time 
fixed during- the 3'ear for holding feasts in their honour. 

An individual person has not only to prepare himself for war, 
as above-stated, but before the movement of the warriors to camp, 
the king and his chiefs have to meet to ''boil'" the war. Which 
means, any known and acknowledged fetish-priest will be sought 
after, who will be consulted as to the success of the campaign. 
With the Akras, Sakumo is the principal war-fetish, whose oracles 
must be obtained, as will be stated in ch. XIV., when he sanctions 
and shows all sacrifices to be offered before the war is ''boiled", 
either by a priest of his, or any one whose magical powers are 
universally acknowledged. The whole transaction on such occasions 
resembles what we read in the Scriptures of Balak, the son of Zippor? 
the king of the Moabites, in sending for Balaam to practise enchant- 
ment against Israel. Numb. XXII — XXIV. 

The king and his principal chiefs meet one night with the priest; 
the necessary things required for the sacrifice have been provided. 
A large pot is set on fire; the names or souls of the principal and 
powerful men of the enemy are called out and caught by means 
of enchantment. For every name, a piece of stone or an}^ other 
thing is taken to represent it, and then put into the pot. When 
all are thus named, represented and caught, some leaves and other 
things are added to them in the pot to get boiled. When boiling, 
if the pot happens to burst, then the enemy is more powerful. The 
practice is repeated, till they are satisfie-J that the enemy is got 
weakened. After this every body feels encouraged and spirited to 
fight and conquer. 

Every warrior in leaving his wife, relatives and friends to go to 
war, must get presents from them. These presents are given under 
the idea of showing their last respects, love and honour to the 
warrior, so that, if he should no more return, they had done their 
part in his burial. Precious beads of every description and gold 
jewels are tied to the warriors wrist, arm, knee, or neck. When 
slain in battle, the body is to be buried with those presents, yet 
a finger, toe, hair, finger-nail, &c., must be preserved as relic for 
general interment at home. At the funeral an ordinary coffin is 
made for such a relic, and it is buried as if it were the whole body. 



124 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

Besides this practice, the national fetishes are ail consulted, who 
will show different kinds of sacrifices to be made to insure safety 
and success. The Akuashong elders will also enquire oracles from 
their company's fetish, and the family and the individual fetishes 
are likewise consulted and worshipped before war is undertaken. 
For there are four different classes of fetishes: the national, those 
of the family (or quarter), those of the band (company), and the 
personal fetishes and charms. 

Another means of keeping a whole army, the commander-in-chief, 
the generals and captains &c., as well as allied forces together in 
time of war, is the oath of allegiance, sworn before the campaign 
is undertaken. 

The oath of allegiance is of two kinds, and is administered in 
two different manners. A subject in swearing an oath of allegiance, 
appeals solemnly to his majesty's or commander's being; by holding 
a sword in his right hand, and pointing the handle towards the 
face of the king, he declares his obligation of taking the field in 
his behalf or by his orders. The king does the same; pointing the 
sword, and not the handle, he affirms his readiness to support the 
subject on such occasions to the uttermost of his ability. 

The second mode of swearing the oath of allegiance is done ger.- 
erally by a new king or chief entering into alliance with the king. 
Which being more important, the oath is taken by a ceremony 
commonly called "to eat fetish." The powerful fetish of the country 
or town is applied for; a potion is prepared by washing apart or 
the whole of the fetish with water. The allied king meets in 
public, and after due religions ceremony the potion is offered 
to him to drink. Before he drinks, he solemnly appeals to the 
fetish, to bring judgment upon him, if he disregards the oath. 
Sometimes the king also swears the oath of allegiance himself or 
by a representative, by drinking a potion of the ally's own fetish 
in recognizance of their mutual fidelity. The forfeit of this oath, 
by cowardness or otherw^ise, is death in Asante, in the Protectorate, 
an eternal infamy on the family and town. 

Symholical means of communication. 
All the Africans not possessing the art of communication by writ- 
ing, use several things to impart their thoughts to others, which 
things are more or less falling into disuse, as people come into 
contact with Europeans; hence the Akras have lost nearly all they 



Chapter VIII. 125 

4sed in ancient times. There are many still, which by careltol ex- 
amination can be found in their religious worship; but to know 
them requires a good length of time. 

1. Three green leaves of the palmbranch, formed into a triangle 
by tying knots at the three points of meeting. When this triangle, 
called '^akyere-mmerenkensono" by the Tshis (Asante, Dankera, 
Akuapem &c.), is put on as a necklace at the funeral of a chief, 
king or queen, it means that the wearer is to be sacrificed to at- 
tend the deceased in the other world. Another one, made of date- 
palm leaves, dyed red, is called ^'komi" by the Akras. It signifies 
a solemn act of dedicating, as well as devoting one's self to, and 
for the service of, a certain national high fetish. When a wife is 
to be sought for a new priest of Lakpa, this symbol is placed on 
the neck of a camwood-girl in any town whatever, and she is thereby 
obliged (even betrothed) to become the wife of the priest. 

2. A dark red cloth called "adinkra" or "okobeu" is a symbol 
of death or grief. It is employed to announce the death of a chief, 
king or queen ; because a king's death is never announced by mere 
words. A relative, son, daughter or servant of a deceased chief 
wearing such a stuff, and chewing cola-nut, informs every chief or 
people to whom he or she is sent, that the king is dead. 

3. A single grass broken in two and placed before a superior, 
judge or king, suggests pardon or excuse. This symbol is used in 
courts and public assemblies. If one is before a king or judge, 
and wishes to utter an unpleasant word which may be taken as 
an offence, he places this symbol before the superior, and all of- 
fensive words arc pardonable. 

4. Any kind of leaf placed between the lips is a symbol of silence. 
An ambassador returning from a foreign court and having a leaf 
in the mouth, shows his inability to express the message he brought. 
The king has to swear an oath to him, that in uttering any abusive 
words he is not held responsible. After which he speaks freely. 
A leaf so placed in the mouth is a sign not to address persons 
attending sick people and obliged sometimes to come out; as their 
being talked to by any inipure person would impair the power 
of the medicine by which the patient is to be healed. 

5. Bullet and corn are symbols of war and peace. If a king- 
wishes to make war with another nation, he sends these symbols 
to the enemy. When the bullet is chosen, war is declared; if the 
corn, he asks for peace. Bullet represents death, and corn, life. 



126 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

6. Two pieces of firewood mean submission to servitude. In time 
of war, when the defeated party wants to express their submission, 
and negotiate for peace, such a symbol is used. Hence in times 
of peace, especially during "Homowo" (the yearly feast of the A- 
kras), firewood, in connection with other presents, is given by in- 
feriors to their masters. 

7. White clay, "ayilo", is a symbol of justification or guiltlessness, 
whilst charcoal repesents guilt or wrong. Formerly our kings in 
passing sentence of right and wrong, used, and are using now, such 
symbols, without even expressing the sentence in words. Sometimes 
the sentence is passed in words, after which the symbol is used 
on the head and the right arm. 

8. Different sorts of precious beads, strung together into a lace 
of about six feet long and worth about ^ 300, called "kyekyere- 
kona", is used in reconciling parties, or when a king or queen feels 
unhapp3' and would not accept any comfort, it is placed on his or 
her neck and is sure to soothe. When a king is taking a walk 
in town with his servants, he sometimes on coming to a certain 
place will close his eyes and will not walk, becoming blind 
by his royal dignity. As soon as the news of this reaches the 
queen mother, she sends this symbol, which must be placed on his 
neck, before he will open his eyes and walk. When a general is 
sent on a war expedition, and fails to conquer, he will not return 
home for shame, unless this necklace is sent to him. 

9. Cowries. — By as many cowries as are strung together and 
placed around the middle leg of a stool, the number of slaves a 
man possesses is indicated. 

10. Leaves or grass are used in travelling to show the right path 
to those who follow. The one gone before will place these signs 
on the path he avoids, and leave the right path free. 

11. A wisp of grass from a roof is used when calling on a friend 
and not finding him at home. The grass is put down near the 
door, or stuck into the key-hole. 

12. A single red shell (lami) on a string as a necklace is a sym- 
bol of becoming mute after many troubles, either by repeated deaths 
in the family or any other calamity. When hostile parties are re- 
conciled, the red shell is broken in the presence of both parties 
assembled at the king's court. Each party appoints a representa- 
tive; the one for the injured party takes up a stone, the other re- 
presentative holds part of the stone. The king appoints one to 



Chapter VIII. 127 

represent him, who also joins in holdinji,- the stone, and then they 
break the shell. A bit of the broken shell is given to each party 
as a memorial of the peace, and the rest is thrown into the sea. 
We call this "lamidshiia". 

13. A shell of a kind of insect, a species of beetle, called "anko- 
nam"' (i.e. I walk alone) is a symbol of being friendless. 

14. "Kunkuma", a seed of a certain plant, which has acquired 
hardness in water and is found at the sea-shore or on the banks 
of large rivers. It is as big as an egg, or sometimes bigger. When 
one is used as a lace, it conveys the meaning of durability. Ene- 
mies may do their best to injure you, yet they can't effect your ruin. 

15. '^Santrofi" is a kind of night bird; some feathers of this bird 
are twisted into a string and worn round the knee by women when 
their husbands are engaged in war. The woman who wears it, 
every morning pulls out a part of the string into which the feathers 
are twisted, and prays that her husband may be lively as that 
bird in the campaign, and never be caught by an enemy. 

16. A gold sword, called gyegye-tiri, on which the skull of a leop- 
ard is represented, is worn by the kings of Asante and of Dwaben 
as a sign of superiority. 

17. "Fanfanto" is a kind of fly; when made on a sword, it means: 
"Go, fight and die"; a determination to conquer. When that sword 
is sent to a general by a king (the king of Asante), the general 
knows, he is to fight and die rather, than return home defeated. 

18. A land-tortoise, when made on the sword of a king, is a 
symbol that nothing can be done unless submitted to him ; every- 
thing the subjects do or have, must be brought to him. 

19. A snail, when made on a sword, means: "Be careful, and 
do not easily be caught as a snail; or to an enemy, it is a sj'mbol 
of incompetence. 

20. The head of a large horned snake called "onahka", when made 
on a sword, is a symbol of power. Although the snake creeps on 
the ground, yet he is capable of catching a kingfisher. 

21. A sword with an axe is a symbol of ability to pass through 
thick and thin to obtain an object. 

22. The head of a river-fish "adwen" (silurus), when made on a 
sword, means: "Contemplate when sleeping", or "be thoughtful." 

23. Two or more green leaves of a palm-branch folded together 
and hung on a piece of stick are means forbidding; this emblem 
is used to prohibit people from trespassing on one's property (land). 



128 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

24. "Tseregbamo", division or breaking' of a cola-imt (or lemon), 
is used by friends as a symbol of dissolving friendship with a de- 
ceased. At the funeral castoni, where the body of the deceased is 
lying, all his or her friends will come and stand before the body, 
and cast each a single cola-nut broken into two halves (or a lemon 
divided into two, when cola-nut is not obtained). When the pieces 
cast fall unequally to the ground, the one reclining on the back is 
for the friend, and the other for the deceased; then the friendship 
is acknowledged as dissolved by the latter. If not acknowledged, 
the cast nmst be repeated until it is acknowledged. 



CHAPTER IX. 

The attack by the English man-of-war on the Fort Creve-Coeur and Dutch 
Akra, commonly known as the war with the man-of-war (Manowgta). — 
The first Danish expedition against the Angulas. 1782 — -1784. 

We have a proverb, "Never a musket bursts in Europe and 
wounds one in Africa." For a period of nearly half a century, 
the country was free from any foreign war. For the old enemy, 
the Akwamus, had been driven from the countr}^ to find a shelter 
beyond the Volta. But the country was never free from petty inter- 
nal wars and commotions which were brought about chiefly by the 
Danes, Dutch, and English, then trading on the Coast. 

In the year 1662 the "Company of Royal Adventurers" was 
formed in England for the purpose of trading on the Coast. Soon 
after this, a war broke out in Europe between England and Hol- 
land, which was a death-blow to that Company in Africa. For the 
famous Dutch Admiral De Ruyter took all its forts with the ex- 
ception of Cape Coast Castle. In 1672 a new company was incor- 
porated under the name of "the Royal African Company of Eng- 
land". To vie successfall.7 with the Dutch Company, they built 
forts at Dixcove, Seconde, Commenda, Anamabo, Winneba, and Akra. 
In 1750 their establishments were transferred to a new association, 
"the African Company of Merchants. During their administration 
hostilities with the Dutch continued. In 1782 Captain Shirley of 
the Leander, although repulsed in the attack upon Elmina, succeeded 
in taking the Forts of Mowure, Koromante, Apa and Bereku. 

The commandant of the Fort Creve-Cceur was said to be one 
"Jandraka" as the natives called him. Teko Tshuru was the king 



Chapter IX. 129 

of Akra, Okaidsha having- died; Ayite Okoso was the chief of Gbese, 
Ayai Peko, an intliieutial man at that time; Oto Brafo, the chief 
of Otu sti'eet. In consequence of the war in Europe most of the 
Europeans had been removed, with the exception of the comman- 
dant and the native soldiers in the fort. The English had asked 
the assistance of the i)eople of Winneba, Agona and some detach- 
ments of warriors from Anomabo, Gomoa-Asen, Apa and Obutu, 
who were Dutch allies and refused to render any assistance to the 
English. They were brought down to Akra, to join the James 
Town people, who, although brethren to the Dutch Akras, could not 
refuse the orders of their master, but simply advised the Dutch 
Akras to leave the town and never oppose the English. 

The king and chiefs could not bear to leave their town, and de- 
termined to defend both it and the fort. Chief Oto swore that he 
would never allow the English to take the fort in the absence of 
their masters. The people of Teshi, Ningowa, Tema and Poni, then 
allies of the Dutch Government, sent their warriors and obtained 
ammunition from the commandant, whereas the people of Chi-istians- 
borg, Labade and Ningo were Danish allies, therefore kept them- 
selves neutral. — Captain Shirley, having landed marines from the 
Leander, began to attack, bombarding the fort from the ships and 
Fort James, while the allies of the English and the marines arranged 
themselves along the bush at Dshoshi, which separated the two 
towns, and were lighting the allies of the Dutch. The English 
forces continued the fight from six in the morning till dusk, during 
24 days, without being able to take either the town or the fort, 
till all at once the allies got tired. On one Thursday the Fantes 
sustained a heavy loss which obliged them to flee back to their 
country. The ships, at last, ran short of ammunition but got a 
supply from the Danish Government, who under pretext bought 
back all the shots which had been used for the English ; they even 
sent out people from Christiansborg to pick them up from the field, 
and bought them for the ships. They advised the English to hold 
out, as they were sure the natives would soon give in, for many 
of them had removed their women, children, and property to Chris- 
tiansborg; yet neither the marines nor their allies could hold on 
any longer. At last the Dutch allies having also run short of am- 
munition, the king ordered his warriors to give up the town. They 
did so, and removed with children and women to Kwabenyan, and 
blockaded the paths against the allies of the English and Danes to 

9 



130 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

prevent their getting fire-wood and provisions. The hunters of 
chief Oto snrveyed the land, and found Kpokpoase, to w^here he 
and his people removed and established a large town for them- 
selves, and left Ayai Peko and the king with their people at Kwa- 
benyan. Here they stayed for about five years (although the natives 
say nine years) and kept their usual customs, as they were in the 
habit of doing on the coast. In 1785 the forts taken by the Eng- 
lish were given back to the Dutch. The English having failed to 
obtain possession of the Dutch fort, although severely bombarded, 
the people of the town also refused submission, and so they retired. 
But before doing that, the James Town people urgently entreated 
tliem to intercede to make peace between them and their offended 
brethren of Dutch Town ; by hook or by crook peace was made. 

It would be very interesting for our readers to know to what 
cause the natives attributed this war. A few months previous, 
Ama Lomo, the predicting fetish-priest of Nai, had been drowned 
in the lagoon Kole by order of Lamte Dshang, interpreter of Dutch 
Town. The chiefs and people tried to find out the cause of his 
death, and Dshang being suspected of the murder refused to attend 
the court of the elders. They therefore went to his house to know 
why he refused to appear. But they were met at his gate Math 
fighting, and Dshang escaped to James Town for protection at chief 
Anege's house. The case was settled, Dshang having committed 
suicide with several of his people. To chastise the people, Nai in- 
vited the English to fight with them for the murder of his priest. 

We have known both by tradition and history that there was 
never peace permanently existing between the Angulas on the 
eastern and the Adas on the western side of the Volta. Tliis nmtual 
animosity may be traced to the following causes: — 1. Disputes 
about the boundaries in fishing the Volta; — 2. the panyarring or 
forcibly demanding long standing debts by seizing men and pro- 
perty belonging to other parties in payment of those debts, as we 
found in the case of one Geraldo with the Adas, for lodging the 
Danes who traded in their town, although the Danish government 
had repeatedly asked tlie consent of the Angulas to have a fort 
built at Keta for slave trade, which they refused; — 3. the immense 
quantity of salt obtained annually by the Adas from the lagoon, 
— and lastly, the Adas being in alliance with the Akras. The first 
war between these tribes was in 1750, in which Tshum Ampoforo, 
the king of Akem, and Sakiama Tenteng, the king of Akuapem, as- 



Chapter IX. 131 

sisted the Adas. In conjunction with these Tshi warriors, the A- 
ngulas were defeated, but two ol" the royal blood of the Tshis, 
viz., the two sovereigns themselves, were taken prisoners. Peace 
was made in 1767, and the Augulas traded to Ada. The royal 
captives were ransomed with a large quantity of cam-wood. 

But the Angulas made use of those peaceful times to prepare for 
an invasion. Having made an alliance with several tribes, they 
attacked the Adas by surprise in 1776. The contest was frightful; 
nearly one half of the population were slain; great numbers were 
taken prisoners, the remnant of the Adas fled for shelter to Oko- 
huem, near Wekumagbe, and Ningo. During this time the Danish 
merchants carried on a brisk trade with some confederate tribes 
on the banks of the river, Agalaves, Tefres, Milamfes, Batgs &c. The 
trade with the Krepes was lively, and the Agotims supplied them 
chiefly with slaves and ivory, who were escorted to the factories 
by the Milamfes. The mountaineers traded chiefly with the Angulas 
in cam-wood, which thej^ i)0wdered and mixed with palm-oil for 
anointing their bodies for their daily religious ceremonies. In re- 
turn the mountaineers brought home large quantities of smoked 
and dried fish. 

The Danish merchants kept their position during the whole time 
the Adas were at Ningo, by the aid of a dozen cannon placed on 
a rampart on the bank of the Volta, just in front of their factories. 
The Angulas kept quiet and traded with them, until their savage 
spirit stirred them up to form intrigues against the Europeans. 
That case was, however, settled by giving hostages to the merchants, 
and promising henceforth to be at peace at all times. The young 
men of Angula did not approve this transaction and constantly 
taunted the elders for having given hostages. Hence the trade on 
the Volta became insecure, goods in canoes to the factory at Keta 
were seized, and the canoemen sold as slaves. After a great deal 
of forbearance the Danish Government in 1782 took measures to 
crush theii' refractory spirit. 

The kings and chiefs in alliance with the Danish Government 
on this side of the Volta, and to whom monthly stipends were 
paid, were king Naku Odang of Christiansborg, Ako Dsharam, king 
of Labade, the chiefs of Poni and Ningo, and Obuobi Atie"mo, the 
king of Akuapem. Major Kioge, governor of the Danish settlements 
on the Gold Coast, summoned those kings and chiefs to Christians- 
borg to consult about an expedition against the Angulas. They 

9* 



132 Histoiy of the Gold Cocast and Asante. 

advised the governor to ask the aid of the king of Dutch Town^ 
Akra, whom they acknovs^ledge their head, w^ithout whose assistance 
an expedition against Angula would be dilirtcult, or even dangerous. 
Teko Tshuru, the king of Dutch Akra, and his chiefs Oto Brafo, 
Ayite Okoso, Ayai Peko and their captains and people had at that 
time removed to Kwabenyan and Kpokpoase in consequence of the 
bombardment of the Dutch fort by the English. They were dis- 
affected against the governor and the people of Christiansborg for 
supplying the English men-of-war with ammunition. Governor 
Kioge was obliged to go in person to see the king at the Ga bush, 
to propitiate him and ask his aid. A grand meeting was held 
to settle the case; yet the Akras were not inclined to join the 
expedition. "Had we been killed by the English, when you sup- 
plied them with ammunition, could we assist you?" was what 
they told the governor. Chief Oto, one of the most sensible and 
powerful among the rest and universally acknowledged almost as 
a king, then rose and addressed the meeting, "Brethren, for my 
part, 1 would advise you to consent to the request of the gover- 
nor, to join our brethren of Christiansborg in organizing the ex- 
pedition. For I am confident we can conquer the Angulas, as our 
fathers once conquered them !" His royal horn-blower then re- 
sponded, "Oto e, Oto e, kyere w'akyiri o !" which means: Oto, ex- 
cept in thy back ! — meaning, when he would not go before, any 
transaction or undertaking would be impossible for the Akras to 
carry out. By these words their consent was obtained, and the meet- 
ing broke up. The governor and his party returned to Christians- 
borg. Chief Ama Oterene of Teshi and the chiefs of Ningowa, 
Tema &c., who were then in alliance with the king of Dutch Akra, 
came with Oto and got their ammunition and subsistence. King 
Naku Odang with the other chiefs, king Obuobi Atiemo and his 
chiefs of Akuapem, and the allies of the Danish government were 
supplied with arms and ammunition. The time to move the ex- 
pedition was fixed. Tradition says that the governor spent the 
cargos of seven barques in suppljnng ammunition to the expedition. 
His Excellency despatched three sailing vessels to Fante, and they 
were loaded with corn for the use of the army. Owing to the un- 
settled state of the Akems, in consequence of the war between 
them and the Asantes, some hostages were demanded by the gov- 
ernor from the king to insure his loyalty during the absence of 
the expedition. One of the hostages also joined the army. 



Chapter IX. 133 

On the 4*'' of February 1784, all the armed men with their kings 
and chiefs from Akra, Akuapem, Krobg, River-side and the Adas 
arrived. A large assembly inet betveeen the rampart and the new 
building, Kongensteen. In the midst of a large circle of armed men, 
five European gentlemen, the governor, the merchant, Mr. Biorn, 
Dr. Isert &c., were seated round a table, on which a bottle of liquor, 
seven wine glasses, and a beautiful sabre were placed. King Naku, 
with a few of his retainers, was seated under a state-umbrella on 
one side, and king Obuobi Atiemo, also with his retainers, under 
a state-umbrella on the other side of the Europeans. On the opposite 
side some puncheons of rum, rolled tobacco, and cases of pipes 
were placed. 

The governor requested the assembly of armed men to make a 
choice of one of the kings or chiefs to be general and commander- 
in-chief of the whole body. Chief Oto was unanimously chosen, 
to whom the sabre on the table was handed. Holding it up with 
both hands, he took the oath with these words — "I possess one 
stool, one drum, one horn, and one umbrella; where these things 
are, there I am, heaven and earth help me!" His horn-blower 
then responded ; Oto e, Oto e, kyere w'akyiri o ! The whole mass 
then shouted: hurrah! hurrah! Seven guns were fired in salute 
of the general. That mode of taking oaths seems more expressive 
than that of the Tshis, who point the sword to the nose of the 
superior. Some liquor was served to the kings and the chiefs, 
who after emptying the glass threw some drops from their mouths 
into the mouth of the retainers, — a mode of giving liquor to in- 
feriors and children at that time. The whole proceedings of the 
meeting was interpreted in the different dialects of those present 
by an eloquent linguist, and the meeting broke up. 

The next day, being the 2S^^ of February, a second meeting was 
held by order of the general, at which fetish-oaths were adminis- 
tered to every king and chief of the army to the effect that they 
acknowledged Oto the commander-in-chief, and that they would 
obey his orders and fight faithfully during the campaign. The pres- 
ents, consisting of rum, tobacco and pipes &c., were impartially 
distributed to every king and armed man, who were ordered to 
get themselves in readiness on the day appointed for crossing 
the Volta. 

During the whole transaction, Fort Kongensteen was being built, 
and on the 21** of March it was finished. The Danish flag was hoisted, 



134 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

and the governor and his staff took lodgings there. The Adas, who 
were against building a fort in their town, were convinced at last 
that it was {jartl)^ for their own interest — to avoid destruction from 
the attacks of the enemy, and were tinally much contented with it. 
Boats and canoes, sufficient to cross the whole army, were got 
in readiness, and on the 25**^ of March the crossing commenced (as 
tradition reports, at Tefre). The Europeans superintending that 
work were most anxious to prevent overloading the boats and drown- 
ing. The Akras ari*anged themselves with their flags along the 
bank at Aziza (tlie estuary of the Volta). The enemy, sheltered 
in the bushes beyond, watched them. The whole army of 2000 
men crossed under the lire of the enemy, and having crossed, they 
formed their divisions. The centre, composed of the Akras under 
the general; the right wing, com})Osed of the Adas, Krobos and 
the River-side people, and the left wing under king Obuobi Atiemo 
with the Akuapems. The enemy, after vain attempts to oppose the 
crossing, fled to their camp, and a march was ordered against them. 
On the 30"> the Angulas were found to have encamped behind a 
marshy lake, overgrown with thick grass, called yikiyiki. The 
Adas who wished to fight in revenge, as well as the Akras, tied 
their cartridge belts to their heads, each laying his gun on his 
head and crossing the lake, while the body was up to their shoul- 
ders in water and mud. When across, they fought like tigers. 
The left wing under the king of Akuapem could not pass the lake 
at the same moment, else the enemy could have been enveloped 
in three quarters of an hour. The enemy, not being able to stand 
the fire, were obliged to retreat, in consequence of which Atoko 
was set on fire, oxen, sheep and pigs were seized. The army now 
formed two columns and marched to Fute at 5 o'clock P. M., and 
set fire to it and the capital. Atitonu, Alakple and Anyako were 
also in flames on the same evening. A large camp fire was kindled 
during the whole night, and the warriors feasted on the abundant 
spoil obtained that day. The savage mode of destroying everything 
which came in the way of the army, viz., houses and fruit-trees, 
and mutilating the slain, displeased the governor highl3^ He was 
told, unless they did so, the Angulas would never admit to have 
been conquered by them. Forty men were wounded that day, of 
whom very few died. An Ada seized with terror shot himself. 
On the first of April, the march was resumed to Keta, as the enemy 
had fled and could not be traced. Wei and Tegbe were burnt down. 



Chapter IX. 135 

At Keta all but a single man had (led, though thoy professed to be 
neutral. Chief Late, the father of George Lawson, arrived on the 
4*^1 with an army of 1100 men composed of Afrawus, Beis and the 
people of Little Popo. Late, being- an Akra and hearing- of his 
peo[»le's arrival, came to assist them. The whole army numbered 
now over oOOO men. On the 10"^ they marched from Keta to Kpo- 
til)ra, wliere there was plenty of salt, which they seized and ex- 
changed for provisions. The enemy was nowhere to be traced, 
and on the 11*'' May the camp was removed to a plain. The supply 
of ammunition had been wasted in baying provisions, and more 
was required, which obliged the governor to send to Keta, when 
several men got an opportunit}^ of running down to the coast for 
articles in demand in camp. Had that been known, the enemy 
might have thought of an attack. A good supply was obtained 
for the army, which now amounted to over 4000. Although Late 
was one of the most sensible and powerful among the chiefs, yet 
the governor and his staff were suspicious of him. A hint having 
been obtained of the enemy encamping at Feta, they marched again 
on the IB**', and got in sight of his camp. The River-side people 
opened fire on them, which was not returned. The warriors were 
arranged according to their divisions within sight of the enemy's 
camp, and the whole night was passed in watching, singing, and 
dancing till the break of day, the 14***. They washed, dressed, and 
made some stripes of white clay on their bodies. The enemy had 
taken a strong position along the Kleve bush, and had dug holes 
in the ground, inside and outside ; some of the holes they had 
slightly covered to entrap the warriors, while others were left open 
to protect their persons when fighting. A detachment was ordered 
to draw them out on the plain. Here the Akuapems, who could 
not tight in the first engagement on account of the swamp, first 
began tighting very gallantl}'. The centre and the right wing also 
marched to meet their lines. The conflict was sharp and doubtful 
till noon, when the enemy retired into the bush. The left wing, 
consisting of foresters, rushed in after them, but sustained some 
losses. A party of the enemy's troop rushed to attack the rear, 
but the reserve army of 500 men drove them back. The remark- 
able gallantry displayed by chief Late removed the suspicion for- 
merly entertained against him by the governor. The battle lasted 
till dusk, when the enemy retreated, and left the expedition masters 
of the field with the loss of 24 slain and 54 wounded. The enemv 



136 History of the Gold Coast and Asaiite. 

had 54 slain, 160 wounded. The exj)edition slept on the battle-field, 
and chief Late was ordered by the governor to be his body-guard 
during- the night. Nothing more was heard of the enemj'^; the ex- 
pedition marched to Kpotibra. Here prince Ofori Thosu, the son 
of king Ashangmo of Akra, who had emigrated to Popo in 1680, 
arrived with an army to mediate on behalf of the Angulas. He sent 
a captain after them to Klikg where the enemy had fled, and on 
the 27*'^ they sued for peace. King Obli of Popo was then at Afra- 
wu collecting an army to join the expedition. He sent repeatedly 
to advise the governor, never to grant peace to the Angulas till he 
had arrived. The governor was obliged to go there in person, and 
what he was told by the old king of 80 j'ears of age was, ''Wait 
in camp four weeks, and if I cannot join you then accept the ne- 
gotiation for peace from the Angulas." A sanction to establish a 
factory at Afrawu was obtained. (King Obli died in 1786.) The 
governor now returned to camp. As the Angulas were asking for 
peace, the camp was again pitched at Keta, and on the 4*'sJune, 
four ambassadors arrived with nine hostages. A grand meeting 
was held on the 18*'^ to receive the hostages and sign the following 
treaty of peace. 

1. The Angulas must allow a Fort to be built at Keta. 

2. They must allow free passage to travellers by land as well 
as by the river. 

3. They must allow Factories to be established in the country, 
especially in the capital. 

4. They must not carry on trade in slaves, ivory, and other 
articles of commerce (provision and poultry excepted) with any 
other European nation, but the Danes. 

5. They were allowed to rebuild their towns, and to keep per- 
petual peace with the Keta people (Agbosomes). 

6. The^^ must give ten hostages, sons of the chiefs, and bear in 
mind that on the infringement of the treaty the hostages were to 
be sold from the country. 

The four ambassadors, creeping on their knees and hands, saluted 
the leading men of the meeting, after which the nine hostages were 
handed over to the governor. The signing and witnessing of the 
treatj'- followed, and then the meeting broke up. On the next day, 
the 19"S the general with the leading men of the army gave fetish 
to the ambassadors to the effect that they would, in the name of 



Chapter IX. 137 

the whole country, keep the peace, be faithful, and never in future 
dare to take up arms against the Akras. 

The plan of the fort Prindsensteen was made, the ground prepared 
on the 20*'', and on the 22"** another grand meeting was held, at 
which the foundation-stone was laid by Adade, brother of king 
Obli. Prince Ofori Thosu put the first mortar on the stone with 
these words: ^'Whoever dares to touch a single stone of the build- 
ing, touches my person." And then the building commenced. Tra- 
dition says that the Akras planted some trees in the principal 
towns of Angula as a memorial of the victory. The whole army 
was put in motion homeward on the 26'*^, and reached Ada the 
following day. As the Angulas were not well pleased with the 
building of the fort, and likely to give some trouble. Prince Ofori 
Thosu and chief Late with their [>eople were commissioned to pro- 
tect the building till it was finished. The government had to order 
the stones for the building from Christiansborg. 

To prevent further bloodshed, the governor made presents to the 
whole army, and would have given monthly stipends to the king 
of Dutch Akra, and his allies; but Oto declared that they would 
never change their flag, but await the return of their former masters, 
the Dutch. The chiefs of Teshi, Ningowa and Tema were, however, 
submitted to the Danish government, got monthly stipends and 
hoisted their flag till the English government bought Fort Christians- 
borg, and all the Danish allies came under the protection of the 
English government. The Dutch Town people repaired their town 
and removed from Kwabenyan and Kpokpoase. 



CHAPTER X. 

The state of A saute and Altera at this pex'iod. — The battle at Mpemeho- 
asem, dissensions and commotions in the country. — The first Asante 
invasion of Fante, known as Fantekah. — The invasion by the Ubutus 
and Fantes of Akra on Saturday, known as Hota. 1749 — 1809. 

After the death of Opoku Ware, his nephew Kwisi Bodum suc- 
ceeded him on the stool, who restored to the great chiefs the con- 
stitutional powers of which they had been deprived by his pre- 
decessor. He was the most humane of all the monarchs, forbade 
the human sacrifices, and brought peace among the chiefs. Yet 



138 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

they did not ai»[»rove of his being so less blood-thirsty, so that 
many tried to irritate his feelings by committing acts against the 
law of the constitution; however, he kept to his principles. His 
nephew and successor KwadvVo seduced four of his wives who con- 
ceived by him. To spare him for the stool, Duedu, who had the 
charge of the harem, professed to be the offender, and was there- 
fore beheaded. Prince Kwadwo, after this, persisted in his wicked 
course, and was clearly convicted. The king, however, to avoid 
further bloodshed, spared his nephew. But one night he ordered 
all the most valuable treasures of the kingdom, the best medicines 
for preserving life as well as those for carrying on war success- 
full}^, to be thrown into a deep swamp of the river Nsuben, as a 
punishment for his wicked act. Adabo, one of his sons, also trans- 
gressed with some of his wives; as a [lunishment he ordered him 
to be castrated. He was the first king who appointed inspectors 
of nuisances and clearing of the roads and paths in his kingdom. 
The insignia of that ofitice are a gold sword, and a gold and silver 
whip. The fine for committing nuisance or not clearing the paths 
was domafa = 3/ll. From those who observed the law, they used 
to get a present of two fowls and 2/3 cash. Such revenue was called 
Nsumen and amounted annually to 3000 peredwans or sometimes 
less. It was divided into three parts, Ys ^^^^ king's share, Vs ^o 
Koronti and the surveyors. His eyes being dim by age, the nobles 
of Asante determined to put an end to his mild reign, built a king's 
palace lor him at Kyeremade, and removed him there, where he 
rehiained till he died about the year 1770. 

Every fortieth day, known as Adae Kwasi, the king of Asante 
with his nobles visits Kyeremade and offers sacrifices to the spirit 
of Kwisi Bgdum. After this the king repairs to Mogyawe to keep 
the Adae. Adae-kese is the yearly Adae, at which time the king- 
receives his nobles and captains at Dwabirim and spends 1000 
peredwans in presents to his chiefs, captains and officials. The fol- 
lowing day he spends at Bantama to sacrifice to the spirits of his 
ancestors. 

Prince Kwadwo was then made king of Asante. His lirst act 
was to pick up those valuables from that deep swamp, at which 
attempt 1000 men lost their lives, whence that place is called Mene- 
apem, i.e. swallowed a thousand men. 

Worosa, the king of Banna, used to seize and kill Asante traders 
on his territory. Osei Kwadwo, therefore, declared war against 



Chaptea- X. 139 

liirn. He tnjirclied against Worosa witli such forces as were avail- 
al)le, hoping- to nip the rebellion in the bud. He was twice de- 
feated, and had to retreat into the forests which surrounded Kutn- 
ase. There, rallying his troops and their reserve, ho turned on 
his enemies and inflicted on them a signal defeat. The Bannas had 
for the first time fought with fire-arms, and were assisted in this 
campaign by the Moslem cavalry of Kong. The cause of his defeat 
was attributed to an Asante being captured, who was carried to 
the house-top of Worosa, who asked the prisoner to show him the 
camp of the Asantes. The prisoner, seeing a great number of 
"kurokuronasuo" trees with beautiful red blossoms, said to the king, 
"There is the camp of the Asantes." Startled to see so many state- 
umbrellas, as he thought, of an enemy he knew to have defeated, 
he lost courage and blew up himself and his people with powder. 
The blasting was heard by the Asantes, who attacked and routed 
the enemy. Worosa, found nearly dead, was beheaded by a stroke 
from the sword of the king. The shape of his head was made 
with gold, and placed on a sword which was called "Worosa-ti." 

]\lultitudes of prisoners were captured. The adults were sacri- 
ficed, or sold as slaves to the Dutch and English in the slave- 
market at Manso to defray the expense of the war, and all the 
male children were educated at the king's expense and became 
soldiers of a new body-guard which he instituted under the name 
of Nkonsong and Hyiewu, with Oko ue Qko for captains. 

Animiri Panyin, the king of Wasa, boasted that, if he could get 
hold on Usei Kwadwo, he would drive an epa (a curved iron clos- 
ing round the wrist of a prisoner and fixed on a block) into his 
head. Wasa was therefore invaded and ravaged; Animiri was cap- 
tured and his head was treated as he had offered to treat the king's, 
and then hung on a drum with the name Agyankoto Agyankama. 
So the terror of his arms was felt beyond Cape Palmas. He pitied 
prince Adabo for the punishment he got from his father and there- 
fore made him the chief surveyor of the nuisance and paths clearers 
or scavengers. A big jar of palm-wine was appointed as his daily 
allowance, hence the name "adaboa" was given to any jar. 

After this, Akram, king of the Kotokus, then established near 
Agogo and Okwawu, was, one midday, defeated and slain; hence 
the king received the surname ''Okoawia", who fights on midday. 

Nakawa succeeded Okuru Karikari, who had been recently sub- 
dued by Opoku Ware, on the stool of Yane. He organized a very 



140 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

large army by making several alliances with the neighbouring 
tribes, and revolted against Osei Kwadwo. General Koranteng 
Pete III was ordered to give him battle. A hot contest ensued. 
The fortune of the day was almost in favour of the king of Yane, 
when the general by a bold attack surrounded the king's body- 
guard and captured him alive. This obliged his numerous forces 
to lay down their arms. By Osei Kwadwo's instructions to the 
general, Nakawa's life was spared, but he was obliged to write a 
contract in Arabic, which both himself and all his generals signed, 
to the effect that he and his successors should remain vassals to 
the king of Asante, and pay a tribute of 1000 slaves annually to 
the king. General Koranteng Pete and his successors had not 
only the charge of this province, but also 300 slaves out of the 
tribute every year. The Asantes in levying this tribute counted 
two or three boys and girls to an adult, hence the appellation 
''Okumka-deka", i.e. he paid the debt and is yet indebted, is ap- 
plied to the king of Yane. 

During Osei Kwadwo's reign the civil war between Mampong 
and Dwabeng took place. Atakora Maniampong of Mampong had 
the jurisdiction of the tributary states of Nta and Brong, and A- 
kuamoa Panyin had that of Namonsi, Karakye and Bagyam. The 
latter claimed the jurisdiction of the state belonging to the former, 
and thus war broke out. The chiefs met near Namonsi one Wed- 
nesday morning. After a sharp contest Akuamoa Panyin was beaten 
and escaped on horseback. His prempe, nkrawiri (two kinds of 
state-drum), money-bag, pistol and kettle-drum were captured by 
Atakora. The king despatched armed men who brought the hostile 
chiefs to Kumase, where the case was investigated. Akuamoa was 
found guilty, and the Namonsi people were restored to Atakora. 
His people then began to extol him : "Wo na wode prempe si nsoa; 
wo na wode nkrawiri ye agyensu ; wode sana bo saua so; woma 
Bosompra di afasew Wukuda." Meaning: It was you who made 
the prempe to become a fishing-net; it was you who converted 
nkrawiri to a gutter; you tied one money-bag upon another; you 
made Bosompra eat yam on Wednesday. — Dadease was then 
under Akuamoa, but the })eople did not assist their chief against 
Mampong. They were ordered to come over to explain why they 
had not taken part in the war. Alleging that they were indebted 
to the amount of 30 peredwans, the amount was paid for them by 
chief Asare Pomsem and princess Adwowa Piraman of Kokofu, to 



Chapter X. 141 

whom they became subject. Others believe that thej were sold 
by Akuamoa for 100 pe red wans. 

Shortly after this, Akuamoa was deposed from the stool ot Dwa- 
beii, and resided at Marabang- where he had the pleasure of hear- 
ing- the song- of certain birds, from which the Ature dance was 
invented. The new king, Fetua, proving- unable to rule, Akuamoa 
was reinstated. 

Atakora Maniampong died and was succeeded by Owusu Sekyere. 
During- the last year of (Jsei Kwadwo's life, when he was worn 
out with old age and hardship, Asen, Akuapeni, and Akem took 
advantage of his condition to rebel. He died about 1781. 

His nephew Kwame Panyin (Osei Kwamena), a youth of about 
12 years, succeeded. 

His first act was to send an arm}^ under Opoku Fredefrede against 
the Asens who had by their rebellion embittered the last hour of 
his uncle. The rebels were defeated, and the heads of Akombra 
of Kokom and Ofosu, both kings of Asen, were added to the tro- 
phies which decorate the palace of the king of Kumase. 

Owusu Sekyere, who had the charge of the provinces of Nta and 
Brong, went to Krupi to attend a funeral custom of the late chief 
of the place. Staying there for a year, he became very proud and 
cruel by practising all sorts of enchantment against Asante. His 
own captains, Afidwase Babu, Gyamase Bediako, and Adwira Bo- 
adu Atoto sent privately to inform the king of Owusu's doings 
there. Ogyobeii was commissioned by the king with 30 armed 
men, three peredwans, ten loads of cola and ten ankers of rum to 
the chief of Yegye, to get Owusu drowned when crossing the Volta. 
The plot being- known to him, he crossed the river in a common 
fowl-basket in which he had hid himself. To the surprise of his 
enemies, who were waiting to see him drowned, he landed safely. 
Jumping from the basket, he called out, Diako! (the name of the 
late king of the Guah tribes driven by Opoku Ware to Krepe). 
Ogyoben delivered to him four ankers of rum and a message from 
the king requesting his presence at Kumase, Owusu sent the com- 
missioner back to the king with 12 slaves and the assurance that 
he was coming. At Nyenyennura general Yemoa Ponko at the 
head of a large army gave him battle ; for three days he could 
not be overcome, till one of his servants, Kotokoro by name, placed 
him on his back, thus enabling- him to climb by a creeping- plant 
up to the to[» of the rock Atwieboo, where he committed suicide. 



142 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Hence the Mampong oath of Thursday. Tlie king appointed his 
brother Osafo Katanka to succeed him. But he was deprived of 
the provinces of Nta and Broug. Krupi was also taken from his 
jurisdiction and the inhabitants removed to Pami, which became 
the present far-famed market-town of Salaga. Osafo in memory 
of this humiliation ordered different horns to be blown, showing 
how he had been deprived of every thing he possessed, and would 
therefore be mute. 

Akuamoa Panyin having died, the king went to Dwaben to attend 
the funeral, and there had connection with Agyei Badu, sister of 
YeboaKore, whom he ouglit never to have married, as it was against 
the constitutional law of Asante. Besides he neglected his duties 
in the capital, as he had taken permanent residence in Dwaben. 
Koranteh Pete and Apea Dankwa, two powerful generals in Kum- 
ase, combined with the nobles and chiefs, led an army to Dwaben 
and deposed the king. The Dwabens and his body-guard would 
have resorted to arms, but the king, to avoid bloodshed, prevented 
them. During his reign, he constituted another body-guard knov^^n 
as Apagya for his son Owusu Gyamedua, and Atipiri for the cap- 
tain of Ankobea. He also built the town Beremang. Agyin, the 
chief of Tafo, was presented with one peredwan of gold and apiece 
of nsa (a basket-cover) for permitting the king to build the town. 
Osei Kwamena also forbade the selling of real Asantes from the 
country. Residing in Dwabejig, he poisoned himself in about 1799. 

His brother Opoku Fofie (Opoku II, Kwabom) succeeded him, 
but reigned only two months and died suddenly, being, it is said, 
visited by the apparition of his late brother, when in bed with one 
ol' his wives by name Firempoma Tanno. 

During his life-time the Mohammedans of Kong instigated the 
population of Gyaman to rebel against Asante, because the ex-king 
encouraged the Mohammedan religion. It was professed at Bontuku 
that the object was to restore to his stool the deposed king Osei 
Kwame. But Opoku being suddenly removed by death, the case 
dropped and peace was restored. 

At his death, he was succeeded by his brother, much younger 
than himself, and with the advent of Osei Tutu Kwamena, properly 
known as Diasibe and Bonsu, to the stool, we enter on a period 
in which political relations may be said to have subsisted between 
Great Britain and Asante. 



Chapter X. 143 

There was peace in the coiuitry durinti' a period of 18 3'ears 
after the return of the expedition against the Angulas; lawlessness, 
however, prevailed in every district. Asiedu, a ne[ihew of king 
Safrotwe of Akropong, came to Akra, and had a quarrel with an 
Akra woman, the real cause of which is now uncertain. He was 
seen beating the woman, when one Bontoako Teko, who was close 
by, liad to jump through his window to her assistance. Asiedu 
went back to Akuapem, but died shortly after that. Safrotwe there- 
upon sent messengers to Akra, demanding satisfaction, which was 
refused, alleging that Bontoako was not the cause of his nephew's 
death. The intercourse between Akra and Akuapem was on that 
account broken, and the paths became unsafe. 

To obtain redress for the injury, a small party of armed men 
was sent under one Okule, a Fanteman resident at Aburi, with the 
instruction of panyaring Akra women on their way to Mayera. 
It being one Tuesday, no one passed on the way, yet there were 
some farmers with their families busily gathering ground-nuts. 
They were attacked, the women and children effected their escape, 
and left some of the men slain on the spot. Their heads were cut 
off and carried in triumph to Aburi. The king was greatly annoyed 
at this disregard to his instructions. "You have brought me into 
trouble," he said to the party. "I meant to capture them alive to 
adjust the difference between us ! How am 1 now to return these 
heads to the Akras?" Upon which the Akuapems there assembled 
responded, "Come what may, we can stand the consequences.'" 
Knowing what would naturally be the consequences of this atro- 
city, the Akuapems, upon breaking uj) the meeting, immediately 
attacked Oyeadufa and Pantang, villages belonging to Labade and 
Teshi. Kruding, a captain of the priestly band of Teshi, and one 
Okru, residing at Oyeadufji, fell in the attack. When the head of 
the former was to be cut off, Tete Obokum of Berekuso, being 
his friend, interceded, dragged him behind some plantain-trees and 
hid him under the leaves. He became conscious during the night 
and went back to Teshi; Okru also is reported to have survived. 

King Amugi of Akra with his chiefs, Tete Ankama of Gbese, 
Amo Koba of Otu-street, Kwaw of James Town, Naku Odang of 
Osu, Sowa Kpobi of Labade, Kole and Okang of Teshi, were en- 
raged. They concentrated their forces and encamped at Nyantrabi 
to give battle to the Akuapems. Safrotwe thereupon encamped 
with his forces on the Opoku hill near Berekuso. The Akra camp 



144 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

was removed to Ashongmaug- awaiting their descent, which did not 
ensue. King Amugi ordered his forces to attack the Akuapems on 
the hill ; but through divers opinions, which was nothing else but 
want of courage, they at last proposed to decamp for the celebra- 
tion of their yearly feast. No sooner was the camp broken up, 
than the Akuapems descended and pitched their camp on the spot. 

Afo, an influential man of Otu-street in Dutch Akra, advised the 
Akras not to wait for the celebration of the feast of the other towns, 
which generally comes on ten days after theirs, but to encamp 
first at Nyantrabi, till the chiefs of Osu, Labade and Teshi should 
join tliem with their forces. They accordingly did so, however, 
not with all their men. The Akuapems, having been informed of 
the weak state of the Akra camp, immediately attacked it and 
killed most of their principal men. The king, Tete Ankama and 
chiefs Kwaw, Amo, and several others were fain to hide in the 
bushes, and made their way home during the night. Some even 
strolled in the bush for three days before they found their way 
home. Several influential chiefs were captured, brought to Akro- 
pong and there barbarously killed. Afo was accused of having 
acted as a spy, and even killed many of those who were wounded, 
among whom was Ayite Okai. It was in August 1802. 

A large Court was held in Dutch Town by all the chiefs and 
warriors of Akra, to which Afo was summoned to clear himself of 
the charge. The commandant of James Town was called upon to 
intercede, who was willing to pay any amount whatever to pacify 
the infuriated people, but nothing was acceptable. At last they 
were cooled down, fines and presents were given and shared, every 
one was to retire home, when unfortunately one Oni Tete of Otu- 
street excited the populace to a contest, in which many were slain, 
and Afo among the number. 

During those days of commotions and dissensions, the people of 
Christiansborg, Labade, Ningo, and the Akuapems were allies of 
the Danish government, while those of Dutch Town, James Town, 
Teshi, Tema and Prampram were Dutch and English allies. 

The allies of the Danish government on the coast had, in times 
of scarcity, access to the mountains. To distinguish themselves 
from those of other towns, they had to wear some peculiar neck, 
lace with one or two cowries in it. To get them into trouble, the 
Akuapems smuggled articles of their own property into the loads 
of the Akras, as Joseph did to his brothers in Egypt. But though 



Chapter X. 145 

deceitfully dealt with by the Akuapems, they never thought of stand- 
ing united aoainst their common foe. 

Some Danish colonists, as Messieurs Schonning, Truelsen, Meyer^ 
Gronberg and others, had established villages of their own atSesemi, 
Dvvabeh, Bebiase, and Kpohkpo. A fine fort was built by Schonning 
in his village and armed with cannon. 

Kwaw Safrotwe used to frequent that place, being on friendly 
terms with Mr. Schonning. Once upon a visit, after the usual enter- 
tainment, the king ordered his people to play a dance for their amuse- 
ment. Being unsober, he ordered this song to be played: "Bibifo 
som me, naBrofosom me," The blacks as well as the wliite men serve 
me. Mr. Schonning was greatly displeased, ordered at once his fort 
to be pulled down, and retired to the coast. The king did all in 
his power to appease him, but in vain. 

The Akras not being very active in taking revenge after the 
attack at Nyantrabi, encouraged their enemy to carry on his inroads 
even to the coast. An attack upon Teshi was planned, but knowing 
how powerful the place was, and hearing at the same time that a 
good number of the Pramprams had been engaged at James Town, 
they fell npon their town, and carried otT some women and children. 
The Ningoes heard the fire, chased them as far as Owido near the 
Shai mountain, and killed two of them; some of the prisoners effected 
their escape, but the rest they sold in Fante. The Akuapems, on 
their w^ay back, surprised Ashikuma, a village belonging to Teshi, 
killed three men and made two prisoners. Doku, the son of chief 
Okang of Teshi, was one of the prisoners, whom they proposed to 
sell, when he exclaimed, ^'You will never get a real native of Teshi 
besides me, you had better kill me!" They accordingly did so. Some 
common fellows of Christiansl)org and Labade, having kidnapped 
a boy from Teshi, were severely beaten and driven from their 
villages. Tiie Labades thus banished, called down some of the Akua- 
pems, and went before them, decoying the Teshis from their villages 
by calling out their names, and catching them. 

Such was the state of the country, that pillage, manstealing, and 
murder prevailed in every district. If the European governments 
of the Danes, Dutch, and English then established on the coast had 
not become demoralized and weakened through the slave trade, 
such general disorder could easily have been checked. The poor 
people they pretended to protect, were so far protected, alas for 
their own benefit! — 

10 



146 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

The two principalities into which Asen was then divided were 
Apemanem and Tanngsu, which were governed, the former by Amo 
Adae, whose chief captain was Tokudum, and the latter by Tibo 
and Kwaku Apotoi, co-partners in authority. One of Apotoi's fol- 
lowers opened the grave of one of Amo's captains and robbed it of 
some treasure. Amo, unable to obtain redress from Tibo and Apotoi, 
appealed to Osei Kwame Panyin. The king thereupon gave judge- 
ment in favour of Amo andimprisoned Apotoi. He escaped, and Amo, 
unable to obtain redress, marclied into Tibo and Apotoi's province. 
The king therefore commissioned the chiefs Kofi Amparaku of Adanse, 
Bosompim Nto of Omanso, Agogo Kyei, Amantara Ofosuhene, and 
Osemdu Akora. Boakye Atansa with captain Mpo and Apea Anyo 
from Kumase went with the commissioners to Asen and summoned 
the hostile chiefs to meet and settle the case. Tibo and Apotoi 
treacherously attacked the commissioners and Amo. The latter 
successfully resisted, but the commissioners were killed, with the 
exception of Boakj^'e and his captains from Kumase. Hence the 
oath: Adanse-Praso. The king fined Tibo and Apgtoi 300 pere. 
dwans; but the case seems to have been adjourned in consequence 

of the death of the king. 

On the accession of Osei Tutu Kwamena, surnamed Diasibe, to 
the stool of Asante, an appeal was made by Amo to have the 
wrongdoers brought to justice. The new monarch interfered, and 
again the wrongdoers attacked Amo. Then, after two more attempts 
at reconciliation, and more treachery against Amo, Osei Tutu Kwamena 
marched his army into Asen. 

The two principalities in Akem, Abuakwa and Kotoku, had been 
governed by several kings respectively after the defeat and sub- 
jugation at Beniia. Ofori Panyin, Obiri Korane Aboree and Tshum 
Ampoforo had ascended the stool of Abuakwa; likewise Obeng and 
Kotoku Ampoma, nephew of Karikari Apaw, one of the hostages to 
the Adwumankus, had been redeemed, and succeded Obeng. Apara- 
ku, the son of general Bantama Wua of Kumase, succeeded Tshum 
Ampoforo I, and Ampoma having died in his preparation against 
Asen, Opoku succeeded him. These kings of Akem were ordered 
by Osei Tutu Kwamena to join him against the Asens. 

Tibo and Apotoi tied with their followers into the Fante territory. 
The king then sent a present to Aknmanin, king of Asikuma, asking 
him to allow the Asante forces to pass through his country in 
pursuit of his rebellious vassals. Leave was granted, and Apea 



Chapter X. 147 

Daiikwa, the Asante general, overtook and defeated Tibo and 
Apotoi. 

But the Fantes then joined in the war, and attacked the Asantes, 
who were again victorious. All the Fante tribes now united with 
the Asens, who had bribed their chiefs. The Dutch Governor at 
Koromante admitted the Asantes to the fort, and the king himself 
advanced to Abora with a considerable force. Colonel Torrane at- 
tempted to mediate, but was unsuccessful, and the Asante king, 
ascertaining that Tibo and Apotoi had taken refuge with the English, 
laid siege to Anomabo on the 15"» June 1807. Mr. White, the Governor, 
with Messieurs Meredith, F. L. Swanzy, Barnes and T. A. Smith, and 
twent.y-four men including some artificers and servants, received 
as many of the inhabitants as they could, and determined upon 
a gallant defence. They repulsed every assault with tremendous 
slaughter. A small detachment came to their relief by sea, and 
Colonel Torrane entered into negotiation with the king. At this 
Juncture a whale was seen moving and sporting in the sea, and 
the name "bonsu" a whale, was given to the king.*) 

Colonel Torrane"s negotiations were not honourable to England, 
as he agreed to give up the refugees to the vengeance of their 
enemies. Apotoi escaped, but Tibo was put to death with circum- 
stances of atrocious barbarity. The king, having expressed his 
respect for the brave defence of the garrison, claimed the Fantes 
who had taken refuge there as prisoners. He was at last satisfied 
with half their number, and Colonel Torrane, keeping the other 
half, sold them into slavery. The king declined to allow Colonel 
Torrane to interfere on the behalf of the Fantes, but promised 
to recognize his authority in the towns under the guns of the 
British forts. 

It is to the credit of Mr. John Swanzy, then Governor of James 
Town, Akra, that he rose from his sick-bed and went by canoe 
to Cape Coast to remonstrate with Colonel Torrane against his 
pusillanimity and cruelty, but it was too late. Few of the wretched 
Fante prisoners escaped the fate of victims or of slaves, and 
Mr. Swanzy returned to Akra only to die, but with the satisfaction 
that he at least had striven (if in vain) to maintain the honour of 
his country. 

*) Some believe that the name "Bonsu" was given to the king on 
account of the several hundrerls of fishing and landing canoes he ordered 
to be broken at the beach of Anomabo. 

10* 



148 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

The Asante army was suffering severely from the climate and 
bad water near Cape Coast, but they were put in motion, and de- 
feated the Fantes in a bloody battle near Koromante. 

The king encamped in the neighbourhood of Winneba and 
Obutu, which he destroyed in October. A steady slave traffic was 
forthwith opened between the Akras and the camp, which greatly 
irritated the Fantes. But the king, inconsequence of famine and an 
epidemic of small-pox, returned to Kumase toward the close of the 
year. His sister Akuwa Akurukuru and two others of the royal 
family died from the small-pox, hence the second reason why the 
oath Koromante became so binding: — the murder of Osei Tutu 
in the interior, and the death of these on the coast. 

On the king's march back to Kumase, he attacked the rich queen 
Aberewa Kobo, and after 3 days fighting, she blew herself up with 
powder. Her daughter with a son and all her treasures were taken. 
That grandson of Aberewa Kobo was named Afaboo by the king, 
which means, he has taken out the heart of the queen, i.e. her 
dauo-hter and grand-child, as well as the riches. Afaboo was well 
educated in Kumase, and was one of the ambassadors in negotiating 
for peace in 1831. 

An incident took place between king Aparaku of Akem and his 
subjects during the king's march to Kumase. At Asenenyewa, 
the Abuakwas revolted against Aparaku for having beheaded four 
of them. The case was brought before Osei Bonsu, and Aparaku 
was found guilty. Upon this the chiefs of Akem Abuakwa de- 
serted their king and went back home. Only the chiefs Abomosu 
Odom Aku, Kwabeii Oware and the linguist Banyin Kakawa of 
Kubease were loyal to Aparaku and accompanied him to Kumase. 

On the return of those chiefs to Akem, Bonsu ordered them to 
tell the rest of the chiefs of Abuakwa that, if they deposed their 
king, the royal stool would jiever be given to them, unless 30 pere- 
dwans were paid. The chiefs paid the amount, which was brought 
over to Kumase by those loyal chiefs; after they had been made 
to swear a fetish oath, the king delivered the stool to them. When it 
was brought, Ata Wusu Yiakosan succeeded Aparaku, and the king's 
message, that he must make his appearance in Kumase after being 
made king of Akem, was delivered by Banyin Kakawa and the 
two other chiefs. Ata agreed to visit the capital after 3 years. 

B"or the same cruelty Akem Poku, the king of Kotoku, was also 
deposed by his chiefs. Kwadwo Kuma, the nephew of the late king 



Chapter X. 149 

Ampoma, was the right heir to the stool. He being absent from 
Dampong, a rich relative, by name Kwakye Adeyefe, was chosen 
to succeed Opokn. 

The cause of Kwadwo Kuma's (Kwadwowa's) absence was that 
when his uncle was alive, Tshum Ampoforo died in Abuakwa, and 
he was sent by his uncle to attend the funeral of the late king-. He 
behaved very arrogantly, competing with Ata, whose uncle had 
died, and contracting a debt of 5 peredwans in rum bought from 
Osarn Kwasafo of Asikuma. His uncle was grieved to hear of Kwa- 
dwo Kuma's lightmindedness, and refused to pay the amount. He 
managed to borrow the sum in question from Dokuwa, 3^et he felt 
ashamed to return home, so he staid a long time with Ata. — 

The Obutus, who were warned of the king's approach when 
he was encamped near Winneba in 1807, brought their families and 
property to Akra for shelter. Nnamkoi was the king of Obutu at 
that time. A rich Obutu chief, by name Awushi Tete, had sheltered his 
property with chief Saki at J.imes Town. The war being over, his son 
Nsaki asked for the property; but Saki had sold most of the people 
into slavery and given the rest to the Asantes. An Obutu refugee, 
by name Sami nukpa, who escaped from Tshokg, had reported to 
his people how Saki had disposed of them. The sum of 100 heads 
of cowries, one puncheon of rum and a bullock were presented to 
the Obutus by Saki in order to have the case amicably settled. 

The property not being produced, a meeting was held at Kpatsha- 
kole a few miles north of Akra by the Obutus and Akras. The 
enormous sum demanded by Nsaki, so irritated the Akras, that 
one Akuashong Kwatei stood up and said, ''Let a sum like that 
demanded from Saki be produced by whole Obutu, and we can 
afford to pay it!" Thus the meeting broke off in a rage. From 
that time the Obutus began to kidnap Akra women and children- 

A company for defensive warfare was organized by all the iron- 
hearted men of Akra, among whom were Ato, Nkroma, Okule 
Apeseo, Tete Kwaw, Ama Gbagri, Oblite, Amui, Teko Owara, A- 
dama Adshagara, Abe Otwesa, Ayi Dshomoa, Adama Dshang, Ofei 
Ashong-, Kofi Nanyiranse, Aboadshe, Ayi Koto, Ati, Adshing Owuo 
Akoa, Ashi Tshuru, Afutu, Kodsho Saul &c. and Adama Pataku as 
their commander-in-chief. Through their operations a stop was put 
to the inroads of the kidnappers. The chief weapons which they car- 
ried with them were a kind of native manufactured large hatchet 
or bill-hook. 



150 History of the Gold Coast ;iiid Asante. 

When the kidnappers were checked, the chief of Akoti in Gomoa, 
by name Osiii'o, encamped at Ngleigong, with the view to obtain 
by force from the Akras the property in question. 

The defensive company, being headed by their commander-in-chief 
Adama Patakn, attacked Osafo one night and totally routed his force. 
He was wounded and died on the way. His wife Dekyi was caught, 
but escaped ; his other wives, however, were taken prisoners. Some 
fugitives from the scene of action brought the sad intelligence to 
Akoti. And to punish their enemies, they hired Fante Gomoa people, 
who, with other Fantes, bore bitterest grudge against theEiminas and 
Akras on account of their friendship with the Asantes, who, during 
their late invasion of Fante, had carried on a steady traffic with them 
in slaves, of the prisoners taken there. They had determined to re- 
venge themselves one day, and gladly seized the present opportunity. 

In the year 1809 the combined forces of Obutu and Fante invaded 
Akra. They formed their cam]> west of the town from the lagoon 
Kole to the east. They appeared so unexpectedly that the farmers 
in their plantation villages had no time to enter the town. Saki 
ordered a gong to be beaten that no one should interfere, saying, 
it was a case between himself alone, but not tlie whole town's 
people. After he had failed with the offer of one pipe of rum, a 
thousand heads of cowries and some bullocks to purchase peace, 
the investing army ordered an attack. The Akras, having found 
how they pressed into the town, did not take notice of the gong, 
but opened lire on them on Saturday 1809. The commandant in 
James Fort ordered his few soldiers to stand outside, to protect it 
from being stormed. The fire of James Town people began to slacken, 
so Mr. Hansen ran to the commandant in the Fort to render them 
assistance by the guns, which he refused to do, declaring himself 
neutral, and that, if he should comply with his request, he must 
pay an ounce of gold for every shot. Mr. Hansen then left the Fort, 
took a supply of ammunition to the Dutch Fort, and there he ren- 
dered his people the desired assistance to drive otf the enemy. 
Even his mother stood behind her people, among whom was Koti Ape- 
trepe, to fight the enemy. Hence she got the apellation ''Asare wen tentu, 
one mmenini koe". Mr. Neizer, a coloured man of Elmina, contri- 
buted largely to the success of the day. The enemy was first repulsed 
by Dutch Town people, and combined with those of James Town, both 
chased him with immense loss, and then they retired. The principal 
men among the invaders were Okomfo Hene and Apatu Kofi. 



Chapter XI. 151 

During- the same year the Fantes and Wasas, with the people 
of Cape Coast and Anomabo also, joined together to take revenge 
on the Elminas. Governor White was unable to dissuade even the 
people of Cape Coast from this step. Indeed they were forced into 
it by the Fantes^ who threatened them with an attack, if they refused 
to join the alliance against Elmina. They formed their camp behind 
the town, and made various unsuccessful attacks upon it, which failed 
through the assistance rendered by the Dutch guns from Fort St. Jago. 
Finding it impossible to gain possession of Elmina, which they had 
hoped to plunder and destroy, they proceeded to invest it closely. 
The inhabitants were sometimes reduced to considerable straits; 
but having a free communication from seaward, there was no ab- 
solute want of supplies. They suffered a good deal, however, from 
occasional skirmishes; but the allies had the worst of it, being iu 
great distress for provisions, and so they returned home. 



CHAPTER XL 

Evacuation of Dutch Town's people to Kaneshi, or the efforts on the 
part of the Danish and English Governments on the Gold Coast, in 
abolishing the Slave Trade. 1807—1847. 

We should do great injustice to the European governments on 
the Gold Coast, if we were silent on this important subject, although 
their main object in settling on this coast had been slave trade, — 
a trade which greatly decreased the population of the country. A 
writer of the seventeenth century says, ''Europeans frequently carried 
from the West Coast above 100,000 slaves a year. The very great 
extent to which this traffic is carried on on the West Coast undoubt- 
edly gives rise to many abuses among the native states in the 
neighbourhood, and is productive of frequent wars among them." 
Of the Portuguese he says, "They introduced their religion among 
the natives, and their slaves are catechised and baptised before they 
are shipped, which tends to diminish the terrors attending trans- 
portation. Their slave-ships are never crowded, and are chiefly navi- 
gated by black marines" — Kruboys perhaps, for whose faithful 
and good services it was arranged between the Portuguese and the 
Kruboys, never to make slaves of them; hence the mark on their 
foreheads is a sign of freedom. All the forts built by the Portuguese, 



152 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Dutch, English, Danish, French, Swedes, and Brandenburg, from 
Asini down to Keta, were for the slave-trade oi\\y. In 1803 slave- 
trade entirely ceased throughout all the colonies of Denmark. On 
the 25*1^ March 1807 the slave-trade was abolished by the English, 
and English cruisers were sent to the West Coast to capture the 
slave-ships. Yet domestic slavery could not be put down either by 
the English or Danish government. In prosecuting, however, their 
object, both governments had often to resort to hard measures. 

After general Amankwa had left for Asante, the country enjoyed 
peace, but then the slave-trade with the Portuguese became brisk. 
Chief Ankra was the general broker for the slave-dealers. All the 
influential chiefs, such as Ato, Sempe Mensa, Kwatei Kodsho, Tete 
Tshuru, Dowuona, &c. had their hands in it. As there was no com- 
mandant in the Dutch Fort at that time, Dutch Town was made 
the depot. Slaves were sold during night, and Ankra had the charge 
to keep them till a slaver arrived, and the poor people were shipped in 
the night, all to avoid detection by the English and Danish governments. 

In August, about the year 1819, when the Akras were congre- 
gated in Dutch Town for the celebration of their yearly feast, an 
English man-of-war arrived on the roads on one Thursday. On the 
following day nothing was heard; but in the afternoon of Saturday, 
when the inhabitants were about to commence oshi (the demon- 
stration of the king, chiefs and people of their merriment), the ship 
fired at the house of chief Ankra. The warriors at once armed, 
and put themselves in battle-array on the beach, ready for the 
landing of the marines. None came on shore, but the fire continued 
day and night till the close of Sunday. On Mondaj^ the ship left. 
Ankra's house lay in ruins, some other houses were damaged, and 
the big fetish-tree as well as the upper part of Sakumo's shed were 
knocked down. 

About the second month of the year 1820, a squadron of seven 
English men-of-war arrived on the roads with the view to suppress 
the slave-trade by force of arms. The Marines proceeded to land 
in .Tames Fort, but the Akras at once removed all their property 
to Christiansborg and to their plantation villages, and left for Kaneshi, 
about three miles from town. 

Ankra's house was pulled down, and his property confiscated, 
all the fishing and landing canoes were removed to James Town. 
King Kudsha Okai and his chiefs, Akwete Krobosaki, Akotia Owosika, 
and Apomsa, determined to fight the marines, if they proceeded to 



Chapter XL 153 

Kaneshi, but never to attack them iii town. It was reported that 
the marines either paraded outside the town, or had the intention 
to attack the Akras at Kaneshi; but when the Akras came to meet 
them, the marines marched back to town. The farmers were during 
this campaign prohibited from bringing- in provisions to town, hence 
the James Town people had the worst of the whole alfair. 

Through the interposition of some influential men, the English 
government agreed that the king and his chiefs should return to 
the town, but the slave-dealers should be delivered up for punish- 
ment. The king, not willing to deliver them over, alone with the 
chiefs and fishermen returned, but Ankra went to Kpokpoase, 
Kwatei Kodsho to Opa, Tete Tshuru to Kwabenyan, and Sempe 
Mensa to Amamore. 

A slave-ship, being chased by the English cruisers during those 
days, was obliged to land 160 slaves on shore at Tenia in charge 
of one Mr. Smith from Dutch Town. The governor of Christiansborg, 
Major Steffens, hearing of them, armed his subjects of Christiansborg, 
Labade, and Teshi, and proceeded himself with his soldiers to rescue 
these slaves. But chief Ankra had already prepared an army of 
the warriors of Dutch Town, who were with him in the bush, and 
being headed by his brother Ayi Kokosaki, they reached Tema 
before the governor's arrival, and removed the people into the bush. 
The governor and his arm}' arrived there late, and got only few of 
the slaves, who had been left behind in the hurry of removal.*; 
The Temas were partially plundered for allowing slave-dealing in 
the jurisdiction of the Danish government. The slave-dealers re- 
mained in the bush for three years. The English Government over- 
looked the matter when Sir Charles was preparing to invade Asante, 
and so they returned to the Coast. 

The Danish Government was also ardent in suppressing the slave- 
trade. All their subjects caught practising that nefarious traffic 
wore deported, and their property confiscated. A coloured man of 
Christiansborg was accused of dealing in slaves; his lands and slaves 
at Sesemi as well as his house (which afterwards became the pro- 
perty of the Basel Mission at Christiansborg b,v purchase) were 
confiscated and sold by public auction. The commandants in the 
forts at Teshi, Ningo, Ada and Keta were strictly charged to suppress 



*) Labi Sisiabo, the chief of Tenia, prudently met the governor at the 
mouth of the la2,oon Sakumo witli a flag: of truce. 



154 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

the trade. Although domestic slave-dealing- was not prohibited, but 
that with the Portuguese, or selling one to the leeward, where the 
trade was encouraged, and not to the windward, was a criminal act 
and severely punished. 

In 18311 governor Hans Angel Giede was informed that one 
Don Jose Mora, a Portuguese slave-dealer, had established a depot 
at Bato on the bank of the Volta. The governor, at the head of 
about 60 soldiers and some armed men, the chaplain Mr. Torsletf 
and Mr. W. Lutterodt marched to Bato to apprehend Don Jose Mora. 
He tried to fire a pistol at the Governor, but tailed and was cap- 
tured with his weapon. His goods and a few slaves he had bought 
were confiscated.*) After promising never to carry on slave-trade 
in the jurisdiction of the Danish government, he was set free. Don 
Jose Mora shortly after opened the slave-trade at Wei in Angula. 
In 1842 the Danish governor Wilkens with Mr. W. Wulff, the secre- 
tary and treasurer, and 1.50 soldiers set sail in an American trading- 
vessel to apprehend the malefactor. They landed at night, and 
marched to attack Don Jose Mora, who managed, however, to jump 
through a window of his house and escaped. His property and 
slaves were captured and brought to Christiansborg. Such slaves 
were set free, but to protect them, as they could not easilj^ have 
got back to their countries, they were added to the emancipated 
slaves of the government, and employed as labourers for monthly pay. 
There was at. that time a custom of transferring slaves, after the 
death of their masters, by public auction to new masters, provided 
there was no legitimate successor to the estate. The amount paid 
by their new masters was added to other proceeds of the sale of the 
testator's effects and transmitted to the lawful heirs, wherever tliey 
might live. Such being the case, a wealthy West Indian of the name 
of Johan Christian Balck, who had, many years before, come into the 
country as a government agent, died on the 2"'^ Oct. 1843. He had 
possessed lands at Abokobi with more than 200 slaves, and died 
intestate without a son or right heir. The slaves anticipated that 
the custom of transferring slaves to new masters might be put into 
practice in their case too. Mr. Balck having been a government 
agent and not a native of the country, the government proposed 
to protect the estate. But the slaves determined to oppose the 



*) 'i'he pistol was presented to Mr. Carl August Reindorf, then in 
service of the sTOvernor. 



Chapter XI. 155 

government when interfering with the estate; however Paspo, the 
elder among- them, was apprehended and arrested in the Fort. One 
morning the prisoners were condncted by Private Jonas Reindorf 
to the sea-shore behind the fort, for the purpose of going to privj. 
A good number of the slaves, armed with clubs and swords, had 
concealed themselves behind the fishing canoes on the beach, and 
all at once rushed upon the prisoners to extricate their elder from 
the rest. The sentry as well as the few soldiers on guard rushed 
to the assistance of the soldier, but were overpowered by the greater 
number of the assailants. The onset was so furious that the soldiers 
might have resorted to arms; but in peaceful times wooden flints 
were used instead of the natural ones, and ammunition could not 
be distributed then and there, as the officials in the Castle had set 
out for Akuapem, to settle disturbances which had broken out there. 
The slaves carried off their elder. Private Joseph Fleischer was 
severel}^ wounded on the head during the struggle. The few soldiers 
left, as well as the townspeople, were ordered to arms, and swiftly 
marched against the slaves. At Abokobi they were found to have 
quitted the place, having taken refuge in several villages belonging 
to the Labades and Teshis at Kwantanang. So the armed men 
returned home with one or two men captured. The infuriated slaves 
agitated the whole townspeople and the government, so that at last 
their quarter was bombarded. They made themselves free, but dis- 
persed in the country. 

By virtue of the treaty of 1784 the Fort was built at Keta, and 
was occupied by government officials, whether Europeans or natives, 
as commandants. When the slave-trade was abolished by the Danish 
Government in their settlements on the coast, the fort was not kept 
in proper repair. In 1844 Sergeant J. C. Hesse was appointed com- 
mandant of Keta to relieve H. Meyer. On Mr. Hesse's arrival he 
was informed that the old Don Jose Mora and two other slave- 
dealers were still at Wei, carrying on that nefarious traffic. He, 
according to his instructions, prepared to attack them at that place; 
but they heard of his intentions, and removed the slaves to a place 
out of the Danish jurisdiction. Mr. Hesse one night saw old Don 
Jose Mora passing by the fort with a gang of slaves. Ordering out 
the few soldiers underhis command, and joined by Mr. Walter Hansen 
and some young men from the town, he overtook the gang and 
ordered them to halt, upon which Don Jose pointed his pistol at 
Mr. Hesse, and three times attempted to fire, but without effect. 



156 History of the Gold Coast and Asaiite. 

He was then caught and the pistol taken from him. The slaves were 
brought to the fort, but the dealers were suffered to depart. Induced 
by bribes from these dealers, the king and elders of Angula requested 
Mr. Hesse and Mr. Hansen to give back the slaves; which they 
refused to do. There was an English man-of-war in the roads, 
whose assistance they might have claimed, but no reliable person 
was found to bear the letter. The fort was out of repair, and the 
enraged Angulas, who came to get Hie slaves back, easily penetrated. 
Sergeant Hesso would have persisted in his refusal to give up the 
slaves, as they were then locked up in one of the prisons. But 
he found that there was want of courage with those who should 
assist him in that work. And the elders of Angula said, as their 
people had assisted him in capturing the slaves, he must return 
them to the owners, that they might not incur trouble from the 
Portuguese. Should he refuse, they were prepared to break open 
the doors of the prison. The king held himself responsible in case 
the governor should claim them back from him. Thus, by the 
advice of Mr. Andreas Malm and Mr. H. Malm, Sergeant Hesse and 
Mr. Hansen agreed and gave the slaves back to the king, who had 
promised to keep them till the governor's arrival. He then and 
there sent an express messenger with a letter, and reported to 
Governor Carstensen what had happened, and the reason why he 
gave way to the demand of the king. The fort being out of repair, 
the soldiers determined not to fight, but were ready to desert him 
at the crisis. Governor Carstensen, on receipt of this report, marched 
with the soldiers under Lieutenant Svedstrup to Keta. The king 
and elders of Angula were summoned, and the Angulas were pun- 
ished for assisting the Portuguese to claim back the slaves. The 
governor returned to Christiansborg, and despatched Lieutenant 
Svedstrup with 16 soldiers to Keta, to get the fort repaired. A few 
months afterwards Governor Carstensen returned to Europe, and 
was succeeded by Governor Schmidt. 

Among the slaves were two men whom Mr, Hesse harboured; 
an Akuapem man, by name Ashong Agbo, was one of them. On 
the return of Lieutenant Svedstrup, he was brought home and 
made free. 

As the Governor had ordered the repair of the fort, Lieutenant 
Svedstrup was appointed commandant of Keta, and Mr. Hesse, who 
had meanwhile been relieved by Mr. H. Malm, was again appointed 
sergeant. On their arrival there, they commenced buying shells and 



Chapter XI. * 157 

firewood to prepare lime for the repairs. Among others, captain 
Dshokoto of Anyako, in company of his people, sold firewood, and 
was paid for it. After some time they returned to say their pay 
was too small. They were told that the commandant had gone to 
his bedroom for a recreation. While waiting for him, one of them 
turned round and began to make water. He was warned by the 
sentry, but refused to obey. A quarrel ensued. The sergeant was 
coming to make peace, when the captain held a fist in his face, 
as if to box him; upon which the sentrj- struck off his hand with 
the sword he wore, which the captain tried to snatch and got his 
fingers wounded. The assailants now retired to the town very much 
incensed, and armed themselves with clubs, awaiting to take revenge 
as soon as any of the soldiers were found in town. 

The commandant had visited captain Marman, and on his return 
to the fort was assaulted by them. On being told what was going 
on in town, the few soldiers on guard rushed to defend their master. 
They were using their swords fiat, but the assault becoming serious, 
the lieutenant exclaimed, "Cut them to pieces!" An Angula man 
raised a club against one of the soldiers, who received it wnth the 
sword and cut one of his ears off. Another wielded his club, but 
missed, when the soldier gave him a deadly cut in the belly. His 
comrades fied, and the three soldiers marched back to the fort with 
the commandant, just as their comrades, who had been in town, 
were coming to their aid, and the gate was locked. The whole 
town was in uproar that day, and the next morning the whole 
Angula force came to Keta in arms, demanding the commandant 
to deliver up the soldier who killed the man to be punished. Their 
request not being complied with, they blockaded the Ibrt, and forbade 
selling provisions to the soldiers. Their mess-women in town were 
also strictly tbrbidden to cook for them. They managed, however, 
for some time, to pass food in their clothes, till they were found out 
and prevented. The commandant could obtain no bearer to inform 
the governor. Fortunately an Ada woman was found passing up, 
who concealed in her dress a letter, which she delivered to the 
commandant at Ada, by whom it was forwarded to Governor Schmidt 
at Christiansborg. He received the letter in .July 1847. At 4 o'clock 
the same day His Excellency started with Mr. Andreas Bergesen, 
as an interi)reter, Mr. Walter Hansen, 75 soldiers under command 
of sergeant Andreas Malm, with 2 congreve rockets, and 50 armed 
government labourers as basket- and load-carriers. They quartered 



158 History of tlie Gold Coast and Asante. 

at Prampram, and reached Adafo the following day. The king of Ada 
having provided sufficient canoes, they crossed on the third day 
and then formed their divisions, the governor and his staff with the car- 
riers in the middle, one half of the soldiers in the front, and the other half 
in the rear. They had breakfast at Dshita, where they were hospitably 
received. Half an hour's march brought them in view of a Hag, the 
ensign coming to meet them. His Excellency then jumped down 
from the basket, and marched before the soldiers. Tlie ensign reported 
that chief Ndokutshu of Atoko was coming to fire a salute, to which 
the governor objected, as being unadvisable in a time of commotion. 
At Atoko they were grandlj^ received and richly entertained, and 
two messengers appointed to lead them on. At Angula, the capital, 
they were hooted at for being carried in baskets, as such was against 
their religious custom. All that was said against them was mis- 
interpreted to the governor. Passing through the towns they reached 
Dshadukofe and indicated their approach by firing two rockets. It 
was the most joyful day for the commandant and the soldiers, who 
were starving since the fort was blockaded. They marched out to 
meet the governor, who entered with his arnl3^ The chiefs and 
elders of Keta were summoned the next day to appear before His 
Excellency. They were asked why they allowed the Anyakos and 
Angulas to tight against the government'? They asked for a certain 
time to answer it, and this being granted, retired to town. The 
time fixed was up, but none appeared. A fresh summons was issued, 
all to no effect. Sergeant Hesse was then ordered to apprehend 
them. One of them was arrested; the soldiers went into the next 
house and found old Akpaku, who asked leave to put on his dress. 
He went into his room, but did not choose to come out. The 
soldiers went in and found him holding a finger-ring which he put 
into his moutli. He was dragged out, but refused to walk, yet the 
soldiers carried him into the fort. There and then they found him 
dj'ing, which was immediately reported to the governor, who requested 
them to send him away then; but on being carried out of the 
fort, he expired. His people fetched him home and buried him. 

During the night all Angula assembled in arms, and at daybreak 
the}^ opened fire on the fort. The garrison gallantly held out for 
weeks; immense numbers of those Angulas were slain. Private Carl 
Engmann displayed a remarkable heroism during the whole siege. 
On seeing a detachment of the enemy, he fired one of the guns 
among them, which not only destroyed many lives, but dashed 



Chapter XI. 159 

out the brains of the linguist just addressing the army. Cut oft", 
however, from every communication, the garrison suffered fearfully 
from want of provisions. Chief Tei alone was loyal to the government, 
and secretly provided them with corn and some fowls, which were 
divided among the soldiers. The cassava fields of the enemy had all 
been pillaged by them during the night. Providentially a French 
man-of-war "Abeille" anchored oft" Keta. It seems there were no 
signals in the fort to communicate directly with the ship. The 
Danish Hag was, however, hoisted up and down, and then the French 
tlag. Governor Schmidt determined to go on board, the soldiers 
were ordered to fall in, and the government canoe, laying outside 
the fort, was carried in the hollow square of the soldiers to the 
seashore. The enemy opened fire on them. In precipitation the 
canoemen uncorked the natural hole of the canoe, but launched in. 
The soldiers were trying to clear the enemy off to get into the fort, 
when to their surprise they found His Excellency in water being 
driven fast by the current towards the enemy. Immediately tliey 
marched under fires to his rescue, sergeant Schandorf and Carl Eng- 
mann crossed and swam over, got hold on him, and brought him 
on shore. Two of the canoemen, Adang and Ashiriti, imagining to 
have relations at Angula, kept to the canoe. They fell into the 
hands of the enemy and were killed. With the exception of these 
two men there was no loss of life. About half a dozen soldiers got 
wounded, among whom were Daniel Reindorf and Christian Miller. 
The next day, not knowing what to do, the ship sent out two boats 
well equipped close to shore so as to obtain communications from 
the garrison. A capital swimmer, by name Sanka, volunteered to 
carry the governor's letter on board. He was conducted by the 
soldiers to the shore and swam to the boats; news of the state of 
the garrison was conveyed to the captain of the ship, who asked 
a loan of canoes from captain Marman's vessel, then on the roads, 
which favour was denied. They took the canoes, however, by force, 
and sent a good supply of provisions the next day in canoes and 
boats. The soldiers, being read}^, met the enemy right and left, 
while from the ship and boats showers of grape-shot were poured 
on them. The ships not only supplied the garrison with provisions, 
but effectually cleared the coast of the enemy. 

The governor then embarked for Christiansborg, and had a meeting 
with the kings and chiefs in alliance with the Danish government, 
to organize an expedition against the Angulas. He also reported 



160 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

the case to the authorities in Denmark, and Commodore Kling oi 
H. M. S. "Ornen", was sent out to punish them. On their arrival, 
the governor again embarked with the soldiers for Keta. On reach- 
ing Wei, a canoe was perceived with 13 men, who came on board, 
not knowing what ship it was. They were arrested and brought 
to Keta. The Angulas, cowed by the late war, sued for peace, as 
soon as the governor landed with the nuirines and soldiers from 
the ship. A court was held and the case adjusted; a fine of J^ 2000 
was imposed upon the Angulas, 600 were paid then and there, and 
the governor retired to Christiansborg in the same ship with the 
forces. The slave-trade was much suppressed from that time in 
Angula, and the depot was established by the Portuguese at Little 
and Grand Popo. 

The entire suppression and general emancipation of slaves domestic 
and the like, could not be effected either by the Danish or English 
government till the year 1874, al'ter Kumase had been captured and 
the power of Asante broken by the English. However, before the 
general emancipation took place, the Basel Mission on the Gold coast 
had abolished domestic slavery and pawning of people in all their 
congregations in 1862. 

The slave-trade was commenced in 1517, and the general abolition 
and emancipation took place in 1874. It was a disease which had 
been imported by Europeans, and which had affected the whole 
country during a period of 357 years. Providentially the curse 
was removed by the English government, but left the country without 
a substitute. If our English government would encourage and assist 
the introduction of railways into the country, the vast amount of 
money sustained as a loss by the emancipation, could be compen- 
sated. Labour and living would be cheap, trade would flourish, the 
country would improve rapidly, and the revenue would increase. 



CHAPTER XIL 

The first Asante revenge on the enemies of Akra by General Opoku 
Fredefrede. — The second invasion by the triple army of Fante, 
Akem and Akuapem on Thursday, commonly called S5ta. Kvvadvio 
Kuma's rebellion, and the second Asante revenge by General Amankwa 

• Abunyawa. 1811—1816. 

The existence of brotherhood or friendship between the Akras and 
Asantes will in the following chapter be proved by traditions and 



Chapter XII. 161 

narratives showing how the Asantes took a deep interest in the 
atl'airs of the Akras. 

The king of Asante, on hearing about the recent invasion of Akra 
by the Obutus and Gomoas, and that of the Elhninas by the Fantcs, 
appointed his general Opoku with a large army to punish the Obutu 
and Gomoa people, and Apea Dankwa, with another force, to punish 
the Fantes. Captain Boakye Yam and Odunkyi*) with 300 armed 
men were sent by the king to Akein to ask the linguists Banyira 
Kakawa, Odom Aku and Oware, why Ata Yiakosan had not as yet 
kept his promise of visiting the capital? King Kwakye Yadeefe 
should appoint messengers to accompany them to Ata. Whilst they 
were staying 40 days at Dampong, Ata heard of them, and secretly 
sent prince Apeanin with 12 men to enquire of Kwakye the object 
of those messengers from Kumase. The prince was sent back to 
say, their mission had no other design than to invite him to the 
capital. Ata thereupon sent Kwakye a fetish to swear upon, wliether 
there was really nothing serious connected with tlie mission. Kwakye 
declined; so Ata at once prepared for the worst. He captured 00' 
peaceful Asante traders, among whom was prince Owusu Nantshiri^ 
who had received a large amount of the king's stipend from the 
Danish government, together with valuable furnitures and goods, 
and was accompanied by Kwamena Kuma of Christiansborg, the 
messenger of the Danes. The goods were taken and the traders killed. 

When this was reported at Dampong, the commissioners returned 
to Knmase to tell the king. Kwakye sided with the Asantes and 
delivered to them Agyei Korowa, mother of Kwadwo Kuma, and 
her sister Bosuma with her daughter Ohewa, and Adwowa Buaso, 
sister of Kwadvvo Kuma. They were brought to Kumase by the 
commissioners, and pounded to death in a mortar in revenge of the 
piince and others.**) General Adu Sei Kra was despatched against 
Ata with an army of 10,000 men. Ata, advancing from Banso, de- 
feated this force at Amomani and a second time at Saman. Adu 
Sei Kra fled to Adesawase and reported his defeat to Bonsu. 

Meanwhile presents of what Ata had plundered from the traders 
and Adu Sei Kra were forwarded to Kwaw Safrotwe of Akropong,, 
who forthwith joined Ata in his revolt against the king of Asante. 

*) Some suppose that it was Asamoa Kwadwo who was sent by the 
king to Ata. 

**) Kwadwo's mother and relations were not killed until he impru- 
dently killed Yaw Bese, the ambassador of the king sent to him. 

11 



162 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

General Opoku Fredefrede now crossed the Pra and, joined by 
Kwak3''e Yadeefe, drove Ata back toPantampa. HereAta and Safrotwe 
united their forces, awaiting the Asante general. After a fierce and 
bloody battle Ata and his ally retreated to Akuapem. Opoku formed 
his camp at Mam[)0ng and invited the Akras to join him. The latter 
sent him a detachment under Okai Paemseeko II. They also sent 
messengers under Adshekoi of Christiansborg to Otutu Osomboafo, 
the king of Eastern Krobo, to prepare against the fugitives from 
Akuapem. 

The combined army ol' Akem and Akuapem was newly organized, 
the Akuapem force was divided to form the right and left wings, 
the main force was under Ata himself. A desperate battle was 
fought at Mampong. Opoku became so fierce that the Asantes faced 
the enemy rather than himself. The Akuapems retreated from their 
lines, which caused such loss to the Akems, that precipitate retreat 
was the only available means. Kwaw Safrotwe and Ata witli their 
forces retreated to Aboh-aboii at the foot of the Berekuso mountain. 
Kofi Asante was sent by Ata to scout the Asanles, who luid then 
removed to Aburi, and thence through Kyereme to Nsaki. On their 
arrival there, the stream ran short, which gave an indication that 
the Asantes were close by. The Akems and Akuapems divided 
and retreated, the former in the direction of Fante, the latter towards 
the Volta. Chief Anim Ampana of Adukrom with women and 
children of Akuapem went to Krobo, being related to the Nyewe 
quarter in Yilg, where they were subjected to such barbarous slaughter, 
that they found it advisable to leave. Kwaw made his way through 
Kpong to Ada, and was harboured in an island, where many of 
the royal fat)iily died from hardship and exhaustion. Opoku, having 
received arms and ammunition from the Akras, formed his camj* 
at Mukong near Dutch Town, and then resumed his march in pursuit 
of Kwaw. Several men found in the villages of Labade and Teshi 
were caught b}' the Asantes in their pursuit. At the approach of the 
army the Adas escaped to the islands of 'the Volta. Finding Mr. Flint, 
the Danish commandant of Ada Fort, the general accused him of 
having connived at Kwaw's escape, and took him prisoner. He was 
detained five months in the Asante camp at Berekuso, but was 
treated with kindness and respect (others say the contrary), until 
ransomed by the Danish Government against payment of a hundred 
ounces of gold. 

Under the escort of captain Osramang of Ada, Kwaw Safrotwe 



Chapter XII. 163 

escaped across the Volta. Opoku left Ada and marched to Krgbo, 
iinagiiiiny- that he Iiad tied to the mountains. As chief Anim with 
his people alone was there, they instigated the Yilos to carry on 
skirniislies ayainst the Asantes. Opoku demanded redress, but his 
messengers were beaten, which enraged Otutu Osomboafo as well 
as the general, and the Yilos were attacked as far as up to Ogome. 
TheKrobos united and forced down the Asantes with great slaui^hter. 
The case of the tight was investigated, and the Krobos were found 
guilty. The Krobo hostages, Odonko Otwesa and Tei were carried 
away as prisoners. This enraged the Krobos to revenge themselves 
on the refugees, by setting fire to the houses they occupied during 
the night. Opoku was then ordered by the king to return at once 
to Kumase. The Labades and Teshis caught at their own plantations 
tried in vain to be made free. Okai Paemseeko had to accompany 
Opoku to Kumase. On his return, however, he set those prisoners 
iVee, and brought them to their homes. 

Vast numbers of people of Akem and Akuapem were made pris- 
oners or slain, or perished by fatigue, hunger and thirst during 
the pursuit by Opoku. The women and children of Abotakyi, 
harboured at Eburumaso, were detected and carried off by the 
Asantes. The infirm and sick committed suicide, babies were smashed 
to death by knocking their heads against trees to prevent their 
being captured by the enemy, and their graves were either a foot 
deep or holes of the same depth of wild yams. Children were seen 
sitting by waysides, having been deserted by their parents. Mothers 
would carry three or four babies in a wooden trough or basket for 
several days, and when tired threw them all into the bush. Some- 
times a mother had to flee carrying on her back her new-born 
child! Oh the horrors of war! 

Apea Dankwa with an army of 6000 men invaded the Fante 
country, and several insignificant skirmishes took place, but all 
ended in his favour. He reached the coast near Winneba. Here 
the Fantes of Anomabo, Adwumanko, Apa, Mumford, Winneba 
and Gomoa Asen had formed a large camp, and were ready to 
give him battle. A severe conflict took place near Apa. The Fantes 
were defeated, and many were taken prisoners, among others Bafo, 
the chief of Anomabo. Mr. Smith, the commandant of Taiitum Fort, 
tried to open communication with Apea Dankwa; but referring to 
the king's orders that he should punish the Fantes who had laid 
siege to Elmina, he did not admit any mediation. 

11* 



164 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Kwaw Safrotwe had meanwhile escaped to Fante. Here he found 
Ata and his forces, consisting only of three thousand followers. 
The combined army hastened to meet Apea Dankwa, whose force 
had been weakened b}- the late action near Apa. The lirniness of 
Apea Dankwa gave way when he heard of their approach, and he 
ordered a retreat. He was pursued by Ata and routed. With the 
remnant of his force Apea fled to Asen. 

After his victory over the Asantes, Ata was attacked by small- 
pox which had broken out in his arm}', and fell a victim to the 
disease at Kwanyako iu October, while on his march back to Akeni. 
He was one of the bravest kings of Akem, and might have saved 
his country and people from the Asante yoke, had he not been cut 
off by death in the midst of his daring career. After his death Asare 
Bediako succeeded him on the stool of Akem. The folio wiug chiefs 
committed suicide at Kwanyako when Ata had died: Kwabena 
Konku of Kukurantumi, Kwantanan Gyenin, Kwaben Odakwa Woe, 
Sinno Dako, Apireman Afum; the captains over the Fanteakwa or 
right wing, Siewufo or left wing, adontere or centre, and the body- 
guard also committed suicide. Princess Yeboakua, the younger 
sister of Dokuwa, was given as hostage to 0[)oku. She was after- 
wards married to Bonsu and had a son Owusu Akem. — On account 
of those grievous bereavements, Dokuwa applied to herself this 
saying: '^Kotodwe abo dua, eyaw mpa mu'" i.e. When the knee 
knocks at a tree, it never ceases from pain. 

The two generals of Asante, ordered by the king to take revenge 
on the enemies of his friends, the Elminas and Akras, having retired, 
th e country was relieved from external war for a short time, yet 
by no means free from internal dissensions and commotions. 

The combined forces of Akem and Akuapem were still in Fante. 
Kwaw Safrotwe instigated Adoko of Fante and Asare Bediako of 
Akem Abuakwa to march with him against the Akras, Adoko 
agreed at once, Asare was with difficulty persuaded, and the allies 
invaded the Akra territory. Their camp extended from the lagoon 
Kole to Labade. For three weeks no Akra could venture to leave 
the town for provisions or firewood, and bitter distress began to be 
felt. Old bedsteads, the roofing of houses, and dried leaves were 
employed to cook the scanty food that could be obtained. 

About (hat time a Portuguese vessel had anchored off Akra. The 
chiefs applied to the captain for arms and ammunition, against 
payment in prisoners whom they expected to obtain by the war. 



Chapter XII. iGS 

The captain, haviiio- siipi)lied the invaders, who had niade the garrie 
promise and were more numerous than they, llatly declined, having 
no faith in their ability to supply him with })risoners. The Akras 
were, however, very active in their preparations. The forces from 
James Town to Ningo had been concentrated, an(i a meeting was 
held one night at Dodokwe, to arrange matters. A young man is 
reported then to have stood up and said, "Brethren, let us attack 
the invaders very early in the morning, to make a havock in their 
lines before the break of the day permits them to ascertain the small 
number of our army", — to which they all agreed. 

Very early in the morning of that memorable Thursday, the in- 
vaders were furiously attacked, and routed. They were pursued 
beyond the Sakumo, in which many were drowned or devoured 
b,y sharks. Numerous prisoners were taken, so that the Portu- 
guese slaver was freighted within a few days after the battle. 

Many Akems were killed and wounded, and the royal stool was 
captured by the enemy. This loss deprived Asare Bediako and 
his ne[»hews of their title to the royal dignity. At the suggestion* 
of Ills people Asare killed himself, after having spent a week in 
drinking, dancing, and singing in anticipation of his own funeral. 
He was succeeded by Kofi Asante. Kwaw escaped with great loss 
to Akuapem. 

The day before the attack, the labourers of the Danish Govern- 
ment were surveying a piece of land, and happened to kill an 
Akuapem-man in the bush. On account of this an ambush was 
laid, and when the forces of Christiansborg were marching to form 
their line, captain Kwate AnokovVia and his brother Kwatei Asoasa, 
the drummer, were shot and killed; Naku, the brother of Dowuona, 
was wounded, and died after a few days at home. Kwaku Saw, 
the brother of Safrotvve, who had made a vow, never to shave his 
hair until he had captured a man from Teshi, was eventually taken 
prisoner by the same people. On the day of his execution at Teshi, 
he sang: "I had slain a leopard's child, and shall be killed and 
devoured by hyenas!" 

When the intelligence of that second invasion of Akra reached 
Kumase, the king sent large presents and his sympathy to the Akras, 
which will be mentioned in the XIII chapter. 

Dokuwa having reached Kyebi, she thanked Kwadwo Kuma for 
the valuable services he had rendered to Ata, and thereupon liqui- 
dated the debt of 5 j)eredwans she had once advanced him. She 



166 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

gave him 3 peredwans, 40 gnns and 3^/^ kegs of powder, and ad- 
vised him to go and claim the stool of Kotoku from Kwiikye, as 
he was the right heir to it. She also appointed Obrokwa, chief of 
Otnmi, to assist Kwadvvo Kuma in claiming the stool. Hosompim, 
cliief of Asene, and Ntronan Broni joined him; they gave battle to 
Kwakye at Dampong, and he fled with the stool to Kumase. Linguist 
Knsi and Akyikyia were sent by Kwadwo Kuma to Sewa of Dwaben 
to intercede for him, that Osei Bonsu might force Kwakj'e to deliver 
te stool back.*) The king despatched Yaw Hese, Kuako and Odunkyi, 
Sewa also appointed Adu Sosoronkuo, to tell Kwadwo Kuma that 
he would obtain the stool, if he came to Kumase and swore the 
fetish oath of allegiance to the king. He agreed to do so after 
three 3^ears, at which time he would be sufficiently prepared to appear 
in the capital. Kwakye died 30 days afterwards, and his successor 
Kofi Duodu and a few of his people were accompanied by Akwasi 
Duro and Koso to iVmpaw of (Jmanso to stay there. Agyemang, 
nephew of Kwakye, was kept at Kumase by the king. 

Kwadwo Kuma had meanwhile sounded the mindsof Akwadamma, 
Bawua and Odofoo, principal men in the king's household, as to 
whether it would be safe for him to come up or not, and being- 
advised never to venture it, w^as actively preparing to quit the 
countr3^ When the time appointed for his visit came on, the 
messengers were sent for him. Adii Sosoronkuo and Nuako escaped, 
but the rest he killed, besides many Asante residents in Dampong, 
who had been enticed to go there by the reduction of the prices 
of provisions and venison. The Asantes used to tell their friends, 
"Provisions and venison have become too cheap at Dampong, we 
should go there to live on rich diet." 

The following chiefs deserted from Kwadwo Kuma to Adanse, 
when the king's messengers were killed: Akokoaso Pobi, Kwa of 
Boritodiase and Kuku Asa of Adwafo; but Amoako Panyin left for 
Agogo. The \0Ya\ chiefs and captains were Ntronan Broni, Asene 
Bosompim, Gyadam Kyei, Mooso Nti, Aberem Ankama, Odgmara 
of Bogyeseanwo, Domanten Nabra Kunan, Adasawase Kwtame Tia, 
Mampon Sav^^, Atoso Kusi, Kyekyewere Kore, Basa Oteredu, Fobonto, 
captain over the right wing, Pira Kwamc, over the left wing, Oteredu 

*) Some say, the principal ambassador sent by KwadvVo Kuma was 
Boa Otu, who met Kwadwo's mother and relations alive at Kumase. The 
king was willing to deliver them back to Boa Otu, had not Kwadwo 
imprudently killed Yaw Bese, the king's ambassador. 



Chapter XII. 167 

over the body-guard, and the linguists were Adu Kokgo and Anio- 
ako Panyin. 

With these KwadvVo Kuma shut up the Asantes in their country 
for the space of two years, that the king's messengers with those 
presents for the chiefs of Akra were obliged to travel through A- 
kwamu, as ah-eady mentioned. 

The king of Asante made a great ellbrt to crush the Akems and 
Akuapenis, who had continued in a state of revolt since 1811. With 
this view he collected an army of 20000 men, whom he placed 
under Amankwa. He was fully determined to throw open the 
path, to renew his communication with Akra, and to draw from 
thence the stipend of the Danish Government, which had remained 
unpaid since the last invasion. Amankwa was also charged to receive 
the submission of Kwadwo Kuma and Kwaw Safrotwe, wiio, it was 
supposed, would sue for peace on the approach of such an over- 
whelming force. 

But to provide against their escape, Apea Dankwa was sent at 
the same time with a smaller force in the direction of VVinneba, 
to cut them oil" on that side. Amankwa moved towards Akuapem 
with his army. When within a day's march of that place, one of 
his foraging parties, consisting of seven persons, was cut off by 
Kwadwo Kuma. He gave battle to the whole Asante force on the 
day following, at Adweso. The battle lasted six hours, and ended 
in the defeat of the Akems and their allies. Amankwa proclaimed 
his victory to the Akras by sending a jaw-bone and a slave to each 
of the towns, and soon after followed with his army, and received 
the stipend from the Danish Government. Kwadwo Kuma and 
Kwaw Safrotwe with their forces had again to flee to Fante for 
protection. Amankwa therefore encamped at Onyase, 8 miles north- 
east of Akra, for nearly a year, to receive the submission of the 
Akems and Akuapems. Berekuso was the town which first sub- 
mitted; but the other Akuapems were in the neighbourhood of 
Obutu, and used to send foraging parties, among whom were Akrong 
Kwasi and Kwaku Fito of Aburi, to commit pillage and plunder on 
the Akras, Asantes, and even the Berekusos. 

Meanwhile the party under Apea Dankwa had encountered the 
Fantes on several occasions. The AdvVumanko and Agona people 
were defeated with great loss, the towns of Winneba and Bereku 
were plundered and burnt, and the Fantes were subjected to the 
most cruel impositions. 



168 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

Apea Dankwa died in Asen, and was succeeded as commander 
of the armj' by Apea Yanyo. Amankwa was ordered to unite his 
forces with him in the Fante country. Opuro Tuata, Opuro Kwabena, 
and Kofi Mensa of Berekuso, and a party from Akra were commis- 
sioned to accompany the general and his forces to Fante. They 
met with Yanyo and his forces at Asikuma and marched together 
through Adwumanko, driving the Fantes before them. A large body 
of these had encamped at Abora, but fled at the first onset. Crowds 
of people fled to the forts for protection. Upwards of four thousand 
men, women and children are said to have fled for protection to 
Cape Coast Castle. The governor sent a flag of truce to the Asante 
general, to know his intentions, but meanwhile the Asautes ap- 
proached nearer and nearer to the Castle. On the 16*^'' of March 
messengers arrived from the camp at Abora, and explained that 
the king's army had come to Fante in pursuit of Kwadwo Kuma, of 
Kotoku, Kwaw Safrotwe, and Kofi Asante of Akem Abuakwa, and 
to punish all who harboured them. The general accused Kwaw 
Agyiri, Opentri and Amisa, three Fante chiefs, of having stood in 
arms against the Asantes for the defence of these men. A meeting 
was held in the hall of the Castle on the 21^*, at which it was 
proved that Kwadwo Kuma, Kwaw Safrotwe and Kofi Asante were 
not in Cape Coast, and the headmen of Cape Coast took fetish oath 
to that effect. However, it was arranged that one hundred ounces 
of gold must be paid by the Cape Coast people and the Fantes, to 
purchase peace with the Asantes. This was done, and their friend- 
ship cemented with a fetish oath. Soon afterwards the Asantes 
broke up their camp at Abora, because they had now conquered 
the whole Fante countrj^, and went in the direction of Akra in 
search of the proscribed men. Kwadwo Kuma, hotlj^ pursued by 
the Asantes, put a period to his own life atNkum near Asikuma, 
being unable to escape from the party of Apea Yanyo's force, who 
surrounded him there. 

There are divers opinions about Kwadwo Kuma's death. Some 
say, upon seeing that the Fantes were tired, he fled from the 
country with a single wife. Notice was given to the effect that 
whoever could bring him alive or dead, should be rewarded with 
^ 18. A hunter, being fortunate in flnding him roaming in the 
bush with his wife, killed him and brought his body to town, where 
it was delivered to the generals. The true account seems to be 
this: Kwadwo Kuma, having found that the Fantes could not protect 



Chapter XI I. 169 

iiirn, fled from the country with (ryadatn Kyei and Amoako Hene, 
with the view of returning- to his capital Dainpong-. Osaka, the 
mother of Aduanan Apea, with her daughter Badua, liaving been 
taken prisoners by the Asantes, A pea and Kwamena Asanianin de- 
spatched eight messengers after Kwadwo Knma, who was overtaken 
by them at Nkwantanan, and was expressly told to return, as the 
Asantes had fled from the Fante country. They brought him back, 
and delivered him up to the generals at Nkum, while (jsaka and 
Badua were released. Both Kwadwo Kuma and Amoako Hene 
were beheaded, smoked and brought to Kumasi^ with Gyadam 
Kyei alive. 

All the chiefs and captains of Dampong, who Ibught under Kwadwo 
Kun)a, asked Kwasi Amankwa of Asikuma to intercede for them, 
after the general iiad gone to Kumase. Kwasi Amankwa commis- 
sioned captain Bircdu to settle the case for them. The king appointed 
Odunkyi and Nuako to accompany Biredu to Dam|)Ong, ami after 
a tine of 300 peredwans had been [)aid, all tlie chiefs were beheaded, 
and Amoako Panyiii, who deserted Kwadwo Kuma to Agogo, was 
ordered to govern the Kotokus. Afirifa Akwada, cousin of Kwadwo 
Kuma, but the son of Amoako, and his mother Buadiwa and sister 
Korania would have been killed, had not Amoako paid 3 peredwans 
to save their lives. After which he made them take a fetish oath 
to the effect that they must allow him to rule in peace, as long as 
he was alive. 

Meanwhile Kwaw Safrotwe, the roaming fugitive, the chief disturber 
of public peace, whom no one could lay hand upon, had made his 
own subjects tired of him; the Agonas also were tired. The Akua- 
pems thereupon opened a communication with the chiel's of Akra 
by Ado Dankwa, entreating to negotiate for peace on their behalf. 
Fees demanded and paid to the Akras, l)cforc they opened a com- 
munication witli the Asantes, were a puncheon of rum and 50 slaves. 
The general accepted the negotiation for peace on condition that 
1500 heads of cowries and 200 slaves must be paid, and Kwaw and 
all the chiefs who fought against the king should be delivered up. 
Kwaw had meanwhile left the Fante country for Akuapem, and 
concealed himself in his own village at Amam[)robi. 

Ado Dankwa, whom tiie general had promised to make chief of A- 
kuapem if he could deliver up Kwaw, conducted a party of Akras 
and Asantes to his hiding-place at Amamprobi. He placed an ambush 
around him, and then entered into conversation with him. He advised 



170 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

him to kill himself, as it was impossible for him to escape from the 
Asaiites' vigilance; but Kwaw refused, alleging- that he would wear 
out the king's patience. Upon this Ado Daiikwa left him, which 
was the preconcerted signal for the party in ambush, who fired 
and killed him. His body was conveyed to Akra, smoked and 
sent to Kumase. His two brothers Opoku and Amankwa shared the 
same fate. 

Chief Anim Ampana of Adukrom was brought to Christiansborg 
and beheaded. All the chiefs of Fante, Akem and Akuapem came 
to Akra, begging to intercede for them. They acknowledged their 
being tributaries to Asante, and an annual tribute was fixed lor 
each of them. For upwards of one year Amankwa encamped at 
Onyase, 8 miles from Akra, and brought about a full and lasting 
peace in the country. Thus by means of that peace the Akras ob- 
tained liberty to reoccupy their own lands and villages unmolested 
by their enemies for 12 3^ears, till Sir Charles MacCarthy induced 
them to break off their friendship with Asante. 

The object of the expedition was now obtained, the heads of 
Kwadwo Kuma, Kwaw Safrotwe and Kofi Asante were now in 
the king's possession. Amankwa, therefore, returned to Kumase, 
having thus reduced Akem and Akuapem to a state of vassalage 
and established the king's authority throughout Fante. Asante resi- 
dents were left behind in charge of the principal districts, whose 
duty it was to keep the Fantes in subjection, and to collect the 
king's tribute. In the execution of this duty, they exercised great 
tyranny, and seldom were at a loss for an excuse of their exactions. 
The mere suspicion of disaffection was sufficient to draw upon any 
chief or headman the infliction of heavy fines. The same tyranny 
and infliction of heavy fnies were experienced by the Akras during 
general Amankwa's encampment at Onyase, and several of them 
became slaves and pawns. And for that account, the Akras, after 
due consideration, accepted the proposals of Sir Charles to declare 
against Asante. 



Chapter Xlll. 171 



CHAPTER XIlI. 

The deplorable state of the country in consequence of the invasions by 
and the tyrannical rule of the Asantes. — The deputation composed of 
Mr. James, Governor of Akra, and Messieurs Bowdich, Hutchison and 
Tedlie with a present to the king of Asante.— The king of Asante 
commenced war with Giyaman. The insult given to Asante residents 
in Fante. — Mr. Dnpuis as Consul to Asante — The former friendship 
which existed between the Akras and Asantes. — 1817 — 1823. 

From 1807 to 1823 the Asantes were lords of all the country 
between their kingdom and the coast, and ground dow^n the people 
with the most barbarous tyranny. Those Asante chiefs and head- 
men residing- in the principal towns exercised more authority over 
the people than the king himself at Kuniase: Merchants, mechanics, 
clerks, canocmen, the poor, the rich, high and low, all were sub- 
jected to a rigid system of cruel extortion on every possible occasion, 
and oiten on pretences altogether ludicrous and unheard of. Several 
persons were deprived of their handsome wives. If one mentioned 
the king's name, he was fined. If one had any words with an 
Asante, if one accidentally or inadvertently touched or even alluded 
to an Asante, he was punished. In Fante as well as in Akra, the 
interior not excepted, several chiefs were made to pay enormous 
fines under various pretexts. The European governments only occa- 
sionally interfered by very gentle and not always sincere protests. 
Most of the best kings and chiefs as well as the greater part of the 
population had been annihilated or brought over to Asante as captives 
for life. Many a populous and large town lay in ruins, and poverty 
prevailed everywhere, chiefly in the interior countries. The English, 
Danish, and Dutch governments beg-an to feel for those they pre- 
tended to protect, and endeavoured to ameliorate the condition of 
those kings, chiefs and people who had sought protection at their 
hands. From time to time they despatched embassies with large 
and valuable presents to Kumase by way of befriending the king 
and to encourage legitimate trade, that the Protectorate might enjoy 
peace. The Danish and Dutch governments even allowed the king 
a monthly stipend. 

In 1817 presents were sent by the African company in England 
to the king of Asante. The embassy was composed of Mr. James, 
governor of British Akra (who after a short time was recalled), 
Messieurs Bowdich, Hutchison, and Tedlie. Hospitality was shown 



172 History of the Gold Coast and Asaiite. 

them ill every way, but when they came to business, matters did 
not run smoothly. 

The king produced Notes or leases which he had captured from 
the Fantes, and claimed that pa3''ment on account of them should 
be made to him in the same manner as the Dutch paid him rent 
for Elmina, due on the document which he had taken from Dankera. 
This was contested on various grounds, but at last the Notes were 
made over to him (Osei Tutu Kwamena or Bonsu), and the sub- 
jection of tiie Fantes to him was thus acknowledged. Other difti- 
culties were raised, but reparation was made for insults offered at 
Komenda and Amisa by large payments, and the Treaty of Peace 
and Amitj' was at last signed and scaled (by the kings of Asante 
and Dwaben and Mr. Bowdich) on the 7"» September 1817. The Fante 
tribes were by it reduced to the condition of tributaries to Asante, 
but a kind of British Protectorate was admitted. 

The fourth and the eighth articles of the treaty i-an thus: 

*Tn order to avert the horrors of war, it is agreed that in any 
case of aggression on the part of the natives under British pro- 
tection, the kings shall complain thereof to the governor-in-chief 
to obtain redress, and tJiat they will in no instance resort lo hostil- 
ities, even against the other towns of tiie Fante territory, without 
endeavouring as much as possible to elFecl an amicable arrangement, 
affording the governor an opportunity of [»ropitiating it as far as 
he may with discretion." 

"The governor-in-chief reserves to himself the right of punishing 
any subject of Asante or Dwaben guilty of secondary offences; but 
in case of any crime of magnitude, he will send the offender to the 
king, to be dealt with according to the laws of his country."' 

The mission withdrew, Mr. Hutchison remaining as resident for 
some months, and it is to this mission that we are indebted for 
the excellent work of Mr. Bowdich. — 

Almost all the monarchs of Asante had to carry on war against 
Gyaman, since the first war with them in the reign of Osei Tutu, 
either to suppress rebellion or to enforce tribute. The liasty recall 
of general Opoku from the siege of Krobo in 1811 was on account 
of the king mustering an army to march against therii. 

Adinkra, the then king of Gyaman, had made a gold-stool similar 
to that in Kumase, and being a tributary king to Osei Bonsu, it 
was considered not becoming his position. The king thereupon 
commissioned the renowned linguist Kvvame Butuakwa to Bontuku 



Chapter XIII. 173 

to claim the stool for him. Adinkra quietly jiekled to tlie king's 
deiriand and sent tlie stool to Kuniase. Not very long after this, 
GyaniarantVvi, one of Adinkras drummers, had illegal intercourse 
with one of his wives, and then escaped to Kumase. The criminal 
was sent back to Adinkra by the king, to be dealt with as he might 
think fit. The king not killing the criminal made Adinkra suspi- 
cious, as to whether by punishing him with death the king might 
be olfended, hence he set him free. He, being acquitted, there and 
then insulted the Asante messengers in the presence of the assem- 
bly, but none checked the criminal. 

One of his ladies, Nyankura, a princess of Kong, was displeased 
at Adinkra's cowardice in giving up his gold-stool. She would 
prefer a man with courage to a poltroon as he was. Finding it too 
late to recall tlic stool, Adinkra indemnified himself by sending 
insolent messages to the king and throwing Asante residents into 
the gold mines. The king of Asante warned Adinkra, but he 
persisted in iiis perversity, and provoked the king at last to invade 
Bontuku witli an army. 

Adinkra inquired an oracle through a Mohammedan priest called 
Adumamu. By his direction the commissioners bought two rams, 
jiamed one of them Adinkra, the other, Osei, and let them light; 
the one named Adinkra was beaten. Knowing now what would 
be the result of the impending invasion, Adinkra spent a whole 
week in drinking, dancing, and singing, in anticipation of his own 
funeral. After which he sent commissioners to inform the priest 
what had happened, and to ask him for some war medicine against 
the king of Asante. The medicine was brought and buried in the 
main road to Bontuku. At the same time the Mohammedan king 
of Kong was asked to assist Adinkra with an army. The king of 
Asante, being informed by his priests that that spot had been poisoned 
by their enemies, was advised, on reaching the spot, to take another 
road. The army from Kong not having arrived, Adinkra was obliged 
to send two ambassadors to sue for peace. On the bank of the 
river Tain the ambassadors met the king, but he rejected their 
entreaties. 

Adinkra was defeated and slain. His son. Prince Apaw, cut his 
father's head, and cutting open the belly of a woman with child, 
put it inside and sewed it up. The battle raged for several days. 
Apaw was taken prisoner and brought before Osei Bonsu, who 
by promises and kind treatment induced him to assist in finding 



174 History of the Gold Coast aud Asaute. 

tlio body and head of his father. The Asautes then sowed the dead 
kinj^'s head on his body, dressed and seated him, ;ind heUi a court 
in which the king brought his charges against Adinkra. The ciders 
went into a consultation and brought a verdict of guilty. Adinkra was 
then, according to the Asantc custom, beheaded by the executioner. 
Immense treasures and numerous prisoners were carried off to 
Asante. The Kong army arrived after Adinkra had been slain, and 
returned home with the Princess. 

It was during this war that Kwadwo Tibo, king of Dankera, dis- 
played such dashing braver^'', that the king in astonishment exclaimed, 
*'Kwadwo, if you fight so bravely for your master, how would you 
fight in your own defence?" Really Kwadwo Tibo was the African 
General Forwards. 

Among the prisoners was Soke Nl Agyei, the second in command 
of the Gyamans, who was caught by king Boaten of DvVaben. 
Adumamu was also caught by Opoku Fredefrede. After aftirming 
by solemn oath and written treaty that he and his })eople would 
never be hostile to Asante, he was set free. Princess Tamia, sister 
of Adinkra, was brought to Kumase and married to Sampane. She 
had a daughter, Ampomahwence, and a son, Agyei Bonne Adu. 
Osei Kwadwo married the former, and Owusu Taseamandi, who 
escaped to Cape Coast in 1881, was born. A paw tried to escape 
and was killed, but Tamia was liberated by Kwaku Dua and sent 
back to Gyaman. 

All the tributary kings of Akem Abuakwa and Kotoku, Akwamu, 
and Akuapem had either joined in person or appointed their re- 
presentatives with their respective forces in this war; only the 
Fantes kept aloof. Encouraged by rumours of disasters said to 
have befallen the invading army, they grew insolent and began to 
insult and beat the Asante residents, and among these one Koso 
(Osono), a court-crier of the king, whose gold cap, the sign of his 
office, was lost in an affrey [at Komane or Commenda]. Reports of this 
were brought to the king in camp, and on the strength of the treat_y 
he applied to the governor for redress. The governor refused. 
Other messengers came, whonj the governor received with great 
indignation, presenting them with a ball-cartridge, in token that 
he was ready for war. The king received the message, and his 
nobles at once demanded to be led to the coast. But he could not 
reconcile the conduct of the governor with British good faith, and 
believed that there must be some mistake, and that the governor 



Chapter XIII. 175 

had been imposed upon. As the treaty had stipulated that iu tlie 
event of any aggression on the part of the protected tribes he was 
to seek redress through the governor, so he had done, and had no 
intention of giving otfence. 

Tlie liing, therefore, despatched Owusu Dome, a messenger of 
high rank, witli a numerous retinue. A little previous to this date 
the British Government had sent out Mr. Dupuis as consul to Asante, 
and lie was waiting at Cape Coast to proceed to Kuniase, when 
Owusu Dome arrived. 

The governor was extremely jealous of Mr. Dupuis' appointment, 
and seems to have been determined to thwart him. Wlien the am- 
l)assador ap[»eared in the conncil chamber at Cape Coast, he begged 
that the treaty might be read aloud, and laid chiefly hold upon the 
fourth article (already given) and the seventh, which provides that 
"the governors of the respective forts shall at all times afford every 
protection in tiieir [lower to the persons and property of the people 
of Asante who may resort to the water side." The envoy then, 
with much dignity, said, that redress must at once be given, or the 
king would appeal to arms. 

The en\oy was then infoi'med of Mr. Dupuis' presence, and of 
the nature of his appointment. At the close of his address he had 
tendered to the governor the parchment on which the treaty was 
written. He now, at Mr. Dupuis" intercession, consented to retain 
it till he received fresh instructions from the king. 

A fresh ambassador was then sent down, a relative of the king. 
He abated nothing of his demands, but insisted on a payment of 
11)00 ounces of gold from the inhabitants of Cape Coast, and a like 
sum from the British governor. 

Upon this Mr. Dupuis went to Kumase. He was well received 
by the king, who seemed willing to adjust the differences without 
proceeding to war. A new treaty was drawn up, recognizing the 
king of Asante's sovereignty over Fante, and stipulating that the 
natives under British protection should be answerable only to the 
fjovernor for their acts. The king withdrew his demand for 1600 
ounces from the governor, but insisted on the fine to be paid by 
the Cape Coast people. He also consented to receive missionaries 
to preach the Christian religion. 

When Mr. Dupuis returned to the coast, the king also sent am- 
bassadors, whom he wished to proceed to England with presents 
to the Prince Reerent. The governor, however, refused to ratify 



176 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

the treat}', or to assist in obtaining for the ambassadors a passage 
to England. Tlie policy of these acts is justly designat^ed by 
Mr. Cruickshank as short-sighted and perfidious. In spite of the 
disavowal of the treaty, the refusal to satisfy the king's demands 
on Cape Coast, and the contumacious rejection of his ambassadors, 
Osei Bonsu still refrained from war. Mr. Dupuis sent him word 
that he would lay the matter before the Home Government. When 
several months had passed without reply or redress, Prince Adum, 
the ambassador, was ordered to retire from Cape Coast and to 
stop the trade. He established his head-quarters at Manso, and 
exercised authority over the protected tribes. Trade was entirely 
stopped, and the whole territory was a scene of lawless violence. 
In consequence of this, an act was passed through the English 
Parliament (in 1821), abolishing the African Company and trans- 
ferring the forts and settlements to the crown. — 

The alliance between Asante and Akra was made during the 
reign of king Tete Ahene Akwa about the year 1740, when Opoku 
Ware was the king of Asante. The following statements refer to 
that alliance or friendship. 

It is a well-known fact that the Asantes never took up arms 
against the Akras and vice versa, while several other nations were 
attacked and conquered by the Asantes. 

There are several traditions which say, the Akras were brothers 
to the Asantes, hence none of them has ever imbrued his hands 
in his brother's blood. To prove the particular nature of such a 
brotherhood is now beyond every traditional research. Naturally, 
the two nations could never be of one and the same family, as the 
Akras are distinguished from the Asantes by the practise of cir- 
cumcision and speak a different language. The following traditions 
and accounts might, however, throw some light on the subject. 

1. The first tradition is already given in chapter I. 

2. Tradition says that two daughters of one of the chiefs of Elmina 
were married one to a prince of Kumase, the other to a prince of 
Akra. Their descendants obtained respectively the royal stools of 
Asante and Akra, hence they kept up that relationship. 

3. An ancient league may have existed between the two nations 
prior to the destruction and expulsion of the Akwamus, and that 
league was faithfully observed by them. 

4. The king of Dutch Akra, the supreme chief of all the Akras, 



Chapter XIII. 177 

being a Dutch subject, and the king of Asantc a Dutch ally, both 
served under one flag, hence the friendship. 

5. The Akras were at all times peaceful trading people, not eager 
for war or extension of their power. Consequently they never 
provoked other people to war, and were inoffensive to the Asantes. 

6. It may have been the policy of the Asantes, to keep peace 
with one tribe till they had subdued the other. ''Divide et impera." 
If such was the case, the Asantes did not get a chance to declare 
war against Akra before they were faced at Katamansu. 

However this may be, the existence of true respect and friendship 
between the Asantes and Akras is proved by different smaller 
circumstances. 

Before the battle of Katamansu, several of the Asante monarchs 
used to apprize the kings of Akra and their fetishes of any projected 
expedition, and receive in return fetish-leaves and war-medicines. 
On the return from such expeditions large presents of prisoners 
and spoils were sent to the Akras. 

Further, there were annual presents sent by the former kings of 
Asante to the chiefs of Akra. Once upon sending such annual 
presents, and also to sympathize with the Akras for the Thursday 
Invasion in 1812, the road having been stopped in consequence of 
the invasion, the messengers made their way through Akwamu. 
Akoto, the king of Akwamu, sent an escort headed by Ofori Biribiti 
to conduct the messengers safe to Akra. The Akuapems, hearing 
about the messengers, planned to attack and rob the escort of the 
presents. A fight ensued, in which Ofori Biribiti was wounded. 

All difficult cases that occurred among the Akras themselves were 
settled by a special commissioner from Kumase, as in the instance 
of Odade Afrowua and others. Several principal men among the 
Akras were befriended by the kings of Asante. They were never 
tributaries to them, as the Fantes, Akems, Akwamus, and Akuapems 
were. The observance of Osei's oath was, however, prevalent, that 
offenders were fined by the Asante residents in the countr3^ 

One Kwame Ata was accused of having used some terms of great 
disrespect to the king. Thereupon Saki Akomia of Akra was com- 
missioned by the chiefs of Akra to bring him over to Kumase to 
be judged b}' the king. But being found not guilty, he was sent 
back without any punishment. 

With the exception of the lime prepared by the people of Tema 
and the Akras, which the Akuapems carried to Kumase, no direct 

12 



178 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

service had ever been performed by them in acknowledgment of 
their subjection to the Asantes, 

At length, to the infinite joy of the whole country, it was made 
known that the British Government, resolved to put an end to the 
existing state of things, had directed Sir Charles MacCarthy, the 
Governor-in-chief of Sierra Leone, to proceed to tlie Gold Coast. 

The Akras were at that time in a flourishing state owing to their 
exemption from Asante invasions. 

From the expulsion of the Akwamus in 1733 up to 1826, almost 
a century, the Akras enjoyed peace and prosperity. As traders and 
brokers to European merchants in the slave traffic, and also by 
several affinities to them, they acquired riches and popularity and 
improvement in their social life. The foreign and civil wars in which 
they were engaged during that time, did not cause them much loss 
of lives. They alone, in those critical times, had not suffered by 
any Asante invasion. The country was well peopled and able to 
send out a force of 20,000 warriors. Their political and military 
administrations were in good order. They were mostly blessed with 
good, powerful, brave, and patriotic kings, chiefs, captains and rich 
men, who had of late broken the peace with Asante by complying 
with the request of Sir Charles MacCarthy, and were now eager to 
assail that power at once before it were too late. Foi- they knew that 
their children would have to suffer the worst, if the Asantes were 
to invade the country, when they had been gathered to their fathers. 

The warlike spirit evinced at that age, was employed by the 
fetish priests as a means of making money. They told the people 
by what sort of sacrifices the king of Asante could be stimulated 
to action. Hence different oracles were obtained to that eifect from 
the principal fetishes. The oracle of Sakumo was, to make a man 
and a stool of clay, to place them outside the town, on the road 
leading to the interior, and to catch a black flying ant and pnt it on 
the stool. After the insect had stung the dayman three times, it 
should be removed from the stool. The oracle from Lakpa was, 
to make seven different camps, to put fire to the sheds one after an- 
other, till the seven camps were reduced to ashes. That ofTema 
Sakumo was, to make a wooden stool, tie it to a rope, drag it to the 
bush, and back again home. All this was to show that they were 
ready and anxious to fight the Asantes. 



Chapter XIV. 17» 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Arrival of, and preparations made by Sir Charles MacCarthy for the 
invasion of Asante. — Expeditions to Aburi and Asikuma. 1822 — 23. 

A few moutlis previous to the 28*'' of March 1822, when Sir 
Charles MacCarthy landed at Cape Coast to assume the government 
of the British Settlements on the Gold Coast, and, amid the tiring 
of cannon and general rejoicing, read the new charter and procla- 
mation, — a difference had taken place between the English Govern- 
ment, and the Asantes on the following occasion. 

0[»entri, the chief of Abora, and principal caboceer of the Fante 
nation,*) had a slave by name Kwame Tete, who, having committed 
some crime, sought refuge in the town of Cape Coast; upon which 
Opentri, without making any application to the Governor to deliver 
him up, proceeded himself with a force to Cape Coast, seized, and 
carried him to Mowure, the then Dutch settlement, six miles east 
of Cape Coast, and there caused him to be beheaded. When this 
outrage was made known to Mr. Smith, the Governor, he despatched 
a party of eighty-tive soldiers under the command of Mr. CoUiver 
to seize Opentri, who was, however, warned of their approach, and 
an action took place in Mowure town, in which eleven lives were 
lost, many wounded, and Opentri himself killed, and his body con- 
veyed to Cape Coast Castle. As the whole Fante nation was then 
subject to the king of Asante, Opentri's master Osam Kofi appealed 
to the King, and urged him to demand satisfaction from the British 
Government. 

This affair was still pending, when a quarrel took place in Ano- 
mabo Fort between one of the sergeants of the Royal African Corps, 
whose native name was Kwadwo Otetefo, and an Asante trader, 
in which the latter used some terms of great disrespect to the gov- 
ernor of the fort; upon which the sergeant retorted, and appliml 
the same reproachful language to the king of Asante. This silly 
affair cost the sergeant his life; for the words were related to the 
king, who was advised by the Fantes and some of his chiefs to 
insist that the unfortunate man should be delivered up to him to 
be punished as he might deem fit. This insolent demand was, of 



*) Osam Kofi was then the chief of Abora and principal caboceer of 
the Fante nation. He being poor, Opentri, who was his own servant, 
got into power by riches. 

12* 



180 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

course, not complied with, and thus all intercourse was broken off 
till Sir Charles MacCarthy's arrival, when these circumstances were 
made known to him. 

It might have been expected that His Excellency had announced 
to the Kino- by an ambassador the transfer of the Forts from the 
African Company to the Crown, and his arrival to take upon him- 
self the supreme command, which would doubtless have led to the 
settlement of any differences then existing. His Excellency, however, 
did not attempt anything of the kind, but immediately began to 
gain over the Wasas, Fantes, etc., inducing them to throw otT their 
allegiance to the king of Asante. And the brave British soldier 
was perfectly right in doing so ; because the officials of the late 
African Company refused to give him information or to take office 
under him. The tyranny of the king, the oppression which the 
Fantes had to endure, and the insolence of the king's residents in 
the country, convinced him that there could be no solution of the 
difficulties, but by war. The views of the new Governor were soon 
made known to the King, through the Elminas and his residents 
at different Fante towns, and thus the breach was widened. 

Sir Charles MacCarthy left matters in this state on his first visit 
to the Gold Coast, and returned to Sierra Leone, leaving Major 
Chisholm in command. A few montlis after his departure, the same 
sergeant was sent by the officer commanding at Anomabo to Agj'a, 
a small town about three miles away, where he was seized by the 
Fante chiefs (among whom was Amoenu, the chief of Anomabo) 
and delivered to Kwame Butuakwa, Amoa Bata, and Apentento, 
the Asante residents at Abora, in whose hands he remained for four 
or five months. He was at last cruelly put to death, and his head 
and hands sent to the King. 

The sergeant's detention for four or five months at Dunkwa by 
Kwame Butuakwa and party, before being brutally killed, streng- 
thens the evidence of the following narrative, which says : "The ser- 
geant, after apprehension, was sent, under an escort, to the King 
who, personally desirous to live in peace with the British Govern- 
ment, raised objections to the sergeant's being brought to Kumase, 
and released him, as Kwame Ata was in former years acquitted, 
but punished the accusers with death. The chiefs and captains of 
Asante took the responsibility upon themselves, and authorized 
Butuakwa to kill the sergeant in spite of the king's objections." 
Before executing the order, Butuakwa, however, was reported to 



CliJiptei- XIV. 181 

have said: *^How often have I Iried to keep together the power and 
kingdom of Asaute by my eloquence, but they would not have it." 
Some chyle being found mixed up with the blood of the sergeant, 
the bystanders exclaimed '^Wiase agu hyirew, atofo aba man mu", 
which means:. 'The world has given the white clay (sign of justi- 
fication), the slain in the field of battle will be numerous."— That 
saying at last i)roved indeed a prophecy. 

Sir Ciiarles was soon apprized of the event, and returned to the 
Gold Coast with the intention of punishing the Asantes. For this 
purpose, to the surprise of all, he brought down a reinforcement of 
only thirty-five men of the 2'"' West India Regiment, which, with the 
troops then at Cape Coast and Anoniabo, made his number about 
220 men. With this force, a swift and secret night-march and an 
onslaught in the dusk of the morning of the 26"^'' of February 1823 
was made to surprise Butuakwa and his party at Dunkwa. But 
by the treachery of a native of Cape Coast, named Sam Brew, the 
project was defeated; for at daylight, when the party expected to 
surprise the Asaute chief in Abora, they had been led by their 
guides into an ambuscade at Tuahko, many miles from that place, 
and surrounded by the enemy. The advance guard, consisting of 
a few well-trained men of the W. I. R, under the command of Cap- 
tain Laing, fought bravely, whilst the Volunteers vanished in an 
instant. They succeeded in making good their retreat to Anomabo, 
but not without the loss of one officer, ten men killed, and forty 
wounded and missing. The war was thus commenced in Fante. 

Still the Asantes were not only permitted to trade to Akra, 
but the monthl^y stipend to the King continued to be paid here. 
This little affair might have convinced His Excellency that the A- 
santes possessed courage and were not entirely unacquainted with 
war and stratagems. For after the battle at Dunkwa, the King de- 
spatched the renowned Akra linguist Kwashi Apente with the King's 
son Prince Owusu Pera, Anoneano and Abam, to tell the king of 
Akra what had happened and what he had heard about the move- 
ments of one Mankata (Sir Charles), who was preparing to invade 
Asante, and also to know from the Akra king, whether he would 
join the British Government against him? A very difficult question 
that! To deliver his message and the Akra king's answer accurate- 
ly, the linguist was made to swear on a certain fetish atKumase, 
and had his lips wounded by the sword of the King's successor Osei 
Yaw, with which he swore to fight the British Government, saying 



182 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

thus: "'No nation will dare to invade Kumase, unless we rather make 
war against that nation. Whoever attempts to burn Kumase, shall 
quench the fire with his own blood." 

After several meetings held by the Akras alone, they unanimously 
resolved to support the British Government. Prince Owusu Pera 
was brought by the Akra chiefs before Captain Blenkarue in James 
Fort, and ordered by the commandant to return speedily and tell 
his father that the country would be invaded by the English. 

Another tradition says, that the skull of the sergeant killed at 
Dunkwa was brought by Prince Owusu Pera to the king of Akra, 
with overtures of peace to the English; but that Sir Charles Mac 
Carthy rejected the proposals made by the King through the Dutch 
Governor, after which Commandant Blenkarne ordered the prince 
to get away with the skull. 

His Excellency after the Dunkwa encounter redoubled his efforts 
to withdraw the Wasas and Fantes from their allegiance, which 
efforts were attended with some success. 

He also succeeded in gaining Kwadwo Tibo, king of Dankera; 
he likewise now embodied 800 Militia at Cape Coast, Anomabo and 
Akra, paid a visit to the latter place, and had an interview with 
the Danish Governor, Major Johan C. von Richelieu, and made every 
arrangement with him to allow all Danish subjects to join the ex- 
pedition against Asante, He had an interview also with the in- 
fluential native merchants, Messrs. Hansen, Bannerman and Richter 
etc. Through these means, after considerable trouble and promises 
of rewards held forth to the king and chiefs of Akra, the English, 
Dutch and Danish Akras were induced to declare against the A- 
santes. Before their final consent was obtained, they told Sir Charles 
that they had a master whose oracles were more essential, and 
which they must first consult. The chiefs thereupon applied to 
Okomfo Nyako, the renowned fetish prophet in that age, seeking 
divination from Nai (the sea), their highest fetish, who told them 
through the prophet, that his mind would not be known until his 
great captain Sakumo had been consulted. One Monday night, the 
chiefs assembled at Nyako's predicting-shed, inquiring the same from 
Sakumo. What they obtained was: "I have already raised my 
sword." The oracle obtained from the female fetish (lagoon) Kole 
on the following Friday night was: "I have my sacred basin already 
in my left hand, and I will sprinkle the refreshing water on my 
husbands.'" Large presents were privately given to the chiefs by 



Chapter XIV. 183 

those native merchants, who made tlieni nnderstand that to side 
with Asante was, as it were, to keep a snake in tiie pocket. And 
the same experiences they themselves hade made when general 
Amankwa Abunyawa was on the coast in 1814, when several Akras 
were subjected to heavy tines and extortions, so that many a one 
became eitlier a slave or pawn. 

After having gained over the Akras and obtained the full consent 
of the Danish Government, the next important step was, to gain 
over the Akems, Akuapems, Akwamus, and Krgbos, all tributaries 
to Asante. 

Tshumasi Ankra, headman among the Akem hunters in the bush 
near AUra, was ordered to come down to the coast. King Amugi 
and his chiefs, after having sounded his mind, brought him over to 
Captain Blenkarne; he was then commissioned to go to Dokuwa, 
queen of Akem. That masculine queen had sworn never to attend 
any grand yam-feast in Kumase, on account of several cruelties the 
Akems had undergone at the hands of the Asantes. For, the first 
twin brothers of the royal family, and kings of Akem, (viz., Ata 
and Ata, her uncles) had been killed by the Asantes; after those, 
the second twin brothers, who were her brothers, shared the same 
fate. Hence she determined never to go up to Kumase with her 
twin sons Ata and Obiwom. Her presence was, however, urgently 
required at Kumase, and after much hesitation and misgiving she 
yielded to the positive demand of the King to go to Asante. Du- 
ring this time Ado Dankwa also sent his son Atiemo, with Adi, Asa 
and Kwasi, to the queen to inform her of his intention to support 
the king of Asante, and not Sir Charles. She agreed to do the 
same after all, and sent Oware Fori, Apeagyei Aponsagya and A- 
sirili to accompany Ado's ambassadors to announce their intentions 
to the king. Not long after the messengers had gone, Dokuwa 
was quitting Akem for Asante, and had reached Abompe, when the 
chiefs Okru of Apapam, Obeng Ayekwa of Apedwa, and Kwasi 
Asimen of Tete determined to force her back or deprive her of 
the Akem stool. She was supported by Tanno Asiakwa of the O- 
yoko tribe, an adherent of the king of Asante, and the most in- 
fluential chief in all Akem. He was at Abompe vanquished in a 
battle against the three chiefs, and beheaded. The queen was, at 
the same place, overtaken by Tshumasi Ankra, who delivered to 
her the message from the Government and the king and chiefs of 
Akra. At first she positively declined to break off her allegiance to 



184 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

tlie king of Asante, as she did not believe in the success of the 
expedition. She said: ^'Suppose the white men and the Akras fail 
to break down the power of Asante, what will become of myself 
and my subjects? Whither could we flee? The white men could 
run away to Europe, the Akras would be safe enough on the coast^ 
but upon me and my subjects the Asantes would pour out revenge!" 
Tshumasi replied : "Suppose the white men run away from the coast, 
will they not put a stop to the importation of gun, powder, flint 
and knife, etc.? And could the Asantes fight without these ma- 
terials?" The debate ran high, till at last the queen was overcome 
by the fellowing speech. "The white men have brought out corn 
with them, have determined to conquer Asante, and plant the corn 
in the soil of Kumase, and eat some l>efore returning to Europe!" 
Dokuwa gave in and was brought to Akra with her twin sons and 
people. Her eldest son Ampoforo, though but a youth at that time, 
w^as presented to the king and chiefs of Akra as the king of Akem, 
although the reins of government were in her hands. At the re- 
ception given to her by the British ofiicials and the chiefs of Akra, 
she held in her hand a stick with a parrot sitting on it, to indicate 
that she could retire like a parrot into the forest, should the British 
Government and Akras fail in conquering the Asantes. 

After completing all arrangements with the Governor and the 
chiefs of Akra, she left her twin sons Ata and Obiwom as hostages, 
renewed her ancient league with the Akra king, and confirmed the 
whole by an oath on their chief fetish. 

This being done, the next people to gain were the Akuapems. 
Some force was required to induce them to declare war against 
their former masters. Yaw Okoampa, the right heir to the stool 
of Aburi, had gone to Akropong and had summoned Kwafum, who 
had been made chief of Aburi, to claim the stool as his rightful 
property. The ambassadors of Dokuwa and Ado Dankwa, who 
were sent to the king of Asante to negotiate for peace and to inform 
the king that they would never declare against him, were still de- 
tained at Kumase. Kwafum, being very cunning, knew that by 
yielding to the persuasions of Ado Dankwa to declare against the 
Akras and the British Goverment, he might forfeit the stool of A- 
buri, as by that he would come under the power of Asante. He 
managed to practise martial law by plundering and killing prince 
Owusu Piabere, one of the sons of Osei, who had passed down to 
the coast for the purpose of buying goods, with all his people at 



Chapter XIV. 185 

Agyankama. Ademo and the other iiiessengers were cruelly killed 
at Kamase, when this outrage was reported there. Ado Dankwa 
tried to take revenge by beheading Kwabina Loko of Late, who 
first fell upon the prince, but all Akuapem opposed his doing so. 

No sooner was the inurdci" of prince Owusu Piabere committed, 
than Kwafum declared in favour of the Government. He ran down 
to the coast, entered into the alliance, and swore allegiance on a 
fetish given to him by tlie chiefs of Akra. But in spite of the s;ul 
news from Kumase, that Atiemo with the other messengers had 
been killed by the king, Ado Dankwa still adhered to the Asantes. 
After fruitless remonstrances and tiireats, an expedition was orga- 
nized of 4000 Akras under Captain Blenkarne; Messrs. Hansen and 
Richter joined it and marched to Aburi. Kwafum with the greater 
part of the Akuapems also Joined. Information reached the camp 
that Ado Dankwa was preparing to escape to Kumase. So the ex- 
pedition proceeded to Akro]»ong. Ado was apprehended by Kwa- 
fum at Adobesum, and brought to Captain Blenkarne. The Asante 
residents at Akropong, over one hundred persons, with a large 
amount of collected tribute, were captured and brought to Akra, 
some killed, and the rest sold into slavery. At Akra, Ado was forced 
to declare against the Asantes, gave his son Kofi Banipo and neph- 
ew Okra as hostages, and the king and chiefs of Akra made him 
swear on a fetish. Ado was after all these arrangements still very 
lukewarm, and thus sang at a play: 

"Me nenanom Nkranfo, — menkame mo o, meiikame mo! 

Osei asem, wonni! AdVvane o, adwane o!" 
''You people of Akra, my grandfathers you are; 
I don't oppose you (but I am not responsible). 
Osei is not to be trilled with ! 
You'd better dee, you'd better flee!" 

The chiefs were annoyed at such a song, and hushed him up. 

With the Akwamus and Krobos no trouble was encountered, es- 
pecially as the king of Akwauiu had made sad experience at Kunuise 
in a case between himself and Pobi Asawa of Akra. The latter swore 
the oath of Osei on king Akoto of Akwamu, when he was once trying 
to kill him for having had illegal intercourse with an Akwamu wo- 
man, whom the king, under false pretences, claimed as his wife. 
Pobi Asaw^a, knowing that the woman was no wife of the king's, 
swore that both he and the king must appear before Osei, and 



186 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

settle the case there. The king's personal expenses from Akwamu 
to Kumase, those of his chiefs and retinne, and also those in pro- 
viding a sheep every day to the supposed culprit in irons, as the 
king was required to do every day by virtue of the oath sworn, 
the judgment given against the king in Kumase, with the enormous 
fine imposed, and the ill-treatment which he was made to suffer, 
had cautioned him never to declare in favour of Asante. He gave 
N.yankomago, and Agyemang, the king of Akem Kotoku, gave O- 
kenni as hostages to the British and Danish Governments. 

Thus the Governor had succeeded in stripping the Asantes of 
the whole of their tributary force on their southern frontier. He 
now repaired again to Sierra Leone, leaving to Major Chisholm 
the arduous task of managing this tumultuous force, and of satis- 
fying the unreasonable demands of the numerous chiefs, who re- 
minded him of the promises held forth to them by Sir Charles 
MacCarthy, as the price of tiieir joining him against the Asantes. 
In His Excellency's absence, several expeditions were despatched 
into the interior of the Fante country, some to oblige certain chiefs 
to remain faithful to their new alliance, and others to attack those 
who still adhered to the Asantes. 

One of those expeditions was that to Asikuma. Before throwing 
otT his allegiance to the king of Asante, Aduanan Apea, the chief 
of Adwumanko Pong, had to collect the annual tribute in Fante, part 
of which he used in buying salt for the King. Kwasi Amankwa 
the chief of Asikuma, had to send the salt to Kumase by Asikuma 
people. Amankwa lirst declared in favour of the English Govern- 
ment; but when Apea declined to do so likewise, the same Kwasi 
Amankwa informed the King against Apea, as if he (Apea) had 
thrown off his allegiance to the King, — upon which forty of Apea's 
people, who were then present at Kumase, were beheaded. The 
Kins: then commissioned Kwasi Amankwa with the collection of the 
tribute, and also to demand back any amount Apea had still in his 
possession, after which, to fight with him as a proof of his loyalt3^ 

The Fantes refused to pay any further tribute to Amankwa. 
Apea too, having declared in favour of the English, when his people 
were beheaded in Kumase, refused to give back the tribute collected 
to him. — Amankwa gave battle, but was defeated; his town was 
burnt down, and he escaped into the bush. 

After a few weeks, he returned to the ruins of his town, when 
a detachment under Obongo, Tawia, and Osimpam, was sent against 



iiiiin^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 




Chapter XV. 187 

him. On thoir approach, Amankwii again retreated into the bnsh. 
The detachenient now gave themselves up to drink and merriment, 
vvei'c attacked one night by Amaokwa, and routed with heavy loss; 
the three i)rincipal men were among the shiiii. 

On hearing of this disaster, Captain Blenkarne, Captain liingston, 
and Mr. Hansen immediately organized an army of the Akras about 
4000 strong. Chief Amnia, of James Town, chief Dowuona of Chri- 
stiansborg, Tete Tshuru, Ato, Ankra, Kwatei Kodwo, and Sempe 
Mensa directed the expedition. These, i<nowing that their appea- 
rance in the Fante country would look too mean, as their state- 
decorations were then inferior to those of the Fante chiefs, proposed 
to strip themselves of any gold ornament and the like, and to wear 
fetishes only; in those they appeared. A grand reception was, how- 
ever, given them by Apea, at which they were much astonished 
at the grandeur of the Fante chiefs in a meeting. They compared 
Apea to Osei and Akoto, besides whom, no one else on the whole 
Gold Coast was so magniticent and powerful. Kwasi Amankwa 
had meanwhile fled from the Fante country to Asante, and after 
a vigilant, yet unsuccessful, search of him and his party at Asikuma, 
the Akras marched home. Kwatei Kodwo l)ecame a friend of Apea; 
he and Dowuona were the two chiefs he acknowledged. On the 
return of the expedition, the Akras endeavoured to acquire state- 
decorations in imitation of the Fantes. 



CHAPTER XV. 

Martial law proclaimed by the British Government. — Kwudwo Tibo's 
flight from Kumase. — Sir Charles' death. — Expedition to the Pra. 1824. 

After Sir Charles had succeeded in stripping the Asantes of their 
tributary countries, he declared war against the King, and forthwith 
proclaimed Martial Law. 

During those days Asante Agyei, the son of Adum Ata, the re- 
nowned linguist of Kumase, came to the Coast. He was arrested 
and imprisoned in .James Fort; but as the chiefs of Akra inter- 
ceded for him, he was released, and went up to Kumase. He met 
a large number of Asante traders coming to the Coast to trade, 
and advised them to return; but very few of them complied; the 



188 History of the Gold Coast and Asante, 

rest, about 300, went to the Coast. The same day the martial law 
was put into force. Captain Blenkarne hastened to Christiansborg, 
where lots of the Asante traders were residing. Their goods were 
confiscated, and themselves either killed or sold as slaves. A good 
many of them rushed into Mr. Richter's house for protection. The 
chiefs of Christiansborg went to them, and took a fetish oatli that 
no evil should befall them. But no sooner had they left the prem- 
ises, than they were attacked, some captured alive, others cut to 
pieces, or shot down. A good amount of their property fell into 
the hands of the Christiansborg people. Mr. Peter Quist was wounded 
by an Asante during the struggle. 

After having witnessed the very active execution of the martial 
law by the people of Christiansborg and James Town, King Okai 
of Dutch Town with his chiefs determined, after all, to imbrue their 
hands in the blood of their former friends, so as to remove any 
suspicion which might be held about tliem by tlie English Govern- 
ment. The king and his tliree chiefs, Akvvete Kmbysaki, Akotia 
Owosika, and Aponsa, therefore appointed Amma (xbagi'i, Teko 
Owara, and captain Mensa. These waj'laid Prince Adu ofKumase 
and his people at the late Mr. Haniierman"s garden, and fell upon 
them as they were escaping from James Town. The [»rince and 
three of his people were killed. Captain Blenkarne, on being in- 
formed of what the king had done in proof of his faithful adherence 
to the new alliance, sent him a [iresent of 200 heads of cowries. 
''Do you rejoice when such a heavy case is lying upon youV '' was 
a song*) of those Asantes subjected to all sorts of barbarous cruelties 
by the martial law. They anticipated the speedy retaliation on the 
part of their king. Thus the war was also commenced at Akra. 

It was, however, a very trying case for the people of Dutch 
Town, to see their old friends thus treated. But as they had al- 
ready given their consent to join the British Government to fight 
the Asantes, they could not go beyond that. Some, however, tried 
to bury the dead bodies lying about Kuku near Christiansborg, but 
were advised to desist from doing so, and had to obey. 

The gallantry displayed by Tibo at the invasion of Gyaman in 
1<S18 had greatly astonished the King, and led him to ask "If you 
fight so for your master, how would you tight in your own defence V" 



*j Thus they sang: Asem kokroko te si] da mo so, na motene ? Mo- 
tene aye den ? 



Chapter XV 189 

Hence Tibo liad perceived the critical state of his life in the hands 
of the Asantes, because he knew how his predecessors had been 
killed by them. He was a wide-awake prince, and liaving been 
brought up in Kumase, had studied the Asante policy, waiting only 
for an opportunity to make himself independent. 

Tradition differs as to the reason why Kwadwo Tibo was sum- 
moned to Kumase, whence he effected his escape to the coast. 
Some say it was for the purpose of obtaining ammunition from Sir 
Charles. Another tradition, which seems more probable, relates that 
a rich Wasa man, Kwadwo Mensa, grew so proud and independent 
that he ordered one of his slaves to blow a horn thus: "Obommofo, 
wummekum Kwakuo?" i.e. hunter, wouldn't you come to kill 
Kwakuo (a kind of monke}^)? After some time the king of Asante 
was informed of the tune of that peculiar horn, and knew what it 
meant, — the king being the hunter, and Kwadwo Mensa the mon- 
key living independent in the forest and defying the hunter to 
catch him. Owusu Akem of Akuropong, the king's chamberlain, 
was commissioned to march with an army to Wasa for the appre- 
hension of Kwadwo Mensa. He went by a roundabout wa^^ to 
Wasa, defeated Mensa, cut off liis head, and seized his property. 
But on his way back he passed through Banso, the capital of Dan- 
kera. Kwadwo Tibo was enraged at these proceedings in Wasa, 
a territory that stood under his jurisdiction, and claimed all the 
gold confiscated, leaving to Owusu only the prisoners and spoil. 

Tibo was now summoned to appear in Kumase. The case was 
judged and decided in favor of the defendant. Being thus acquitted,. 
Tibo played and danced all night, singing: 'T once had no master, 
but now I iiave one." For this he was called to appear in Court 
a second time. But Adu Sei Tshatsha, the renowned linguist then 
in Kumase, a Dankera by origin, had been heavily bribed by Aya- 
dankwa, the mother of Tibo, who accompanied her son to the capital 
and was the concubine of General Opoku. The court was corrupted 
by bribes, because the king was ill, and could not attend in person. 
Beaten and Awua Yaw, the chief enemies of Tibo, were thus un- 
able to obtain the unanimous opinion of the rest to punish Tibo 
with death. 

The Dankeras, in consequence of a false report that their king had 
been arrested in Kumase, assailed the Asante residents and slew 
four of their chiefs: Kofi Mako, Ankwani, Kwisi Awua and Afei. 
Tibo was again called before the Court, but his legal adviser, Adu 



19.0 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Sei, liad instriicted him to defend himself by taking tiie forbidden 
oaths of Asante, and thns he flatly denied every charge. 

The Dankeras, anxious to throw olf their allegiance to Asante and 
to join the English, urgently requested Tibo to come, as they would 
else act without him. The king exhorted his people to be patient 
and abstain from acts of violence. 

There were then four Mohammedan priests in Kumase: Baba, 
Soma, Sibri, and Kantama, who in concurrence with Agyei Yeboa, 
the predicting fetish-priest of Tibo, were trying their best enchant- 
ments in behalf of Tibo. They advised him to leave the capital one 
Thursday night. After amusing himself with dances the greater 
])art of the night, Kwadwo Tibo left with only thirty armed men, 
ordering the drummer to beat the kettle-drum during the whole 
night after his departure. His people, who had been ordered to 
meet him on the way, had sent 1000 Wasa and 1000 Dankera 
armed men to await his arrival, who had meanwhile concealed them- 
selves in the forest of Terabuom. The small party of armed men 
he had with him was stationed in the neighbourhood of Asafo as 
rear-guard. They allowed him sufficient time to meet those in the 
forest, then marched through the street with a noise, and blew the 
horn of Tibo: '^Kwadwo mmirikako!'' The inhabitants awoke, and 
knowing at once what it was, attacked them suddenly; but Tibo 
was gone. The Dankeras, in conjunction with the rear-guard, an- 
swered the fire of the Asantes, and a sharp conflict ensued with 
a heavy loss to the Asantes, and the town was plundered. An- 
other attack was made at Ohiakose, in which two of Tibo's men, 
Ofori and Afuamoa, were killed and their heads sent to Kumase. 

On receipt of those heads, captain Dei Kra was immediately sent 
with a large army in pursuit of Tibo; Adu Sei Tshatsha acting as 
the commander-in-chief. But his army was not sufficiently supplied 
with ammunition. Hence all those warriors who hastily left the 
capital had to wait at Ohiakose for want of ammunition. Thus Tibo 
managed to escape. We may be allowed to suppose that the cap- 
tains had been bribed. Tibo marched in two days from Kumase 
to Banso, packed everything, with all his people, women, and chil- 
dren, and resumed his march towards the Coast. 

The Asantes were ten days in marching from Ohiakose over 
Adubea and Afohomaso to Banso, where they stayed forty days 
more in search of plunder. Akobea and Pimpim, two messengers 
despatched by the King with arms and ammunition, urged the army 



Chapter XV. 191 

to carry out their task, stating that the king- had appointed Awua 
Yaw commander-in-chief. But scarcely had the Asantes left Ha)iso, 
when a Wasa man, Boampong, with 700 warriors blockaded the 
road behind them, killing all travellers passing from or to the capital. 

In November 1823, Sir Charles came again to the Gold Coast, 
and. on the 27'*" of that month, was informed that an Asante army 
20,000 strong under the King's cousin Kokofu Ofe had attacked and 
totally defeated the king of Dankera, had taken his country, and 
was pursuing him to the Coast, in which direction Kwadwo Tibo 
was Hying with the utmost speed. His Excellency immediately 
put himself at the head of a small force consisting of eighty of the 
Roj'al African Company, 300 Cape Coast Militia, and about 1200 
unorganized Fantes. Having received a message from the Wasa 
chief Kwasi Nyako, that he was ready to join him with 10,000 men, 
the Governor procured arms and ammunition for all of them, but 
no more than 600 men made their appearance. 

Though disappointed by that chief, Sir Charles resolved to en- 
counter the Asantes. Kwadwo Tibo, being informed of the approach 
of an English officer with a large avmy in his defence, hastened 
to join him. They met, Tibo was overjoyed, but is said to have 
observed that the Governor's force was too small to meet the Asantes, 
and begged Sir Charles to retreat a few miles in order to concen- 
trate all the available forces; but he replied, "lam confidontin the 
strength of the small force I have under me, I am determined now 
even to otYer myself a sacrifice, that the one to conquer shall come 
after me." Tibo turned round and told his people, 'T am quite sure 
that the Fantes cannot stand; the whole charge will fall upon the Gov- 
ernor and his small force, and the consequence will be the ruin of 
Dankera!" They encamped upon the banks of the Ankwaw, a small 
tributary of the Pra, near the village of Asamankaw. The Wasa force 
formed the right wing, about 1000 Dankeras under Tibo tlu; left 
wing, and Sir Charles with the Fantes the centre. These corri[>rised 
the whole of his force, viz., 380 Regulars and Militia, and about 
3000 of the unorganized force. Others believe that Sir Charles' 
men numbered in all 5500. On the 21'" of January 1824, His Excel- 
lency engaged the enemy, who completely lined the opposite bank; 
the British soldiers opened fire at him across the river. Owing to 
the density of the jungle the conflict resolved itself into a series of 
distinct skirmishes. The Fantes and Wasas threvv^ down their arms 
and fled at the first discharge from the Asantes, leaving the unfor- 



192 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

tuiiate Sir Charles MacCarthy with his 380 men (with only 20 rounds 
each) aided by the Dankeras to fight nearly 20,000 men, flushed 
with recent victories! 

For several hours the Regulars and Militia kept the Asantes from 
crossing the stream; but on their pouches becoming empty, they 
were no longer able to hold their ground, and no sooner did the 
exulting Asantes perceive that the fire was slacking, than they forded 
the river and by their overwhelming numbers and their peculiar 
mode of advancing in the form of a fan completely surrounded Sir 
Charles and all the unfortunates who were with him. They had 
no alternative but to sell their lives as dear as possible. They 
fought with their bayonets, till overborne by the pressure of num- 
bers, and each man as he fell was instantly decapitated. 

Sir Charles had by this time received man^^ wounds from poi- 
soned weapons, and seeing that all hope had fled from the centre, 
he rushed in where the king of Dankera was still fighting against 
vast odds. During this action Messieurs Buckle and Wetheral were 
killed, with other Europeans; Captain Raydon was afterwards of- 
fered up a sacrifice to a fetish. Nine British Officers and 180 Regu- 
lars and Militia were killed, missing or captured. 

When His Excellency marched with his small force to cross the 
river Pra and support Tibo, he had no thought of meeting the enemy- 
early, for he had despatched Major Chisholm with the main bodj 
consisting of 600 Regulars and Militia and 3000 unorganized na- 
tives to cross the Pra at Aponsasu about 25 miles on his right, 
Major Laing with 100 Regulars and Militia and 2000 Fantes in the 
direction of Asen, while Captain Blenkarne with 300 Regulars and 
Militia and 6000 Akras were to approach Asante through Akem; 
and His Excellency expected all these forces to join him at a cer- 
tain point before he could meet with the Asante army. 

The Eastern division under Captain Blenkarne had reached Mam- 
pong in Akuapem and was about to march to Akem, when they 
received the sad news of the defeat at Asamankaw. The camp 
was immediately broken up, and the troops began to march'home. 
After a week's preparation, the force of James Town under chief 
Amnia and his captains started first. Captain Blenkarne, Mr. Han- 
sen and Mr. Bannerman were among them. On the second week 
king Kudsha Okai and his chiefs of Dutch Town, having appointed 
prince Koi, Dodu Nyang, Tete Tshuru, Akwete Gbeke and Teko 
Owara as their representatives, also started. Then came chief 



Chapter XV. im 

Dowuona of Christiansbor^-, who was appointed by kiijg- Owuo, and 
some detachments ol* Labade and Teshi. Old ^nns of some of 
the warriors were exchanged for new ones at Winneba, and 
the whole army marched to Anomabo. The army of more than 
()(X)0 men received subsistence from the Government ol one dollar 
each per week, and new guns were again distributed here. They 
proceeded on to Cape Coast, where Apea, Tibo, Adoko and all the 
Fante chiefs had sheltered their women and children; themselves 
and their forces were encamped in the interior against the invaders. 
Major Chisholm with the organized force under him with the Akras 
joined the camp of the Fantes and Dankeras. Apea and the Akras 
formed the right wing, Adoko the left, and the Major the centre 
on the main road to the Pra. After four days' march in swamp, 
rain and hunger, they crossed the Pra. On one Thursday morning 
Adoko sent messengers to inform the army that the enemy had 
been found by means of scouts. The march was resumed imme- 
diately on the following two days. Many dropped down from fa- 
tigue and hunger. At last the enemj^'s rear was perceived, a 
position which could have enabled them to defeat the Asantes. But 
just as they were falling in to commence the attack, Apea sent 
urgently to advise the Akras never to open any tire yet, as the 
Fantes forming the left wing under Adoko had deserted their post. 
They proposed a hasty retreat, and during the whole ensuing night 
groped back in the dense forest amidst mud, rain and hunger to 
the banks of the Pra. They framed floats of four pieces of plan- 
tain-trees, upon which most recrossed the river, the upper part of 
the body, the gun and the cartouch-belt on the float, and paddling 
off. Some swam across, with the belt tied on the head and the 
left hand holding the gun. Captain Mensa of the force of Otu-Street 
in Akra ferried over a great many of his people, and perished in 
the waves from fatigue. Above one hundred of the Akras were 
drowned in consequence of precipitate crossing during the night. 
The Europeans encamped on this side were busy till Sunday noon 
taking over the panic-stricken warriors. 

After crossinof, most of the Akras marched to the battle-field at 
Asamankaw, and witnessed the frightful scene there. How cruelly 
the enemy had tied or nailed the poor victims alive to palm and 
silk-cotton trees ! Apea, on the retreat from the Pra, was attacked 
by small-pox, and died at home. He was first brought to Cape 
Coast Castle, and placed under tlie kind and skilful treatment of 

lo 



194 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

the European doctorSj who did all in their power to save such a 
valuable chief as he was, but failed. During his illness, his mother 
and sister Baduwa asked the high fetish Nananorn concerning the 
state of his health, and were told that he was to live no longer, 
because the spirit of his elder brother Bafo, whom he secretly 
murdered under pretext of suicide, had since been urging on the 
fetish to avenge his blood. He being, however, the powerful chief 
who defended the country, he forbare the execution of his brother's 
request, but now he must die. The camp with a small store of 
ammunition at Daboase was abandoned through the confusion of 
the whole army after the river had been recrossed. On the 2"*^ 
of April, Major Ohisliolm was forced to retreat from the Pra, 
and the Akras, from want of provisions, escaped one by one to their 
homes. Mr. Hansen, chief Amma, and his captains returned to 
Cape Coast. 

Tibo, determined to light the Asantes to the last, kept the field, 
and, with the native forces under him, attacked them at Dompim 
on the 25*'* of April. Neither party seemed to obtain great advantage, 
Avhen the forces from Egwafo, Aberemu, and British Commendah 
came behind the enemy, which made w^ay for the numerous Wasa 
[trisoners captured at Asamankaw to effect their escape. The 
Asantes turned their march into that direction, which caused the 
evacuation of Commendah Fort. Several towns were plundered and 
destroyed by them. 

Meanwhile preparations were made to meet them again, and on 
tlie 21^* of May a stern engagement took place at Afutu. The 
Asantes were defeated, but many of the Fantes, frightened at their 
own success, fled in the moment of victory. The English were 
obliged to concentrate their forces around the town of Cape Coast, 
where all the women, children, infirm and sick from the interior 
hade taken refuge, who died daily in great numbers from hunger 
«nd disease. The Government did their utmost in giving relief to 
this tumultuous mass of distressed people, and also engaged actively 
in preparing against the invaders, by converting into balls any kind 
of available metal, either from the roofs of houses, or the stores of 
merchants. 

While these preparations were being made, Osei Yaw Akoto, the 
brother and successor of Osei Bonsu, who had reached Manso when 
the late battle was fought at Afutu, joined the army on the 29*^ 
The cause of his appearance on the field was this : Forty days after 



Chapter XV. 195 

the llight of Kwadvvo Tibo from Kiimase, the old monarch 'died, 
and his brother becoming successor could not ascend the stool be- 
fore the grand funeral custom for the deceased monarch had been 
made. Nor was it possible in the absence of the army. Hence a 
party of warriors of the king's body-guard, about 6000 men (some 
say 12,000) was organized, headed by himself, the king of Dwaben, 
and Yaw Qsekyere (who had recently returned from the invasion 
of the Krepe country), and marched into the Fante country to recall 
the army. The principal captains in command of that force were 
Oteng Kwasi, Adu Kwame, Adu Brade, Amoa Bata, Apentento, 
and Asamoa Dehee. When they joined the army, a grand reception 
was given and every circumstance connected with the campaign 
was reported, yet the king was greatly annoyed that Tibo was not 
as yet captured. His captains arrogantly and officiously swore that 
they would catch Kwadwo Tibo if he had taken shelter in the body 
of the smallest iish Nkamfra (a small flat sea-fish of 2"x4"), or 
in the castle of Cape Coast; they would break down its walls; 
and if their bullets were too slow, they would outvie their speed 
to catch him! They proceeded to besiege Cape Coast, whereupon 
a few marines and seamen were landed from the British man-of- 
war and some merchant ships, numbering less than 400, of whom 
not all were in good health. 

Hark, 'tis the ancient story 

Of wars fought by our forefathers, 

Their battles and victory; 

Of their shoutings and their bloodshed. 

To sing together our anthems 

In praise of Sir Charles MacCarthy ! 

He came and fought the battles 
For the blacks he did never know. 
He came, drove the Asantes 
With courage uncommonly known. 
His ammunition failed, but yet 
With his sword in hand he did fight. 

The noble son of Britain 

Fought, but the natives left him 'lone. 

The ground upon which he stood, 

He kept possession of to death, 

Died, yet retain'd the possession 

In a living attitude. 

13 * 



196 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

His troops were put to the sword, 

And yet himself not vanquished. 

At Katamansu he rose ; 

His spirit defeated Asante, 

Defeated totally for ever, 

That the Gold Coast be set free. 



Jjiberty hast thou obtained 
By Britain's dear sacrifice. 
From bonds of sin and Satan 
No man can set thee free. 
To thy Redeemer Jesus turn, 
And so all in all be free ! 



CHAPTER XVI. 

The causes that led to the battle of Katamansu. — Defeat of Osei Yaw at 
Cape Coast. His retreat and disorder among his captains. — His accession 
to the stool, and preparation for an invasion to reclaim his honour — 
His principal captains. March for invasion and incidents in camp and 
on the coast. 1825 — 1826. 

After the death of the noble and gallant Sir Charles MacCarthy^ 
the Asantes closely besieged the Fantes and Dankeras who had 
retreated to the town of Cape Coast. The bull-dog for the European 
Governments on the Gold Coast was again called upon to appear 
on the field of battle. From March 1823 to June 1824, the Akras 
have five times been in arms in behalf of the English Government: 
at Aburi, Asikuma, Mampong, Daboase, and Cape Coast. 

Colonel Sutherland, who had lately arrived to take the command, 
immediately sent informations to Commandant Blenkarne, to ask the 
aid of the Danish Government and king Okai of Dutch Town. Major 
Von Richelieu, the Governor, summoned all the Danish allies from 
Christiansborg to Ada, Akwamu, and Akuapem. Captain Oketeku 
arrived from Akwamu with a force of 120 men, chief Kwafum from 
Aburi with the chief power of the Akuapems. His Excellency the 
Governor distributed arms and ammunition to every warrior, and 
appointed the Danish officer Mr. Poulsen, the book-keeper, who w^as 
said to be of the Royal blood of Denmark, with about 50 Regulars, 
as commander-in-chief of the Danish forces. King Ngtei Dgwuona 
and the chiefs of Labade and Teshi commanded , their respective 



Cliajiter XVI. 197 

forces under tliis officer. King- Kudsha Okai of Dutcli Town joined 
in person; his chiefs Akwete Krobosaki^ Akotia Owosika, Dodu 
Nyang and Tete Tshuru held the command of his forces. Dokuwa, 
tlie queen of Akem, on hearing- of the arrival of an Asante army 
under captain Kwaku Biri on the frontier of her territory, advised 
king- Ado Dankwa not to march ag-ainst the Asautes who had be- 
sieged Cape Coast, but to come with his forces to prevent the ene- 
my's march into their country. 

About the first week in July, the army, estimated at about 15,000 
strong-, marched to Winneba, and thence to Auomabo. The women 
and children of the place had taken refuge in the Fort in consequence 
of Kwasi Amankwa's attack on Biriwa a few days before. Old 
Adama Pataku, with his company of iron-hearted men of Akra, 
[iroceeded to clear the enemy from the forest of Fufumpo, and the 
whole army arrived at Cape Coast on the 5*^> of July. They found 
lots uftheFantes dying from hunger and disease; most of the dead 
bodies were even thrown into Paparata, the water of which every 
body was obliged to drink. From Tuesda,y the 6*^^ to Friday they 
were engaged in clearing off the bush about the town, to obtain 
a clear view of the enemy's camp and have a free ground for 
action. The inhabitants of Cape Coast refusing- to assist in clearing 
off the bushes, the Akras were ordered b^^ the officers on Saturday 
morning to rush into their houses, and take possession of anything 
they might find there. Ptepeated attempts of the Asantes upon the 
line met with effectual opposition. 

On the 11'^' of July a furious attack was made upon the lines 
by the whole Asante force, but signally repulsed, and on the 13**^, 
a random ball from one of the guns on Smith's Tower having 
struck the king's palanquin, the Asantes retreated. It is related 
that an Akra man, captured during the heat of action, was asked 
by the king, who those were that fought so bravely and fiercely 
against him. Being told they were Akras, old friends of the Asantes, 
in whose blood they never imbrued their hands, whom they had 
often defended against Fantes, Akems, and Akuapems, he replied, 
^'Let us march back to Kumase, and I will come upon them.'" Thus 
the siege was raised and the whole army marched back to Kumase. 

Another cause why the siege was raised was said to be the 
annihilation of captain Kwaku Biri of Asante Akem and his forces. 
He and other captains with their forces were posted on the boun- 
dary between Akem and Asante, wlien Osei Yaw and the king of 



198 History of the Oolcl Coast and Asante. 

Dwabeii marched into the Fante countrj to recall the Asante army 
in pursuit of Kwadwo Tibo. 

Ado Dankwa with a small force having gone in aid of Dokuwa^ 
the combined forces of Akeni and Akuapem attacked the Asante 
army under Kwaku Biri one night at Asene, and exterminated it, 
both captains being killed. The fugitive Asautes brought that sad 
intelligence to Kumase and Dwaben, and the whole nation was 
agitated, expecting an attack from the Akems and Akuaperas. 
Thereupon Osewa, mother of Boaten, the king of Dwaben, imme- 
diately despatched a messenger direct to Fante, to inform her son, 
who was besieging Cape Coast, in what state she was. He therefore 
broke up his camp and prepared to march back. Osei Yaw, desirous 
to punisli the Fantes before leaving their country, expostulated 
with Boaten on the subject; but lie said, "I might capture 1000 Fantes, 
if I were to remain, but arc they worth my mother, whom 1 must 
in the first place protect?" 

The army was suffering from the ravages of small-pox and from 
want of provisions, and Osei Yaw, anxious to reach Kumase, hastened 
his retreat to Bereonaase, wliere he waited for the chiefs and gen- 
erals of his army to impeach their conduct at the battle, and to 
punish them for cowardice. This brought on a great disorder among 
the captains, some of whom determined to shake off the yoke of 
Asante. Even the roj'al family, among whom was one Akyiawa, 
a woman of masculine spirit, with several mothers whose sons had 
been lost in the campaign, did not approve of that inglorious retreat, 
and many a scoffing song was heard when the king returned to his 
capital. The first thing he did on his arrival was, to perform the 
grand funeral custom of the deceased monarcii Osei Bonsu. 

After the king's retreat, the Akras, who were suffering from want 
of provisions and had lost 70 men, prepared to retire from Cajte 
Coast; but the English Government and the Fante chiefs were 
against their doing so. They thought the Asantes would return 
again to repeat the attack. All the remonstrances to retain them 
a few weeks longer were, however, useless, and one by one the 
warriors left their chiefs, which obliged them at last to return. 

Some of the captains of Asante, knowing what was awaiting them 
at the capital, retreated slowly after the king, and then resolved 
upon breaking out at once. We have reasons, however, to suppose 
that the battles fought at Asamankaw, Dompim, Afutu, and Cape 
Coast, had fully convinced them that by the combined efforts, of 



Chapter XVI 199 

the British Marhios, Akias and Fantes thej^ could be pi'utected trom 
the power of Asante, which power they had perceived was on the 
point of dechiiaiL;-, whilst the power of the Gold Coast tribes under 
the protection of the White Men had a bright future. 

Previous to Kwadwo Tibo's escape from Kumase to Dankera, 
he informed Dampong Amoako of his intentions. After that Tibo 
Pan^'in of Asen did the same. Dokuwa, after having declared in 
favour of the British and Danish Governments, sent Afe and Akroma 
to sound the mind of Amoako. Upon which a meeting was hekl 
privately at Pomaase, where Adae, brother of Amoako, Nuama, 
and Odenkyem, brother of cliief Gyima Yeboa, represented the 
Dampongs, and Ofori Tiri and others represented queen Dokuvi^a. 
They made a convenant, and a fetish oath was taken to confirm it. 

In consequence of this oath, the Dampongs played double game 
in the battle at Asene, so that the king's army from Kumase under 
Kwaku Biri alone suffered greatly and he was killed. 

On the day the Kotokus in Dampong and the districts in their 
jurisdiction were to quit the place, king Dampong Amoako, fearing 
that he might be deprived of the stool of Kotoku on reaching Akem, 
as he was of the Asona family, and the Kotoku kings of that of 
Agona, — he with a small retinue retired to Agogo. U[)on which 
his son Afrifa Akwada, cousin of the late Kwadwo Kurna, was made 
king. With 900 armed men they crossed the Pra to Kyebi. The 
following were the principal chiefs among them : Gyima Yeboa, 
over the Pira force; Kwaku Gyima, Adu Yaw, Kwaku Nfra, Asante 
Du, Apenteng, over the Sodafo ; Kwadwo Kokrokb, over I he shield- 
force; Ofvviedu Gyenin, Boapea Nyame, A])eaKwame, DabraKunan, 
linguist Adu Koko, Kwaku Tia, OkenT, Aseni Donipre, Otebogso 
Tete, Asubon Kwadwo Pong, Dasawase Adu Kofi, Mampong Dwa 
Panj'in, Okoasuo Nyama, Bamfo Afosu, Aberem Koli Tawia, Adwan- 
nua Ayedu, Adewaseua Ntiamoa, Kotoku Okye Amoa, Nkwateng 
xA-tewa, Bontodiase Yaw Kwa, Odomara Ayerebi, Adwafo Odomara, 
Kokowaso Odakwa, Anyeraase (Tyakari , Abase Ofo, Agyobue 
Odobere, etc. 

A grand reception was given to all of them at Kvobi by Dokuwa, 
who was very glad to have received back all her relations and 
advised them to choose a capital from among the towns of Gyadani, 
Adasawaase, Mmooso, Mampong, Dubi, and Asafo Asen. — But un- 
fortunately', while still at Kyebi, a large tree was blown down upon 
the king and one of his wives, and killed them. After the customary 



200 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

funeral rites had been performed, they retired to Gyadani. Here 
the nobles and chiefs consulted together whom they should elect to 
succeed the late king Afrifa Akwada. And without informinti,- Do- 
kuwa of their intentions, Agyemang-, the nephew of Kwakye Ade- 
3'efe, was nominated, who was then at Soadru in care of chief Kwu- 
gje Ampaw, who also had thrown off his allegiance to Asante. 

Special commissioners were despatched by the chiefs ofKotoku, 
viz., linguist Adn Koko, Kwadwo Kokrok6, half brother to Agyeniang, 
and several others. After a fetish oath had been administered to 
the commissioners and three peredwans had been paid, they brought 
Agyeinang to Gyadam, where he was made king. A better selection 
could never have been made: 3'et their act greatly displeased I)u- 
kuwa, not personally, but on account of his late uncle's conduct 
towards the royal familj of Kotoku. Hence the ill-feeling which 
existed between them, which resulted once in the incarceration of 
Agyemang, originating the oath ^'Agyemang-Dayemfoo,'' that is, 
Agyemang"s fetters, and a quarrel with Ata Obiwom", inconsequence 
of which Agyemang was expelled to Soadru in April 1860. 

Kwadwo Tibo and his captains were the first refugees, and after 
the battle at Cape Coast, the following chiefs and their captains 
revolted and lied: Agyemang, Ampaw, Amoakua, Kwasi Amankwa, 
Aboag3^e, Kwa Tenteng and others; for servitude under Asante 
was really terrible. Those kings and chiefs took the oath of alle- 
giance to the British and Danish Governments and entered into 
alliance with the kings and chiefs on the Gold Coast. 

On his accession to the stool as king of Asante, Osei Yaw resolved 
to punish the Akras for having assisted the Fantes. The late king 
had on his death-bed exhorted Osei Yaw never to take up arms 
against the white men on the coast. The king of Dvvaben, knowing 
this, earnestly reminded him of the dying father's last injunction, 
but without effect. The king sent to ask the oracle of Tanno, the 
chief fetish of Asante, as a dispute had broken out between himselt 
and the white men and Akras on the coast, and he wished to march 
down and settle the quarrel. 

He was in reply told to wait till Tanno and his warriors had 
been to the coast to see whether the king should march down or 
not. A few weeks later Tanno reported his return from the coast, 
and requested the king to have 100 pots of palm-oil poured into the 
river Tanno, after which the fetish would tell how he had found 
matters. The oil was accordingly poured into the river, when 



Cliapter XVI 201 

Tanno said, lie had becni defeated on the coast by Akra fetishes, 
and sustained a gi-eat loss in kiUcd and wounded, so that tlie oil 
was required to dress the wounds ol' his warriors. The Iving ougiit, 
therefore, not to march against the Akras. Tlie king, enraged at 
this oracle, sent word to the fetish that from the beginning he had 
been no fetisli of iiis own, but became his by right of conquest, 
lie would, however, march down to the coast and bring another 
fetish to Kumase. Tanno rei)lied, that he might go down if he chose; 
but he would do well to provide himself with a strong horse from 
the interior, make iron shoes for him, and be sure to reach Kumase 
from the coast in six da_ys. 

Kranio Koko, the head Molianimedan priest, was now called for, 
and was told b,y the king to catch for him the chief fetish of Akra. 
He stayed three weeks in his room, without eating nor drinking, 
and then said to the king, "I have done my l)est, but failed to catch 
any of the Akra fetishes. They have driven your om'u fetishes 
from the town inland." The king said : "You are a coward,'' dis- 
missed him, and made Adisa head-priest. 

Boaten also sent to consult the oracle of Odente, the highest fetish 
at Karakye. A hot mess of cassada (or roasted flour) was placed 
in a dish, with another dish as cover, wrapped up in cloth, and 
sent to Dwaben with tliis message: "If the meal is cold in arriving, 
it means good luck, if warm, Boaten will smell fire on tlie coast.'' 
However he showed him what sacrifices to make on leaving Dwa- 
ben and before encountering the Akras. The meal was still warm 
•on reaching Dwaben. 

The king made the necessary preparations, distributed arms and 
ammunition to all his warriors, went in person and boiled the war 
at Oserebooso. After that he went through the outskirt of Kumase 
ito Bantama, poured out a libation to the spirits of the deceased 
kings, and then took up his quarters at Dako. The next day he 
came to Santemanso, the first town of the Asantes, before Kumase 
was built, stayed there for the night, and then proceeded to Kokofu. 
He encamped two months at Sevvua to muster the troops. To pro- 
tect the country against invasion, he left three captains — Bekwae 
Sei, Kokofu Asare and Amoafo Sei — on tlie boundary of Dankera 
and Asen. 

The Asantes and their tributaries were quite reluctant to invade 
the Protectorate so soon after their inglorious retreat from Cape Coast. 

Ntedwa of Apemanim and Otibo Kuma I. of Atannosu, kings over 



202 History of the Gold Coiist and Asaiite. 

the two principalities into which Asen is divided, appointed three 
messengers: Prince Andwa, the son of Ntedwa, Kwasi Dako, and 
Apere, to inform the king of their unwillingness to serve in this 
war, unless His Majesty would grant them sufficient time lor rest. 
The king replied, "Let them join my enemies, if they choose, for 
I can get hold of them!" This frightened the Asens so much that 
they instantly crossed the Pra, when they heard that the king had 
encamped at Sewua. Ntedvva with his family remained behind; 
he had secretly informed the king through KwantvVi, the chief of 
Adanse, that he would never throw off allegiance to Asante, and had 
therefore concealed his royal stool in the bush. This message was 
conveyed by Bonsra, brother of Kwantwi, and Kwaku Sie, who were 
passing up from Fante. The bearers were commissioned by the 
kino- to administer a fetish oath to NtedvVa, after which he and liis 
family were removed to Asante. Prince Gyebri was appointed to 
succeed Ntedwa in the government of Apemanim. He and Otibo 
Kuma I. with their forces then joined the allies in the Protectorate. 

As observetl in chapter VHI, theTshis, more especially the Asantes,. 
are distinguished from other tribes of the Gold Coast by the regular 
organization of their army. It consists of live divisions: the king's 
body-guard, the van-guard or centre force, the right and left wings^ 
and the rear or reserve-guard. 

The king's power is absolute; every subject is considered as a 
slave. The king appoints every captain, and can at pleasure dismiss 
him or have him beheaded. He may also do as he likes with the 
property of the deceased captain. He defrays the war expenses, 
and claims one half or one third of the spoil. When an expedition 
is to be undertaken by the chiefs, he assists tiie warriors to a certain 
extent with arms, ammunition, and money. But the chiefs and 
captains sometimes borrow extra money from him, which they have 
to pay back with the spoil, if successful; otherwise the amount 
must be collected at home. 

A list of the names of the generals and captains who fought under 
the king of Asante at Katamansu will be found in the Appendix. 

The king left Sewua and camped for two montlis at Bogyeseawu. 
The king of Dwaben had delayed by the tardy reply of the oracle, 
and, by his want of zeal for the expedition, was very long iu 
arriving; and when at last he came, an accident happened which 
nearly led to the outbreak of civil war. Boaten one day came to 
Kumase, and his military chest, containing 1000 pored Vvans, equal 



Cliapter XM. 20^ 

to \^^ 8010. 13. 4. sterling-, was audaciously stolen, but no trace of 
the thief could be foun(i. Boaten was on the point of declarin<> 
war to Kumase; but the elders of Dwaben, to prevent bloodshed, 
ottered to pay him the amount, which they did, and so the matter 
dropped. A gold jewel which had disappeared with the royal chest 
was found in a tuft of hair on the head of one Osei Asen, a cour- 
tier of the king. A clue to the theft was thus obtained, and the 
king of Dwaben claimed the stolen property from Osei Asen. 
But the king did not support the course of Boaten. The elders of 
Dwaben had again to interpose by saying: "If we insist upon 
claiming that lost property, and civil war ensues, we might, if de- 
feated, tlee to some other country ; but then what would become of^ 
our wives and children at home? We entreat you, therefore, to 
forego the case!" Aw] thus Boaten had to yield. 

The marching out of the Asantes was not yet known in the south 
when they had got to Sewua. Agyemang had attacked the Okwa- 
wus three times, and burnt Atibie, Oboman, Oboo, and other 
places. But fortunately an Akem prisoner, escaped from Oseibereso 
to Akem, warned his people. Agyemang now gave up fighting 
with the Okwawus, and all Akem began to prepare. 

The scouts of Dokuvva had meanwhile managed to kill some of 
tlie Asantes and brought their heads to Kyebi. Their jaws were 
immediately despatched by messengers to king- Taki with a request 
to inform the Danish and British governments of the impending 
danger. The Akems were ridiculed by the Akras as having sent 
old jaws of deceased persons; but Governor Brock ordered six 
soldiers to accompany the messengers homeward and ascertain the 
truth. The Akems had meanwhile left Kyebi and their other towns 
and were fleeing- towards Akuapem. They met the party, and 
the captains Boapea of Kyebi and Akoi of Late were sent along- 
with the soldiers. At Anyinasin they met some of the enemy 
foraging. The soldiers tired at them, killed four, captured four, and 
returned to the Governor with the prisoners and two heads. 

There could now be no doubt of the threatening invasion, and 
rigorous preparations were made to encounter the enemy. His 
Excellency Governor Brock distributed arms and amnmnition to 
all the subjects of His Majesty the king of Denmark, from Christians- 
borg: down to Ada, the river-side people, Osudoku, Krobos, Akwamus, 
Shais, Akuapems, and Akems. Extra arms and ammunition were 
given to all these people by the British government, besides which 



204: History of the Gold Coast and A saute. 

the influential native merchants, Hansen, Richter, Baunerman etc., 
gave to all those warriors what was the general custom of the country. 
When Akoto the king of Akwamu's people were carrying home the 
ammunition given them in .Tames Fort, they were overheard to say, 
''We have conquered the enemy!" which meant, that they had ob- 
tained a good supply of ammunition b}' which to defeat the Asantes. 

A very unfortunate affair happened at Akra during tliose critical 
days, which the people, with their superstituous notions, attributed 
to the magic powei'S of Asante, and which, but for the interposition 
of the commandant at James Fort, might have led to great dissension 
among the warriors of James Town and Dutch Town. Sempe Mensa 
was keeping one of his female slaves, by name Bosumafi, as a wife. 
A certain Mensa Tshinakong, not knowing this, had illegal inter- 
course with the woman. The offended husband demanded a 
heavy tine from Tshinakong, as if she were a lawful wife. Evei-y 
body advised him to be lenient. Old Tete Osabu too advised him 
to think of the future and never demand so much. Yet Sempe 
Mensa rejected all advice, and fined the offender 24 heads of cowries 
(equal to ^^5.8 at that time), wliich was the price of a slave, and 
was then considered a very large sum. A few weeks after, Mensa 
Tshinakong missed a castrated sheep. Upon search, the sheep was 
found in the stable of Sempe Mensa; it had been brought there by 
his son Abeka. Having obtained a fact in hand, Mensa Tsliinakong 
also now demanded 400 heads of cowries (about ^'^ 90), as tine for 
the theft committed; but Sempe Mensa refused to pay. An action 
was taken by swearing upon the attacking band of James Town 
to claim tlie amount from the chief. But the defendant refused 
to appear before the com])an_y; consequently the assistance of another 
attacking band of Abora quarter was obtained by the attacking 
l)and of James Town, and having redoubled their strength, the court 
was held at Sakumotshoishi. In giving verdict, the jury did not 
agree. The chiefs wished to justif^^ the defendant, but the 
company, the plaintiff. The foreman, being on the side of the com- 
pan^', gave judgment against Sempe Mensa. Thereupon he was 
enraged and left the court with his quarter's people with contempt. 
The companies painted the right arm of the plaintiff with white 
clay (a sign of being justified), placed him on the shoulders of one, 
and paraded through the town, dancing. 

Sempe Mensa and the people of his quarter had preconcerted to 
fight the company, in case they should pass througli the street 



Chapter XVII. 205 

insultingly. The dancing company at last reached Seinpe's ([uarter, 
when all at once one Kpakpo Tshuni tired at the company, one 
woman being- killed and several wounded. Instantly the company 
resorted to arms, and fighting commenced. Loopholes had been made, 
the previous day, in the houses at Sempe; their sharpshooter, Pobi 
Oboakora, had been called from his plantation, and posted himself 
on the gallery of Sempe Mensa. The company were assailed 
furiously and had several Ivilled and wounded. The sharpshooters 
of the compan}^, Adshiete and Mensa Adshoe, discovering the 
position of Pobi Oboakora, fired at him, and he was killed. The 
soldiers were ordered from James Fort for the apprehension of 
Sempe Mensa, which ended the struggle. Judgment was given in 
favour of the plaintiff at the court of James Fort, and the defendant 
was heavily fined. 



CHAPTER XVII. 

The old, women and children of Akem and Akuapem obtained refuge 
at Akra. — Concentration of the tx'oops at Akra. — The first and second 
encampments. 

The king of Asante spent 40 days at Bogyeseaiiwo in drilling 
the whole army, which amounted to about 40,000, beside women, 
children, and load-carriers. Wherever they camped, they calculated 
on plunder. All splendid houses at Akra and Christiansborg were 
portioned out among them beforehand. The army proceeded to 
Bereonase, and thence, driving the Akems before them, through 
Kwaben, Asiakwa, and Asafo to Kukurantum, where they stayed 
for a week, and then proceeded to Adweso, where they remained 
for about 40 days. 

The chiefs of Akra obtained from a fetish priest some injurious 
war-charm which was performed on the enemy at Adweso by two 
Akems and two men from Abnri, named Ntow Kwabena and Kofi 
Bosompra. 

The enemy now marched on to Nkwapranase, Bampo's village, 
Amanokurom, and Afwerease. Their guide was Owusu Akem of 
Akropong. 

The king calculated to attack the Akras from the east, so as 
to prevent their escaping to Little Pope (as they had done formerly 
in their wars with the Akwamusl, to drive them to the west, and 



'206 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

thence to lead both the Fantes and Akras captive to Kumase. An 
Akuapem man. captured by the Asantes, informed them that the 
whole army of Akra had encamped at Dodowa. 

Another incident happened at Manfe, which might have caused 
■confusion in the enemy's army. Osei Asen one day ordered the 
big drums to be beaten, and danced through the camp with his 
thumb stretclied up in sign of mockery. The king of Dwaben, 
informed of this insulting conduct, vowed to behead Osei Asen, 
"though he had seven heads on his body", if he presumed to enter 
his quarters. Report was brought to Bantama Wua, who swore 
the Koromante oath, that, while he was general of the van, Asante 
should not be ruined by men like Osei Asen. Forthwith he ordered 
his people to seize those drums, and thus peace v^'as restored in 
the camp. 

As the appearance of a lion rouses all the beasts of the wilderness, 
thus the march of Osei Yaw caused a lively stir among the whole 
population of the Gold Coast. When he camped near Kyebi, every 
body was agitated. The Akems and Akuapems fled to the south. 
Their women, children und infirm were removed to Christiansborg 
and Akra; but some stayed in the forests of Onyase, Kwabenyan 
and Kpokpoase, where the Akems, like "bush crabs", as they are, 
managed to conceal them, or else in the bushes near Akra. In the 
itowns every inch of land was occupied by Akems or Akuapems. 

Akoto, the king of Akwamu, and his captains and warriors arrived 
at Akra; Kwadwo Tibo and his captains and brave troops, Aboagye 
in iron mail and helmet, Kwamena Asamanin, the king of Agona, 
and captains came on ; Obropo Akotia, the king of Cape Coast, had 
commissioned chief Bani with a small force of the priestly band 
under captain Kobena Manfoi; two companies came from Winneba, 
and Mr. Hutchison came in command of a small party of Anomabo. 

The principal merchants, Messrs. Hansen, Bannerman and Richter, 
had drilled their own household people and slaves, and formed a 
militia. Mr. Bannermann being absent in Europe for the benefit 
•of his health, Mr. Jackson put himself at the head of his people. 

The British officials in command of the whole army were, Major 
Piirdon, the governor of Cape Coast Castle, as commander-in-chief, 
Captain Kingston at the head of about 60 British marines, and 
Messrs. Jackson and Hutchison. The militia under Messrs. Hansen, 
Jackson and Richter was near 600 strong, carrying with them the 
aiewly invented congreve rockets and two brass onc-pounder field- 



Chapter X\'II. 207 

]ii6ces. All the kings and chiefs who had to join the army were sworn 
on 'a fetish by king- Taki, to render faithful services to the British 
government, as well as to the king. Tliey also invoked the fetish to 
Itring judgment upon any one daring to deliver them up to the king 
of Asante for the sake of peace, in case the campaign should fail. 

King Taki and his chiefs met every day at Amuginaor Sakumotsoishi 
to arrange everything necessary' for the campaign. He was repeatedly 
advised by the Tshis to appoint one of the ablest kings general of 
the van, as that was the most important point in making war with 
tlie Asantes. Impressed with his own importance, the king-in-chief 
of all the Danish subjects, and therefore commanding half of the 
army, Kotei Dgwuona, required in the council to be appointed 
general of the van. Chief Akwete Krobo Saki of Akra with 
<?liaracteristic boldness replied, ''We mean to go and tight, but not 
to display riches. You better leave us alone to command our own 
van. Osei never meant to tight the Danes or English, but the Akras, 
and w^e are the Akras." This settled the question. 

On the 22"^ of July, after due preparations, two native Danish 
soldiers were despatched to report to His Excellency Governor 
Brock the proceedings of the campaign. Carl Ludwig had marked 
the guns of every warrior with a small piece of calico to distinguish 
them from the enemy. The troops were commanded to leave the 
towns to encamp against Osei Yaw Akoto. The troops of Ningowa, 
Toma, Poni, and Prampram refused to encamp with the main body. 
Tliey determined never to leave the roads to their towns unprotected. 
This little force of only 70 armed men not yielding to the demand 
of the Governor, the other towns also stayed away. And we are 
to this very day indebted to the people of Ningowa for what we 
<leemed at first obstinacy. Had they removed, which would have 
induced others to follow, the vast army would have sat at Onyase, 
and the enemy could easily have executed his design. The whole 
army was estimated to be 50,000 strong. Most of them had been 
partially drilled, and their arms inspected by the Danish and 
English officers. 

Major Purdon with the regulars and militia, king Taki and his 
forces wnth Kwadwo Tibo, Tibo Kuma, Kwasi Amankwa, Kwamena 
Asamanin and their troops, encamped at Onyase, Governor Brock 
with a body-guard of about fifty soldiers, with Dgwuona and Akoto, 
at Okamfra, (Abloadshei), king Saki at (Jyeadufa, king Ofori at 
Pantang, queen Dokuwa and Ado Dankwa at Kpohkpo. 



208 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Every one of them was ex[)ecting' the Asaiites would come down 
by the main road to Akuapem. The Akras, who are so conliding,- 
in their fetishes, obeying their orders as if they were their generals, 
remained for eleven days at Onyase with the few white men, whose 
power seemed to be limited on account of their small number. 

King Dowuona, perceiving that the army was not properly 
encamped, remonstrated with king Taki, and so did Dokuwa and 
kiny- Saki of Labade, but without elfect. So on the 2nd of Auirust 
Dowuona removed his camp with the purpose of marching directly 
to Katamansu with all the Danish forces under his command. On 
reaching Oyeadufa, his people entreated him to stop there, that no 
blame might be attached to him, in case, by fighting with only 
half of the warriors, the fortune of the day might not be theirs. 

Fortunately for the credit of Dowuona, an Asante prisoner, 
carrying the head of another Asante killed, was, on the 3rd of 
August, brought into the village by four men of Prampram, under 
the command of Mr. Carl Grinstrup, a native Danish soldier of 
Christiansborg. The party had caught the Asantes plundering a 
plantation. The king, having assembled his warriors, asked the 
prisoner, ''Where is your master marching to? and when will he 
remove the camp?" The prisoner replied, "to Tema, in about three 
days, and if you were the king of the Akras, you should make 
haste to meet my master before it be too late!' Messengers were 
sent to king Taki, who instantly broke up his camp and advanced 
to Oyeadufa. On the 4th of August all the troops assembled at 
the village. The kings and chiefs were sworn in, and became united 
as one man. A council of war was held how to meet the enemy, 
who had encamped on the plains of Sasabi, and could reach Tenia 
by a nine miles' march. It was proposed that the Akuapems, being 
well acquainted with their own forest, should send out some scouts. 
Chief Apagya Kofi of Adukrom was proposed; but he flatly declined 
saying, ''It is no play to spy an army of Osei; should I venture 
it, I might be lost with my men ! " The next proposition was, that 
each division of the army should take its line and march directly 
from Oyeadufa to the plains of Sasabi, the Akuapems, on the flank 
of the left wing, to march through the forest along the foot of the 
Akuapem mountains. 

Captain Male of Labade, a resident of Amarahia, objected to that 
proposition as dangerous. "I will be the first to morrow", he replied, 
"to go ahead and direct you where to encamp". Being a hunter, 



Chapter XVII 209 

he had cut a pathway alonti,' the plain for hunting purposes. On 
the niornino- of the 5th of August Male called several young men of 
his company to the main road leading from Amarahia to Sasabi. 
This road they completely obstructed by dense masses of sharp briers. 
Standing here, Male directed the whole army to march on his path- 
way to the plain. Had he not done so^ the army would have taken 
the main road to Sasabi, and not been prepared in their divisions 
and lines; a total rout would have ensued without a single shot. 
Grinstrup and Male deserve praise. 

The dust raised by the marching army was seen by the enemy, 
who said, ''A large force has come into the field.'' The marching 
continued the whole day and night. Every warrior was oidy 
provided with sufficient rounds and small victuals; on that account 
the warriors were anxious to take the field as soon as possible to 
return home. The following day, being Saturday the 6th of August, 
they completed their encampments according to their towns along 
the coast. The Temas were removed from their first camp east- 
wards, which position was reoccupied by Dgwuona. The force of 
Teshi joined that of Akra, but was detached behind the Labades. 
Governor Brock with his bodj^-guard, Mr. Lutterodt, Mr. Aarestrup, 
Messrs. Hans Holm and Engman, encamped with the king of 
Christiansborg. 

The Asante army counted about 40,000 warriors, 12,000 forming 
the centre, 10,000 the right wing, 8,000 the left, 8,000 the rear and 
2,000 the reserve or the king's body-guard. A force to meet such 
a division as the van must be that of Dutch and James towns, 
Christiansborg, Labade, and Teshi, as well as the regulars and mi- 
litia. Kwadwo Tibo commanded the left wing, having all Dankera, 
Asen, Fante and Agona forces under him. Akoto, king of Akwamu, 
commanded the right wing, having Akwamu, Akem, Akwapem, 
Ningowa, Tema, Adangme forces, and the river-side people under 
him. Major Pardon with part of the regulars and militia formed 
the rear. MessVs. Hansen and Richter inspected the whole line 
of the army , arranged everything and encouraged every king, 
chief, and warrior. The same day the Asante monarch sent his 
sword-bearers in disguise as Akwamus, and inspected the whole 
position and line of the army. Their report to the king was: 'Tt 
is known and acknowledged that the forest belongs to the elephant, 
else we could say the buffalo is also on the plain. Nothing suits 
better than your majesty's own presence to assume the whole 

14 



210 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

coio.maiid, for an army is in the field.'" A war council was instantly 
convened, whom the king addressed thus, "I have called jou to- 
gether to hear for yourselves the report from the enemy's camp. 
It is therefore my wish and command that, as we come to fight 
on the [ilains, you should give up the mode of commanding your 
troops in 3'our baskets. Every chief or captain must to-morrow 
lead on his troops, giving command in the proper manner, that the 
fortune of the day be ours and not doubtful." It was said that 
this advice was given to the king by the linguist Adu 8ei Tsha- 
tsha, and for that reason, when he returned to Kumase, for some 
little otfence he was ordered to be stoned to death by boys. 

A council of war was also held by the Akras, in which they 
said, ^'To-morrow we must fight the enemy, catch them, and go 
home; we liave bL\t a limited store of provisions, having left the 
large supply in the first camps." 

There was a strong movement that evening in the hostile camp 
and that of the Akras. They approached within musketshot distance, 
abusing each other, and then retired to the camps. The Akras, 
while marching back, started and killed a buffalo. The advance- 
guard under Yaw Opense, wliose fashion it was to carry one thou- 
sand torches with him for an attack in the night, prepared to do 
so in the silence of the night; but the monarch objected saying, 
^T never fight at night; wait till morning, when I shall show myself 
to them. Should they even flee into the belly ofKamfara (a small 
sea-fish), I shall catch them!'' 



CHAPTER XV III. 

The battle and victory. — Plundering the camp. — Retreat of Osei out of 
the Protectorate. — Triumphant return of the different troops. — Enor- 
mous wealth poured into the Protectorate by the victory. 

August 7, 1826. 

Early in the morning of the 7^'^ of August, the warriors washed 
themselves and made stripes of white clay on their persons. The 
special war-drums of the king were beating, Perempe, perempe! 
Kom, kom ! Akoto and Kwadwo Tibo, who were familiar with these 
war-drums, sent information to king Taki, advising him to have 
the warriors in readiness, as the field would be taken immediately 
by the enemy. Captain Kingston, Messrs. Hansen and Richter, paid 



Chapter XV III. 211 

a tlying visit in the camps, and strengthened the hands of the 
■warriors. Orders from the head-quarters reached them while on 
their visit, to return as hastily as possible. The kettle-drum of king 
Taki was beating, Nkranpon, wose a, eye du, ketekere, dom a enni 
anianfo! Monka ntoa, mdnka ntoa, moiikantoa! i.e. The great and 
durable Akra, who perform what they say, not subject to destruc- 
tion, get to arms, get to arms, get to arms! Likewise the sound 
€f the enemy's kettle-drum was heard to beat, "Asante Kotokg ! 
kum apem a, apem beba; monka ntoa, monka ntoa, m6nka ntoa!" 
i.e. Asante porcupine (or, emancipated, purchased, absconded), when 
thousands are killed, thousands will come, get to arms, get to arms! 
King Dowuona, on seeing the enemy's advance-guard having 
i:rept forward in the front of his line, thought they were Akras; 
he ordered his captain Abose Kwaw to clear them off. But he fell 
into the hands of the enemy, with his aid-de-camp Adshei Oba- 
dsheng, was caught and killed; his head was sent to the king, with 
that of the aid-de-camp. The king placed his feet three times on 
the head, gave a smart pat on the head of the youth, and said, 
"Sit down here before me, and soon your father and]^mother will 
be brought to you!" k^-^ 

The women in camp and those at home had since the marching 
out of the warriors each assumed the dress and tools of her hus- 
band and imitated his work, dancing in company, and singing to 
keep the spirits of the husbands lively in camp. One of their 
•war-songs is: 

I : Mmanini-mma, miinso 'tuo mu ! : 
King biirofo se, munya ko a, mobeko." 
|: Mmanini-mma, miinso txio mu ! : 

I : Sons of heroes, get hold of your guns ! : | 

The King's white men say, When you get to fight, you will right ! 

(When the war breaks out, you will be able to fight!) 

i: Sons of heroes, get hold of your guns! :| 

•One of the war-songs of the enemy is: 

Agya See 6, Agya See o, Awira See 5 ! 
One ne mmerante ko sa kgfa nnommum bebre. 
Agya See 5, Agya See o, Awira See o! 
father Sei, hurra ! master Sei, hurra ! 

To catch plenty prisoners he is gone forth with his youths to war. 
O father Sei, hurra ! O master Sei, hurra ! 

14* 



212 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

There was a gorgeous display of different flags, and a deafening 
noise of horns, drums, and war-cries. While the two armies were 
drawn up, two Numidian cranes (or horn-blowers of Sakumo, as 
they are superstitiously called) flew with the noise of a bugle througli 
the camp of the Akras, who welcomed this as a good omen, as 
their high fetish Sakumo had passed to inspect their position. After 
which a loud voice was heard from the line of the Asere people, 
saying, "We are about now to pour in, brethren!" Another voice 
responded from the line of the Gbese people, "Wait till all the col- 
ours have reached the same line of the column!"' 

The Akras commenced the battle by a heavy fire of musketry, 
which forced the enemy to fall back. Every remonstrance of the 
captains to their forces, not to take prisoners, but rather to fight 
on, was disregarded. At last, they headlessly rushed on the Ko- 
ronti and Akwamu, the well organised veteran force of Asante,. 
who drove them back clean to their camps. It was the most crit- 
ical moment. The battle seemed to be deciding itself in favour 
of the enemy. Chief Aiikra of Akra proposed to chief Kwatei 
Kodsho that they should blow themselves up with powder, but 
was exhorted by him to wait till he heard of the right wing. One 
of the English officers proposed to fire his pistol into the ammu- 
nition store to prevent the enemy from capturing it, but was ad- 
vised to have a little more patience. Mr. Hansen had the narrow- 
est possible escape from being taken prisoner. A field-piece was 

captured by prince Kwame Ankyeafoo, but 

Mr. Hansen speedily recovered it by a 

discharge which caused great havoc in the 

line of the enemy. Sergeant .James Kittson 

sent in a rocket which blasted some pounds 

of gunpowder in the line of captain Opoku 

Fredefrede, and killed several, himself being 

severely wounded. The enemy was thrown 

into confusion. One of the Asante captains 

shouted, "Obubuafo nso, wode no ye den? 

Miinnuom 1" i. e. For what use else is a 

lame thing (meaning the field-pieces)? for- 

Mr. Richter. ward! The army took advantage of the 

enemy's confusion, and furiously attacked them with knives and 

hatchets. Mr. Richter, being mortally wounded in the thigh, was 

advised by the commander-in-chief to retire to town, so he rode 




Chapter XVIH. 213 

home. The coimnaiider-iii-cliief, Major Purdon, coiiLributed much 
to the success of the day. 

At that moment, Akoto, the commander of the ric^ht wing, wlio 
had, for some reason of his own, hitherto kept quiet, ordered his large 
state-umbrellas to be moved towards the eneni}^ as if to desert to 
his side, and all at once attacked the rear violently, Just the mo- 
ment Nabera, the brave captain over his force, had fallen. The 
combined forces of Prampram, Ningo, Ada and river-side people 
followed up the attack, and it became most critical. The monarch 
himself marched in defence with his body-guard, stood upon the 
royal stool, and drew the war-sword towards heaven and earth, 
as kings usually do in war, but the rebound was too strong, and 
lie got wounded. There happened a collision between the monarch's 
body-guard and the forces under Opoku Fredefrede, which greatly 
weakened the enemy. On that account the general afterwards 
poisoned himself and died at Asafo. Dshani, Afutu, and Ante from 
Teshi are said to have then uttered the religious war-cry: Awo, 
Awo, Awo! to which every warrior of tho whole column respond- 
ed as one man, Awo, Agbai, bereku tso! A loud voice was heard 
on the enemy's line, "Edom agu o!" The battle is lost! Then all 
the baggage w^as hastily thrown on a heap as high as a mountain, 
and the enemy took to flight, after having fought and kept their 
position for 9 good hours, from a. m. to 3 p. m. Prisoners were made, 
and then the baggage and camp were taken. The king effected a 
narrow escape with a good number of his body-guard through the 
right wing of his army, and left the Akras victorious on the field 
of battle. 

Most of the pusillanimous men among the forces of Winneba and 
Bereku tied from the battle-field at the first discharge from the 
enemy, and left their king Ayerebi with his own body-guard and 
Oyankuma with his men. They disgraced themselves all the more 
by allowing Akra women to snatch away many a gun from tlieir 
liands, when passing the towns. The undecided Kwasi Amankwa 
also deserted and went over with the view to surrender himself, 
but was captured and cut to pieces; others believe that he was not 
deserting, but was caught while bravely engaged in fighting. It 
is said that the king asked him, when captured, "Akwasi, what 
have I done to you that you have joined my enemies to fight 
against me?" To which he replied, "Nana, woye boawu, madi 
wakyi mabere !" which is, To cooperate with you, king, is death. 



214 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

I have grown tired of following you! — His people, however^ 
managed to capture his remains, which they conveyed to the banks 
of the river Densu, and there buried. On their way they are said 
to have murdered several Akras and Akems. When peace was 
restored in the country, his people again removed the remains to 
Asen. Kwamena Asamauin, who could easily have captured the 
monarch of Asante, was coward enough to let him escape saying,. 
"One should not allow himself to be overrun by an army of A- 
santes", and the monarch took shelter under the shade of a large 
tree. While taking his rest there, he had to witness the capturing 
of his wives, daughters, and other relatives, as well as all his royal 
badges, state-umbrellas, gold-hilted swords, jewels, and the military 
chest containing thousands of gold cartouches filled with gold-dust 
instead of powder. Even their god, the golden stool, was left on 
the battle-field. While most of the army were plundering, a select 
band of warriors under Apea Dwa set out to overtake and capture 
the monarch. While Akoto and the Adas were fighting bravely 
to take possession of the golden stool, Nkuntrase Antwi was 
gallantly fighting to rescue it, when Boaten, retreating from the 
right wing to the spot, asked, "Where is my uncle?'" Antwi replied, 
"He is retreating"'. — "'Was he going along with the god (meaning 
the golden stool)?"— "No! lam just fighting to get possession of 
it." Assisted by Boaten's troops, Nkuntrase managed to secure the 
stool, and brought it to the king of Dwaben. 

The brave Apea Dwa met his end unexpectedly by an ambus- 
cade; his men, however, instantly took revenge on those parties. 
The detachment brought his body to camp at half past 6 p. ni., 
which brought the campaign to a close for that day. 

Among the very few prisoners caught by the enemy was one 
Mensa from Manfe, a court-crier of king Ado Dankwa, known as 
brother to one Ako, who assured Osei that he could conduct him 
safe to Kumase, and was promised by the king to be made a cap- 
tain of high rank, if he succeeded in doing it. He guided the king 
from the battle-field through]Amarahia, Damrobe up to Obosomase, 
and thence to Mampong; there he met Boaten with other fugitive 
Asantes. The retreat went on precipitately to Adweso, where they 
tried to halt, but were carried along by the rushing mass of fugitives. 
Here Mensa effected his escape with his hands pinioned behind, 
and roaming in the forest for some days, he fortunately came to a 
village belonging to Adnkrom people, and finding two Asante fugitive 



Chapter XVIII. 215 

women, he ordered them to loose liim, after which he brouglit 
them home as prisoners. 

At Asafo in Akem the kin*^, Boaten and several of the chiefs 
halted, thinking- that the danger was over, and the single sheep 
they had managed to bring along with them was sold by Boaten 
to the king for ^7.4.0. Meanwhile a detachment of Akems under 
Kofi Aberantee arrived, whose wives and children had in the Akra 
bush been captured by Ata and Ata, the twin-brother Asante 
captains. The Akems, allowing the fugitives time to cook and 
prepare that sheep, fired among them, and compelled them to tlee 
with great loss. At Asantewa the fugitives were again attacked 
by four brothers, Aboagye, Namhene, Gyima, and Apea Hene. They 
were bold hunters and succeeded in rescuing their only sister O- 
foriwa, who had been taken prisoner on the battle-field. A third 
detachment of Akems under Kwabena Edu, Bankye, and Apea Nti, 
likewise pursued the king. At Apedwa they heard he had left 
Asafo. They met, however, jthe wounded prince Owusu Ansa A- 
penteng, riding on a horse, and slew him. Apea Nti pursued the 
king as far as Bogu and then gave it up. The fugitives, marching 
day and night, reached Akem Akropong. Here they were safe and 
could take rest. 

At Sewua, Boaten is said to have delivered the golden stool to 
the king, shortly after which three messengers from the captains 
who had been left to protect the country, arrived, with the follow- 
ing message, "We have been sent by your Majesty's captains, 
viz., Bekwai Sei, Kokofu Asare and Amoafo Sei, to give their 
compliments to the king and their congratulations for fighting, and 
state that they sympathize deeply with your Majesty's troubles 
and losses! They desired us to ascertain whether the rumours they 
had heard were true or false, — whether your Majesty has brought 
back the god, if otherwise, to be informed so as to march down 
to the place where the god is, and warm themselves with the lire 
which is reported to have been kindled there and is burning!" 
The king replied, "I have brought it with me."' They replied, ''We 
could not dare to ask this by ourselves, but we were expressly 
requested by your Majesty's captains to be allowed to have a look 
at the stool!" It was brought before them. Then they said, ^'Nana, 
we have seen it", and reported the same to the captains. 

The king's intention was, to go in company with Boaten to Kum- 
ase; but he declined and said, "One should not be put to shame 



21G History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

twice, it would not do to be ashamed at Kumase, and after that 
at Dwaben. They thereupon parted. Reception was given to the 
king- of Dwaben, but the king entered the capital unperceived. He 
only sent his compliments to the chiefs and informed them that 
he w^as arrived, but too unwell to receive them. He sent for Gyan- 
fiwa, mother of Yaw Osekyere, and comforted her for the loss 
of her son, promised to support her, and gave her four slaves and 
four peredwans. According to reliable reports, the king stayed four 
or six months at Sewua, attended the wounded and the sick, 
appointed new captains for those who had fallen in the battle, 
before he appeared in the capital and met with a grand reception. 
Adu 8ei Tshatsha, the renowned linguist ofKumase, was stoned to 
death by mere boys for being suspected of an intrigue. Kwadwo 
Tibu met some Asante traders at Cape Coast, whom he took tor 
servants of Adu Sei Tshatsha. In conversation with them, he let 
out the whole secret of his escape from Kumase, that it was through 
the kindness of Adu. He sent presents and an old tinger-ring, a 
sign of their intimate friendship, by them to the old linguist, by 
which he was detected. He was also said to have been the chief 
instigator of the king to make war with the Akras. The boys who 
were allowed to stone him to death also complained that he was 
the cause of their having become orphans and fatherless. 

The forces under the twin-brother captains, Ata and Ata, who 
could have done great injury to the war-dancing women and children 
in the towns, were kept back from doing it by the orderly beating 
of the big drums by mere women in every town along the coast. 
They, however, killed several persons on the roads to the towns 
and in some villages. The^' put fire to the town of Berekuso, 
captured 70 Akem women, harbouring in the forest near Kwabe- 
nyan, and were marching off with them in triumph. The Akems 
under Kofi Aberantee and others pursued them, and rescued their 
^^ ives and children. Of the 70 prisoners they brought only 30 to 
Kumase. 

Having followed the king of Asante in his inglorious retreat up 
to Kumase, we should turn our course again to the field of battle. 
During the night after the battle the mournful groanings of the 
Avoundcd and dying, of men, women, and children, were heard. 
They cried for water and food, calling out most piteously for help 
and deliverance. Oh! the horrors and carnage of war! The Akras 
postponed till Thursday the 10^'' of August reconnoitring the battle. 



Chapter XVIII. 217 

field, on which about six thousand corpses were lying- unburied. 
The Akras got many prisoners and valuable spoil; but the principal 
amount of booty was gathered by their inferiors. 

Of all the battles fought by the Asantes since the establishment 
of their kingdom none had ever proved to them so fatal as that of 
Katamansu. The monarch had lost sixty of his generals, chiefs, and 
captains. But few of the commanders escaped with himself and 
Boaten. It was God in heaven who mercifully defended our coun- 
try. But our deluded people attributed the victory not only to 
their tetishes, but also to every cartilaginous, spinous, and testa- 
ceous creature in the sea, which they consider, to the present day, 
as warriors of their fetish Nai (the sea) and suppose to have taken 
part in the engagement and even, in some instances, to have got 
wounded at that time. 

The loss on the side of the army was comparatively small. There 
were five captains of renown who fell, Nabera, Abose Kwaw, Tete 
Okogyeatuo, Krote, Kwasi Amankwa. Our loss on the whole in 
killed, wounded, and missing amounted to 1800. 

The troops of James Town sustained a heavy loss of 99 men 
captured and killed, which has been attributed to several causes. 
Some say : through the force of Christiansborg, which in the general 
falling back of the whole army was somewhat repulsed a few yards 
below the line. If that were the cause, the force of Gbese, which 
was next to that of Christiansborg, should have sustained the loss, 
and not that of James Town. Others say, it was from some of the 
Fantes, who fled at the first discharge from the enemy. We may 
arrive at the truth by saying: in the general confusion, the James 
Town troops may have either advanced beyond the general line, 
or may have retreated a little backward, and the line being broken, 
the enemy took advantage of that to attack them from behind. 
The force of Gbese and the right wing of Christiansborg were 
expert and manly in joining their line again when it was broken 
by the first general falling back, otherwise the latter might have 
suffered a similar loss. 

The Akras being religious in their way and less blood-thirsty, 
spared many of their prisoners. The different contingents of the 
army marched back in triumph to their respective towns, where 
the warriors were enthusiastically received by their wives and 
friends. They spent several days in merriment, and offered thanks- 
giving oblations to the fetishes. During those days of merriment 



218 History of the Gold Coast and A&aute. 

tlie warriors used to go out in bands to the battle-field, where- 
some picked up wounded men whom they carried home and cured, 
and others obtained different kinds of valuable spoil. 

August and September being the months of the year on which 
the Akras celebrate their yearly feast, the one in 1826 was un- 
commonly grand. 

Tete Akosem and his brother Mensa Okotokuo of Christiansborg 
captured Oti Panyin, a captain and first class linguist of Kuma,se, 
and brought him home alive. Akoto, hearing that his former per- 
secutor of Kumase had been captured, bought him for double the 
price requested, took him to the eastern side of the lagoon Krote^ 
and there barbarously killed him. His manner of death supplied 
a name for the word ''target", so that, when soldiers have target 
practise, people say, they are shooting Oti. 

The Angulas, owing a grudge to the Akras on account of the 
Danish expedition in 1784, had shortly before the battle brought 
their canoes to the banks of the Volta to catch the fugitive Akras. 
After waiting for several days, they heard of our success and 
shamefully retreated. 

Shortly after the battle, it was rumoured that presents would be 
forwarded from England to all the kings and chiefs for their good 
services. They were expecting these presents until December, 
when a large man-of-war arrived at the anchorage. An English 
officer, it must have been Sir N. Campbell, came on shore, and 
requested to be shown the field of battle. Mr. Richter with some 
others accompanied him. They spent a few days there inspecting^ 
the place, and, as reported, the officer was disgusted at the sight 
of so many corpses lying unburied on the field, and hurt the fee- 
lings of the party by saying: 'Tou killed them too much."' 

The spoil taken from the Asantes is believed to have been wurth 
several thousands of pound sterling. The Ningo and Ada forces, 
which attacked the rear of the enemy, plundered the largest a- 
mount of gold-dust. But the deluded people of Ada, who were 
forbidden the use of that precious metal, had to exchange it, at a 
great loss, for cotton goods and cowries. Kwaku Kpotehara, an 
Ada on his father's side, resident at Christiansborg, had captured 
a large amount of gold-dust, which he served out by handfuls to 
buy various trifles, and knocked off the dust that stuck to his fingers. 
Many grew veiy rich in the country, and up to this day there are 
in some families remnants of the booty, which they have converted 



Cbaptei- XVIII. 219 

into fetishes and worship. After the battle of Katainausu gold-dust 
became the principal currency of the country. 

The name of ^'Akra" now became famous; their influence spread 
far and wide, and they were respected everywhere. Their former 
enemies, Fantes, Akems, Akwamus and Akuapems, bowed to them^ 
respected them, and their prestige was even acknowledged at A- 
sante and Dahome. They obtained riches by traffic in distant, 
countries, and strangers came down to the coast for the purpose of 
commerce. The Fantes who had not joined in the battle, chiet 
Ayi and linguist Dshang, both of Akra, were commissioned by the 
king to collect tribute from them, which also became a source of 
income to the chiefs of Akra, But we are very sorry to say, the 
Akras have not acquired till now the spirit for ruling, hence they 
allowed that line opportunity of asking reasonable tribute from 
those chiefs they had under them, to slip from their hands. Hence 
there is no revenue whatever running into their treasury. Their 
kings and chiefs will ever remain poor, or even, when rich at their 
accession, will yet grow poor by having to spend, but nothing to 
gain. They will at last, as the people grow more civilized, give 
up the title of kings and chiefs, or when their position as chiefs 
is beneficial to the English Government in helping to keep up 
peace and order in the colony, some stipends will be allowed them 
to live by, from the large revenue j'ielded by the colony. 

Well done! Victorious Ga, 

Thou great and durable Akra 

Not subject to desolation ! 

For thy words are truth and ten. 

Thy troubles many, thy patience long, 

Not forgotten yet revenges. 

Not minding splendour and pomp, 

Yet thy nature is as a rock. 

Hardy and strong, yet born peaceful. 

Enemies from North and South, 

From East and West, stood aghast. 

Who came in their pride to touch thee. 

But thy strength lies not in thee, 

Neither in thy Sakum or Nai ; 

But in God, unknown by thee. 

And in thy white Protectors. 

When united, thy strength will grow, 

And more glorious shalt thou be! 



220 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Establishment of Schools by the European Governments on the Gold 
Coast. — Count Zinzendorf's attention drawn towards the propagation 
of the Gospel on the Coast. — Arrival of the Moravian Missionaries 
and their deaths. — Major de Richelieu's negotiation with the Committee 
of the Basel Mission on the propriety of beginning a Mission work. — 
The first Missionaries and the difficulties accompanying their work. — 
Excellent plans of the Mission and its progress. — ■ Arrival and estab- 
lishing of the Wesleyan Methodist Mission, the North German Mission, 
and the Anglican Church Mission. — Effects of these Missions on the 
different Tribes on the Gold Coast. About 1720—1890. 

How far the Portuguese, w^ho are said to have catechised and 
baptized their slaves before shipping them off, succeeded in what 
they did during tiie sixteenth and seventeenth centuries towards 
the education of the Natives, cannot be traced. Even if they in- 
troduced their religion among the Natives, it was so much mixed 
up with idolatry and fetishism, that no vestige is left. 

About the other settlers — Dutch, Danes, and English, we have 
traces of education given only at their head-quarters. It vvas 
mainly for the children begotten by them in the country (their 
children sent out to Europe for education excepted), but not for the 
general public. The Danes and the Dutch seem to have done more 
towards education than the English; yet the latter were more liberal 
in their views of imparting education, in this, that the educated 
were employed to hold positions according to their abilities, whilst 
the former had only one object, i. e. to enlist them as soldiers and 
nothing else. Hence the whole country was lying in an Egyptian 
darkness of barbarism and superstition. The gleamy light of Chris- 
tianity shone only among the officials of the different governments 
on the Coast by the soldiers and the Mulatto ladies, and adminis- 
tration of the Holy Supper among that small circle of believers in 
that age could never affect the vast populations outside the pale of 
governmental employ. Oh! that an Evangelical Mission had settled 
earlier in the country, to preach Christ and to shed the Gospel light 
in this dark region! But our God, who would have all men saved, 
had not forgotten this part of Africa, He was preparing a people to 
be sent out in due time. He had brought peace into the country; three 
years after the great war between Akwanm and Akra, and again 
two years after the great battle fought at Dodowa between Asante 
and Akra, the Lord sent out messengers of peace into the country. 



Chapter XIX. 221 

Tlie Moravians, who called themselves "Uiiitas Fratrum" or ''the 
United Brethren", founded a colony of emigrants from Moravia, 
where the Roman Catholics had persecuted them, under the zealous 
Count Zinzendorf, on an estate of his, called Berthelsdorf, in upper 
Lusatia, now part of the Kingdom of Saxony, in the year 1722, 
To this colony the name of Herrnhut was given. Through the zeal 
and success of this colony of believers, several colonies on the plan 
of the parent church were established in different parts of Germany, 
England, Holland and America. The energetic Count Zinzendorf 
met a West Indian negro at Copenhagen, which led to the estab- 
lishment of a mission in the small Danish island St. Thomas, West 
India. The first two Moravian missionaries were sent to the Negro 
slaves there in the year 1732. Others were sent to Greenland, in 
1733; to the Red Indians in North America, 1734; to the Negro 
slaves in Surinam, Dutch Guiana in South America, 1735; to the 
Hottentots in South Africa, 173(); to Jamaica, 1754; and afterwards 
to various other islands and countries. It pleased our merciful 
Lord to direct His devoted servant Count Zinzendorf, in whose 
heart was kindled love and zeal also for the salvation of Africans 
on the West Coast of Africa, to meet one Protten at Copenhagen 
in the year 1735. 

By the suggestion of Governor Hendrik von Suhm, then in com- 
mand of the Danish settlements on the Gold Coast, Pastor Schwane, 
who acted in the capacity of a Chaplain on the Coast during a 
period of six years, was instructed to bring two Mulatto youths of 
the Government school to Copenhagen to be educated at the expense 
of the Government. Two youths were selected, but one of them 
being prevented by illness, Protten took his place. So he and the 
other youth were brought to Denmark in the year 1727. The mother 
of Protten appears to have been a daughter of king Ashangnio, 
who emigrated to Popo in 1680; and his father a soldier in the 
castle of Christiansborg. On the 11^^ of November 1727, Protten 
was baptized in Copenhagen and got the name "Christian Jacob". 
He began to study in 1728 — 1732. In 1735 he was asked to return 
to his native country, but found no confidence to do so, when 
fortunately he met Count Zinzendorf in Copenhagen, and after eight 
days intercourse with him, he expressed a desire to become a mis- 
sionary. In July 1735 he accompanied Zinzendorf to Herrnhut, where 
the case was laid before the Society. Henry Huckuff was appointed 
by the Conference to accompany Protten to Africa as the first 



222 . History of the Gold Coast and Asantc. 

Moravian wiissionaries. Zinzeudorf proceeded with Protten to Holland 
and got passage for them. In March 1737 they set sail for Africa, 
and arrived at Elmina on the 11*^ of May. It was the intention 
of the Society first to etablish their Mission at Elmina under the 
patronage of the Dutch Government. But on their arrival at Elmina, 
Protten proposed coming to Akra, and his brother missionary was 
obliged to accompany him down. But 35 days after their arrival in 
the country, poor Huckuff tound his grave at Akra the 15*^ June 1737. 

In September Protten went to see his relations in Popo. There 
he was kept against his will and did not return before October 1739. 
From this time up to 1762, he never was perofianently employed 
dn direct missionary work, nor settled in one place. In 1741 he re- 
turned to Germany. In 1743 he made a trip to St. Thomas, returned 
to Germany in 1745 and married there a pious Mulatto-lady, the 
widow of a Moravian missionary, on the 6*^^' June 1746. He longed 
to go to the Gold Coast again; but as the- Elders of the community 
of the Brethren had no confidence to send him, he alone went to 
Copenhagen- and in 1766 undertook his second journey to the Gold 
Coast with good recommendations, to become a catechist or assistant 
chaplain and schoolmaster in Fort Christiansborg. When the vessel 
reached the African coast at Grand Junk on the Grain Coast (now 
Liberia) on the lO*'^ of February 1757, fever and other reasons 
compelled him to go ashore. He stayed there 15 weeks, and one 
month later got to Christiansborg, where he was well received 
(28. June) b,y Governor Jessen. He wrote letters to Herrnhut begging 
for missionaries and for news from the Brethren and his wife. On 
account of an accident he was sent back to Europe (July 1761) 
and came to Herrnhut (February 1762). In March 1763 he was 
consecrated by the Elders of the Conference in Herrnhut to go out 
to Africa for the third time, with his wife. But when they had 
come to Holland and every thing seemed to be ready, the journey 
and the whole plan were frustrated by a series of adverse circum- 
stances, so that at length he repaired to Copenhagen and again 
resumed his former employment under the Danish Government 
from 1764 to 1769, 24*^ of August, when he died at Christiansborg. 

In March 1767 the Directors of the Danish Guinea Company in 
a very kind letter begged the Elders of the United Brethren to 
send missionaries to the Gold Coast to preach the Gospel to the 
natives there and make them orderl}^, faithful, and diligent people 
as those on the three Danish islands in West India. 



Chapter XIX. 223 

In .kuic 17<)7, after liaviiig asked tlie Lord wluit to do*..for Africa, 
-and being' encouraged to hold on, the Elders of the Conference in 
Herrnhut resolved to send five missionaries. These were Jacob Meder, 
Daniel Lemke, Gottfried Schultze, Signiund Klellel and Samuel Hall. 
The conference laid the case before the authorities in Copenhagen, 
during which time the Danish African Trading Company surrend- 
ered their charter over to the Crown. All necessary arrangements 
were made. The missionaries arrived at Copenhagen, November 2"^, 
and went on board December 30"^, but severe frost prevented their 
sailing-. On March 29"', 1768, they went on board again, on April 4*'* 
they set sail and arrived at Christiansborg on July 5*'', joyfully re- 
ceived by Governor Franz Kyhberg, by Protten and his wife, and 
th'e natives. But before Brother Meder with two others could go to 
Ningo to select a place for their settlement, the fever seized one 
after another, and three of them were called to their eternal 
rest, Schulze in August, Meder and Lemke in September. Only 
Hall and Kletfel recovered. Chaplain Miller, who had come with 
them from Copenhag-en, proved a true friend to the brethren in 
their distress, and Protten also with his wife did their best in 
attending the sick. 

When the sad news reached Europe, the Society did not lose 
courage; although it was a heavy affliction, yet four missionaries 
were sent out again. They were: M. Schenk, R. Bradly, S.Watson 
and Westman; the latter was only to accompany the rest to the 
(xold Coast and then return home to report of the state of the 
country. In October 1769 they left Copenhagen, and after 15 weeks 
arrived at Christiansborg on February 9"^, 1770, greatly welcome 
to the two brethren and Protten's widow. Governor Gerhard 
Wrisberg soon presented them to Obiri Korane, the king of Akem, 
who came to visit him in the fort and showed himself willing to 
receive two of the brethren in his country. Schenk, Bradly, Hall 
and Watson started on March 9**^ to Ningo. They bought a piece of 
land and began to build their station; at the same time, they 
preached and taught the people; Westman and Kletfel remained at 
Christiansborg. On March 25*^1 and 28*^^ both Watson and Schenk 
got attacks of fever, so Bradly asked Westman to come down to 
Ningo, where he arrived on April 2"*^. Watson died on the 10*^; 
and the rest soon followed one after another. Westman, who 
survived, embarked for Europe and died five days after on the sea. 
The tidings of these rapid and mournful deaths did not reach the 



224 , History of the Gold Const and Asaiite. 

Society directly, but the missionaries in St. Thomas heard a verbal 
message by a captain, and wrote home. In July the governor of 
Christiansborg reported the deaths, but his letter did not arrive 
before 1771. The frll report of the death of all the missionaries 
from St. Thomas rerched Herrnhut in 1773. Thus the Moravian 
Mission on the Gold Coast ended, by sowing eleven precious seeds 
of the Divine So-'^'er in the soil of Western Africa. But those seeds 
were not lost, for he dying brethren had at least directed the eyes 
of those who wait( ■ the kingdom of God to the miserable and 

deprived condition oi tribes of that coast, and Zinzendorf al- 

ready prophesied a '>^' ei future. 

As in the 18*^^ cent Denmark was blessed with several pious 
kings, who took a sini • interest in the spiritual welfare of their 
heathen subjects in the coloniejs, so there were several pious gov- 
ernors too sent out to the . jnies. Major de Richelieu, a well- 
minded man with regard to Christian truth, was Governor of the 
Danish settlements on the Gold Coast between 1822 — 1825. (He 
himself conducted the Sunday ser^ >ces in Fort Christiansborg in 
absence of a chaplain, and took (-re that the Mulatto children 
were properly educated.) On his r 'turn to Denmark, he pleaded 
in an official petition to the king fo a bett-^r attention to the sj»i- 
ritual welfare of the Natives. 

The Basel Missionary Society, founded in the year 1815, had for 
some time prepared missionaries chiefly for other societies, but 
since 1822 begun missions of their own.*) Now they were deliber- 
ating on the propriety of beginning a work in one of the benighted 
regions of the West Coast of Africa. De Richelieu wrote to Basel, 
offering in the name of his king fair conditions and every assistance 



*) From 1818 to 1828 went out from Basel as missionaries for other 
societies: to India 14, to Sierra Leone 5, to Egypt and Abessinia 5, to 
Malta and Greece 5 (22 of all these for the Church Miss. Soc); and 
from 1822 to 1828 the Basel Society sent 11 missionaries and 11 mi- 
nisters for German settlers to Russia, Armenia and among the Tartars, 
and 6 missionaries to Liberia, West Africa, besides those 4 to the Gold 
Coast. To Liberia, the Society had a call from Governor Ashmun, the 
founder of Monrovia, previous to the call from Denmark. The Basel 
missionaries laboured for some time among the coloured settlers from 
America and the indigenous Veys and Bassas, but 2 of them died, and 
the 4 others, wearied out by the indifference of the settlers and the 
enmity of the slave-dealers, after 3 — 4 years found better work in Sierra 
Leone and elsewhere. — Chr. 



Chapter XIX. 



225 



in case the Committee should choose their field of labour on the 
Gold Coast. The Committee accepted the offer and entered into 
negotiations with the Danish Government. 

In March 1827 four missionaries: Holzwarth, Schmidt, Salbach 
and Henke were sent out over Copenhagen. They arrived at Chris- 
tiansborg on the 18*'^ December 1828, and were joyfully received 
by Governor Hendrick G. Lind. They resolutely set to work, but 
from August 12*^ to 29***, three of them were buried. Henke sur- 
vived till 1831. The fruit of his labours at the Government-school 
is still to .be seen in the pupils he Had under him. As a missionary 
he advised and encouraged the native chiefs to send their children 
to school. It was the first case here in Christiansborg. On the 
17"» November 18S1 he fell asleep in his Lord. In March 1832, 
three missionaries, A. Riis, P. Jager and Dr. Heinze arrived. But 
the medical man died six weeks after. Jager soon followed and 
Riis was left alone. He was, like Henke, employed for some time 
in the Government-school and acted at the same time as chaplain. 
Kut in 1835, when Pastor Jorsleft arrived in the capacity of chap- 
lain, Riis resigned. His mind was powerfully drawn towards the 
interior, where he wished to be- 
gin a mission. Messrs. Torsleft and 
Gronberg accompanied him to A- 
kropong. King Ado Dankwa, who 
desired Riis to establish a mission 
there, rendered him all assistance. 
A piece of land was sold to him, 
and the king ordered his chiefs 
and people to build him a house ; 
hence the natives called him "O- 
siadan" ("house builder"'). The 
reception given to Riis at Akro- 
pong encouraged him to beg the 
Committee not to weary in their 
efforts of evangelizing the Negroes. 
His reports kindled a new tire 

of love among the friends of the Andreas rms. 

kingdom of Christ. Two brethren sent out to his aid, J. Miirdter 
and A. Stanger, together with Miss M. A. Wolter, the future partner 
of A. Riis, arrived in 1836. It was hoped that j'a new era would 
commence for the mission; but in December 1837 A. Stanger was 

15 




226 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

removed by death; in November 1838 J. Milrdter followed, and 
A. Riis with his excellent lady were left alone on the battle field. 
The mission within a period of 10 years lost 8 persons with appa- 
rently no result; no fruit of the work was as yet to be seen. The 
Committee declared in the report pro 1838, ''We are bowed down 
at the hearing of all the sad news, we are dismayed at the utter 
failure of our plans, we do not understand the thoughts of the Lord 
with this deeply afflicted work." 

Mr. Riis continued for some time his efforts at Akropong, but 
his health gave way amidst all the hardships. Before returning 
to Europe, he visited Kumase. The impressions he received there 
in the lion's den were not such as to inspire him with hopes for 
an immediate beginning of Gospel work in Asante. In July 1840 
he arrived at Basel. The Committee were not disheartened, whilst 
many friends were for -breaking off altogether, as the Moravians 
had done 70 years before. 

The Lord, however, had already chosen new ways; it was not 
his will to leave this stronghold of Satan in the peace of death. A 
new Inspector, the Rev. W. Hoffmann, an energetic man, took up 
the legacy of his predecessor with undaunted courage, finding out 
new means to "get the field." About three years after the above- 
mentioned sick leave of Mr. Riis, we find this faithful pioneer in 
.Jamaica, assisted by J. G. Widmann, to enlist Christian emigrants 
from among the free Negroes for the holy war in Africa. The 
plan of Inspector Hoffmann was, to begin our African Mission work 
anew by establishing a settlement with Christian colonists from 
the West Indies at Akropong. In Jamaica 24 members of the 
Moravian congregation were found ready to go to their fatherland, 
and arrived on the 17*^^ April 1843 at Christiansborg. Not all these 
West Indian brethren proved to be shining lights among those who 
were in darkness. Yet Akropong became henceforth a city on a 
hill, the light of which could not be hid. 

At Christiansborg a school was opened for the Mulattoes, which soon 
became crowded with pupils. From 1845 a European missionary, 
Mr. Schiedt, was stationed there, and regular preaching commenced. 

The young work suffered a great loss in 1845 through the utter 
breaking down of Mr. Riis' health and his return to Europe. But 
new missionaries arrived: E. Fr. Sebald, Fr. Schiedt and H. N. Riis 
in 1«45, J. C. Dieterle, J. Stanger, Fr. Meischel and J. Mohr in 1847. 
A new station was established at Aburi by Mr. Meischel. 



Chapter XIX. 227 

The annual Report of 1848 relates that at last the wilderness and 
the solitary places were beginning- to rejoice, and the first blossoms 
were to be seen. About 40 native Christians besides the 20 West 
Indians were gathered in Christ's fold, both at Akropong and at 
Christiansborg, and at least 300 children received regular instruc- 
tion. Between 1838—1848 onlj one missionary, Sebald, died on 
December 7, 1845, at Akropong. May we not ascribe this change 
to the earnest prayers of the newborn children at Christiansborg, 
who assembled for the special purpose of interceding for the lives 
of their ministers, as Mr. Schiedfs report of 1848 saj^s? 

We proceed to the year 1858, and are astonished to hear that 
no fewer than 18 missionaries, 9 married and 3 unmarried ladies, 
altogether 30 Europeans, besides 2() catechists aud teachers are 
stationed not only at old places, l)at also at Gyadam in Akem, 
founded 1853, at Abokobi, founded 1854 in consequence of the bom- 
bardment of Christiansborg, at Odumase, founded 1856. Aburi, 
given up for 6 years after the sick leave of Mr. Meischel, was re- 
opened by Mr. Dieterle. 

The work had grown up to manhood, and manly were the en- 
deavours to gain the victory. Our schools received a suitable de- 
velopment, so as to resemble well organised Christian schools in 
Europe. Plantations were cleared and laid out with thousands of 
coffee-trees, roads made through the bush, better dwellings built, 
and so forth. 

But not only the outward appearance clianged; the preaching of 
the Gospel brought a joyful harvest too. The number of regular 
church members at the end of 1858 was 385 besides 90 candidates 
for baptism. In every way the prospects were favourable for an 
increased onset; for the heathenish powers were beginning to give 
ground. 

Ten years later, at the end of 1868, that is, after active missionary 
labour of 40 years, the tabular view showed the following num- 
bers: 31 missionaries, 19 ladies, .53 native assistants, 1581 church 
members (four times more than ten years ago). The 3'ear 1868 
alone brought an increase of 372 souls. 

The Mission Trade Society had begun their operations to pre- 
pare the way for the Lord by trade based on Christian principles. 
The first Factory was established at Christiansborg in 1855 by our 
energetic missionary merchant Mr. H. L. Rottmann. We feel com- 
pelled to remark here that he has, during a period of 37 years, 

15* 



228 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

devoted all his energy in that capacity of a missionary merchant 
and has thoroughly convinced many an intelligent and patriotic 
native by his simplicity, honesty, sobriety and self-denial as a 
missionary indeed. We say convinced, because the general notion 
prevalent on the whole Gold Coast is, that a merchant nolens vo- 
lens becomes a worldling, a polyg-amist, and luxurious. 

Tw^o stations were also established on the banks of the river 
Volta: at Ada, and 60 miles to the interior, at Anum, in the midst 
of an abundant cotton district. Of course not only the merchants 
offered their goods, but native and European ministers also offered, 
without money and without price, to children and adults, the im- 
perishable goods from above. 

In one place we had to retreat. Gyadam, burnt down in 1861, 
was abandoned, but only to make place for a new station in the 
Akem country at Kyebi. A great number of out-stations sprung- 
up, surrounding the central places in every district. After retreating 
from Anum in consequence of the invasion by the Asantes in 18(34, 
the station was established at Akuse on the banks of the Volta. 
(Anum haB been re-occupied since 1881, no more as a trading station.) 

During this period. Elders were appointed in our congregations 
to assist the missionaries in their work and to settle minor cases 
of jurisdiction, which institution still proves to be a blessing in our 
whole organisation. Church regulations, adapted to the wants of 
our Christian natives, became the standard of life in our communi- 
ties. Polygamy and domestic slavery, two evils closely connected, 
were subdued with all energy. 

Our schools, the most flourishing part of our African mission, 
received every attention, because we must have a staff of well 
educated native assistants, before we reach our aim, the future 
independence of a native church. Boarding-schools were therefore 
opened in all our districts for boj'S and girls, besides the day- 
schools at each station and out-station. For a good while, a great 
number of the children under instruction were either orphans or be- 
longing to heathenish families; in many cases also either the father 
or the mother were yet unconverted. It is clear that with child- 
ren living with their ungodly relations, the good influence of the 
school is often weakened by the venemous influence of paganism. 
This is less the case with our boarding-scholars, who live entirely 
with the missionaries under strict discipline. It was no easy task 
to induce parents to give their children, especially their daughters. 



Chiipter XIX. 229 

to the iiiissioimries for education. However all prejudices gradually 
disapiioared by the enligiitening inlluence of the Gospel. The great- 
est dititiculty in establishing a Girls Boarding-school was, and is 
to some degree still, experienced in the Krobo district, where every 
girl has to subn:^it to a certain filthy heathenish custom called Otufo 
or Dipo, or else becomes an outcast. ''May the Lord destroy all 
the bulwarks of Satan, and pour out his spirit upon daughters and 
handmaids among the Kroboes!" exclaims the report for 1865. 
And the same is our fervent prayer still for all girls in the Ga and 
Adanme district. 

The boys and girls of the Boarding-schools are also instructed in 
handiwork, the girls especially in sewing etc. We do not expect 
that all these children will be converted; European experience and 
Holy Scripture would contradict such expectations. But one thing 
we know: the Holy Spirit is working in the hearts of many of 
them, and they all learn at least so much under the roofs of the 
missionaries as is necessary to become useful members of society 
in their after life, and to regard African superstition as sin and folly. 

From among the boys of our Day- and Boarding-schools, we annu- 
ally select the more intelligent and allow them to enter our ''Middle- 
schools"' in Akropong, Christiansborg, and Begoro. An active boy 
trained in this school has no difficulty in obtaining an apprenticeship 
in a mercantile business or in the Government office. Several young 
men are thus employed, and they reflect honour on our schools, but not 
so much on our congregations. We confidently hope that they will ere 
long become a credit also to our congregations, and active supporters 
of our native church. Others may become farmers or learn a trade 
in one of our industrial shops. But these, as remarked before, are 
not our objects with the Middle-schools. Young men who have passed 
three classes of the Middle-school, and wish to become teachers or 
catechists, receive in the fourth class [)reparatory instruction which 
enables them to enter special Seminaries. Those wlio wish to be- 
come teachers st-dy two years in a Teachers' Training-school, con- 
nected with the Theological Seminary. We do not like to use big- 
words, otherwise we might term the latter school "our Gold Coast 
High School." But the object we aim at, is: to educate native 
ministers, able to take care of the congregations, to feed their flock 
with knowledge and understanding (Jer. 3, 15), and to promote the 
wisdom that is from above and is pure, peaceable, gentle, easy to 
l)e iutreated, full of mercy and good fruits, without partiality, and 



230 History of the Gold Coast aud Asante. 

without hypocrisy (James 3, 17). We long for the fulfil trient of 
that aim, but are already thankful for the first-fruits from the tree 
of our school work. '^Speramus meliora"', we hope for better, is 
the motto of the African Steamship Company. It expresses our 
expectations also in this sphere of labour. 

Another department in our work received its development between 
1858 — 1868. Our friends are aware, that our missionary work is 
not limited to preaching and teaching alone. Our Committee think 
it not only right, but their bounden duty, to make our Christians 
from the Gentiles partakers of the social blessings, which Europeans 
abundantly derive from Christianity. For this pur[)Ose industrial 
establishments were opened at Christiansborg for joiners, wheel- 
wrights, locksmiths, blacksmiths, shoemakers, and book-binders. 
Our industrial missionaries had to overcome many difficulties with 
their workshops. We are therefore thankful to state that, in this 
branch too, our mission has not laboured in vain. After many 
trials, the different establishments became self-supporting, and all 
these different trades tended to promote Christian diligence, honesty, 
and sobriety. These workshops have not only enabled the Eau'O- 
peans to build more salubrious and comfortable dwellings than those 
they first inhabited, but the natives also, following their examples, 
have improved upon their former style of domestic architecture. 
All the social changes, which this branch of our work brought to 
the Gold Coast, are uniformly aj)preciated and speak for themselves 
to every one who has eyes to see and sense enough to observe 
past and present. 

We have to mention also the difficulties which the confusion of 
tongues creates in this part of the world, and not in a small degree 
in our districts, wliere five different languages are spoken: Ga or 
Akra, Tslii (Twi), Guan (of Kyerepong, Date and Anum), Adangme 
and Ephe. Two of the chief vernacular tongues, Ga and Tshi, have 
been adopted and cultivated as the common medium of intercourse 
in church and school, and these have become written languages. 
The late Kev. .J. Zimmermann finished the Ga translation of the Rible 
in 1S66, and Rev. .1. G. Christaller issued his excellent Tshi Old and 
New Testament a few years later. Besides, there are a great number 
of useful school books of every description: Dictionaries, Hymn- 
books, Prayer-books, etc., either translated or compiled by those two 
missionaries and others. We are greatly indebted to the Basel 
missionaries, but in particular to the Revs. John Zimmermann and 



Chapter XIX. 231 

Christallei-; for having taken great pains to cultivate our language 
to become written languages. We say with gratitude that as long 
as this world exists their names shall never be forgotten in the 
annals of the Gold Coast. We are also greatly indebted to the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, who have generously paid the expense 
of printing those translations. 

And now the outward features, by which our progress during the 
last ten years has been characterized, ought to be indicated. In 1868 
we were able to say that we had filled the regions of the Eastern 
province of the colony with the Gospel. Congregations had been 
gathered, schools established, native assistants educated, the Bible 
translated into two languages, other books for school and church 
published in the native tongues, work-shops opened, agriculture 
promoted. And as a decided progress, and a step in the right di- 
rection towards building up a native church, several of the faithful 
catechists were ordained as Pastors of congregations between 1868 and 
1878. The report for 1879 says, ''It was a day of joy and gladness,, 
when our dear brethren, the Revs. A. W. Clerk, Ch. Reindorf, and 
Th. Opoku received this token of confidence and appreciation of faith- 
ful services by our Committee." Four years later Messrs. Koranteng, 
Nath. Date, Jer. Engmann and Ch. Quist were ordained. And we 
are thankful to the Lord, that he has blessed the labours of his 
servants the missionaries that up to the present year (1891) we have 
18 Native Pastors in active service, two of whom have been educated 
and ordained in Basel, viz., Mr. D. Asante*) and Mr. N. Clerk. Our 
elder brother Mr. A. W. Clerk is under pension. 

The area of our mission field has extended over one half of the 
Gold Coast colony. The country of Okwawu has been occupied in 
the north. Western Akem or Akem Kotoku in the west, and the 
eastern boundary is the Volta with some parts beyond it. 

Statistics of the Basel Mission on the Gold Coast 
on January 1, 1890 (and, in parentheses, 1894, to show the increase 

in 4 years). 

The stations with tlieir number of out-stations added in figures are: 
In the Coast districts: Akra : Christiansborg 5 (6): Abokobi 15(17); 
Nsaba in Fante-Agona 10 (14); Odumase in Krobo 7: Ada 5 (6). 



*) Rev. D. Asante, who had been in Basel 1857—1862, died on Oct. 13, 
1892, after faithful and valuable services. Chr. 



232 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

In the Inland districts: Akuapem : Aburi 7; Akropong 12; Akem : 
Begoro 31 (46); Okwawu : Abetifi 6 (8); East of Volta: Anum 10 (14). 

Total: Stations 10, out-statious 108 (137). 

There are 35 (41) missionaries and 23 (25) missionary ladies, and 
169 (193) native agents, employed in the different departments of the 
mission, viz., the Itinerary, the Pastoral, the Educational, the Medical, 
the Commercial and the Industrial departments. 

The number of church members in the whole mission is 8,909 (12,074) 
of whom 3,662 (5,198) are communicants. We have 100 (110) schools 
with 2791 (3513) scholars (of whom 725 (880) are heathens), viz., 
1 Theological Seminary, 1 Teachers' Seminary, 3 Middle (or Grammar) 
Schools, 4 Boarding-schools for boys, 3 Boarding-schools for girls, 
83 (93) Day-schools and 5 Sunday-schools. 

The loss sustained by our mission since 1828 to 1890 (1894) i. e. 
62 (66) years are, 65 (68) missionaries and 33 (36) missionary ladies, 
total 98 (104) persons. 

We have come so fai- with the history of the Basel Mission, and 
are now to take up that of the Wesleyan Mission, the next in age 
and rank. 

Both missions were preceded by the establishment of the Danish 
and the English governmental schools in the country. Chaplains 
were sent out for each Government, and consequently schools 
were opened. The Dutch had also chaplains and schools, but no 
Evangelical Mission established. 

W. J. Miiller was the first Danish chaplain at Cape Coast from 
1661 — 1670. The first Protestant missionary at Cape Coast was the 
Rev, Thomas Thompson, sent out in 1751 by the Society for the Pro- 
pagation of the Gospel. He acted as chaplain until 1756, when ill 
health obliged him to retire. Philip Kwaku, one of the three youths 
he had sent to England for education, received orders and acted as 
chaplain from 1765 until his death, October 1816. He established 
a school, which was kept up by his successors. The result of his 
labours for 50 years was, that some of the natives trained in that 
school associated themselves for the acquisition of religious know- 
ledge, as shall be seen hereafter. He was defamed to have relapsed 
into idolatry, as some charms or fetishes were found under his dying 
pillows and bed. Even if such were the case, we are quite certain, 
they were not placed there by himself, or by his orders, for it is 
a fact that, not only the native Christians, but even the Europeans 
as well, have often been thus treated by their heathen friends 
attending them as nurse or doctor. 

"It was in the autumn of the year 1834 (writes Dr. J. Beecham) 
that the Committee of the Wesleyan Missionary Society were in- 
duced to send a missionary on a visit of observation to the Gold 



Chapter XIX. 233 

Coast. A few native youths, who had learned to read the English 
translation of the Bible in the excellent Government-school at Cape 
Coast Castle, became so interested by the contents of the sacred 
volume, that they agreed to meet at regular times for the purpose 
of reading it together, and of enquiring carefully into the nature 
and claims of the Christian religion. The name which this asso- 
ciation assumed was that of *'A Meeting or Society for Promoting 
Christian Knowledge"; and they adopted for their guidance the 
following rule, which is copied literallj^ from the minutes of their 
proceedings: "That, as the word of God is the best rule a Christian 
ought to observe, it is herein avoided framing other rules to enforce 
good conduct; but that the Scriptures must be carefully studied, 
through which, by the help of the Holy Spirit and faith in Christ Jesus, 
our minds will be enlightened and find the way to eternal salvation. 

"The formation of this most interesting Society or Meeting took 
place on the 1** of October 1831; and in the year 1833, Mr. William 
De Graft, one of the first who began to read the Scriptures privately 
in the spirit of prayer and inquiry, received at Dix Cove, where 
he was then residing, a request from his .young friends at Cape 
Coast town that he would engage some suitable person, who might 
be proceeding to England, to purchase for their use a number of 
copies of the New Testament. 

"Shortly after, the late excellent captain Potter, master of a 
merchant vessel from the port of Bristol, arrived at Dix Cove, to 
whom William De Graft applied as one likely to execute with 
promptness and care the commission for the purchase of the Scrip- 
tures. He was surprised at receiving such an application from a 
native young man, and became so greatly interested by the infor- 
mation which his questions elicited, that he was led to ask whether 
the instructions of a missionary would not be highly appreciated 
by those native inquirers after the true religion. De Graft replied 
in the affirmative, but appeared doubtful whether so high a privilege 
was attainable. Captain Potter next proceeded to Cape Coast, where 
he saw the members of the Meeting; and having consulted President 
Maclean, he returned to England, resolved to exert himself in order 
that, on his next voyage, he might, together with copies of the 
Scriptures, take out a Christian minister who should "preach the 
word" to those who were already united in seeking "the way to 
eternal salvation", and proclaim the Gospel of Christ to other por- 
tions of the heathenish native population of the Gold Coast. 



234 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

''Immediately after his arrival at Bristol, captain Potter communi- 
cated to the Wesleyan Missionary Committee in London his views 
as to the promising opening for missionary exertion in that part 
of Africa, and generously otfered to take a missionary with him 
on his next voyage, who might make personal observation and 
inquiry upon the spot; and, should he conclude that the prospect 
was not such as to warrant his continuance for the purpose of 
commencing a mission, captain Potter engaged that he would bring 
him back to England without any expense to the Missionary Society. 
This noble offer met with acceptance on the part of the Missionary 
Committee; and the Rev. Joseph Dunwell was selected lor the in- 
teresting service. 

"This devoted missionary embarked with captain Potter at Bristol, 
on the 17"' of October 1834 .... 

"On the 29*ii of December, the vessel anchored off the Dutch fort 
of Elmina. At this place, within sight of Cape Coast Castle, 
]\lr. Dunwell wrote in his journal as follow\s: "What my feelings 
have been this day, I cannot describe. The place of my future re- 
sidence is in view: it may prove the spot where I shall finish my 
earthly existence; and there the name of Jesus Christ may be 
honoured, or dishonoured, by me. But, in the strength of grace, 
I trust that, whether my da^'s may be many, or soon numbered, 
they will be spent in the service of God. All things appear to me 
to sink into nothingness, compared with the great work of my 
Divine Lord and Master. 

"While at anchor off Elmina, Mr. Dunwell wrote a letter to Pre- 
sident Maclean, at Cape Coast Castle, respectfully informing him 
of his arrival on the coast, and stating the objects contemplated by 
the Wesleyan Missionary Conmiittee, in sending him as a Missionary 
to that part of Africa. On his arrival a day or two afterwards at 
Cape Coast Castle, he met with a kind reception from the Presi- 
dent, who invited him to remain at the castle until he could provide 
himself with a suitable residence; and expressed his opinion that 
there was a very favourable opening among the natives for mis- 
sionary exertions."' (Dr. J. Beecham's Ashantee and the Gold Coast 
pp. 259—272.) 

The nucleus of a true church of Christ having been formed of 
a scripture-reading body by the Lord himself, who is the head of 
the church, Mr. Dunwell's arrival was hailed with joy and gratitude. 
A small congregation of from forty to fifty members on trial was 



Chapter XIX 235 

speedily gathered, and tlie aspects of the new mission were of the 
most cheering character. Mr. Dunwell visited several places, and 
preached for the first time at Anomabo in March 1835; besides 
there were several doors wide open to receive the message of sal- 
vation, in short, the mission assumed a most promising appearance. 
He was attacked by fever after about six months energetic labour 
and expired about 9 o'clock in the evening of the 24*'' June 1835. 
The Wesleyan Committee at home, in announcing Mr. Dunwell's 
death, stated, "We are painfully affected by this dispensation, but 
not disheartened, cast down, but not destroyed. Our great Master 
buries his workman, but carries on his work. To Western Africa 
the people of England owe a debt, which must be paid at all 
hazards, and God will yet bless our persevering efforts to discharge, 
in some measure, the solemn obligations of humanit.y and religion." 
For nearly fifteen months, the hopeful flock at Cape Coast had 
been left without a shepherd, yet being a tree of the Lord's own 
planting, the congregation increased^ and the influence of Christianity 
was felt to a considerable distance inland. But on September 15, 
1836, Mr. and Mrs. Wrigley arrived. He connnenced his varied la- 
hours with zeal, undertook, without delay, the erection of a commo- 
dious building, including a chapel and school-rooms, and under his 
ministry the society continued to prosper. The Wesleyan Committee 
at home, to strengthen the hands of their energetic missionary, 
sent out Mr. and Mrs. Harrop on November 17, 1836. They arrived 
on Sunday January 15, 1837, and went in companj^ of both Mr. and 
J\Irs. Wrigley to the afternoon service, where they had a crowded 
congregation, so that Mr. Harrop was both surprised and gratified 
with the sight. But Mr. Wrigley was himself attacked with illnewSS 
the following day, and confined to bed for some time. On Sunday, 
January 29, precisely a fortnight from the arrival of Mr. and Mrs. 
Hari-op, both were attacked with the seasoning fever, owing to the 
injurious exposure of themselves to the effects of the sun and 
damps. Well might Mr. Wrigley say: "Ah! how vain are all our 
earthly hopes, and how mysterious are his ways whose judgments 
are a great deep! The arrival of our friends, so highly calculated 
to cheer and encourage us in our arduous work, was the prelude 
to the experience of the severest afttictions." Mrs. Wrigley sank 
under the fatigue which she experienced, while attending with 
affectionate anxiety, by night and by day, to the wants and suf- 
ferings of her newly arrived friends. Mrs. Harrop died on Sunday 



236 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

morning-, February 5, 1837, after a residence of only three weeks; 
and both Mrs. Wrigley and Mr. Harrop died within a few minutes 
of each other, on the 8*'^ of the same month, and their remains were 
interred at tiie same time. What tragical events! ^'How are we 
to account for all these losses of dear lives, at the great assize, if 
we remain unconverted !'' 

Mr. Wrigley was now the only surviving missionary on the Gold 
Coast, and nothing but the consolations of religion could have 
sustained him under an accumulation of losses so sudden and severe. 
Yet he went on with the work, visiting, preaching, school-teaching, 
journeying from place to place. He once more renews his appli- 
cation for help as follows, ''I have again to urge the immediate re- 
inforcement of the Mission. What is one single individual among 
so many? I hope, notwithstanding the sad news which these sheets 
communicate, that others will be found to fill up the ranks and in 
the spirit of one now slumbering- alongside Harriet Newell in the 
Isle of France, — Sergeant, — come to this hell, if it be even to 
die here." In due course others were found, who freely and nobly 
offered themselves to be "baptized for the dead,'" in this part of the 
world. But before their arrival Mr. Wrigley was seized with the 
illness which proved fatal to him, but was graciously supported 
during- his affliction; and he received the kindest attentions from 
the affectionate people to whom he had ministered with so much 
success. He died in Cape Coast town on November 16, 1837. 

It was during Mr. Wrigley 's ministry that Mr. William De Graft 
was appointed for Winnebah, where he happened to meet two 
Mulatto traders from Akra, Mr. Peter Mayer, and a friend of his. 
Those two Akra traders became so interested with the new religion, 
that they expressed the desire to become menibers of Christ's church. 
On their arrival at Akra, they hired a house and began to meet 
for private devotions. Their number increased gradually, and on 
Mr. Freeman's arrival they were visited and confirmed by him. 

Twelve days before the death of Mr. Wrigley on the Gold Coast, 
Mr. and Mrs. Freeman embarked on board the Osborne, and arrived 
on January 3, 1838. Mrs. Freeman had not heard of the death of 
Mr. Wrigley until he arrived at Cape Coast; and when he entered 
the hallowed chamber where the good man met his fate, and where 
four of the servants of the Lord had so recently breathed their 
last, his mind for some time was depressed ; but casting- his burden 
upon the Lord, he entered upon his work with a cheerful spirit 



Chapter XIX. 2^1 

that was truly admirable. Mr. Freeman being the fourth missionary 
and arriving on the 3'"'' January, the natives called him "Kwakn 
Anan". (Kwaku is the name for a male child born on Wednesday, 
and Anan the name for the fourth male child.) We say rightly 
that Mr. Freeman was providentially and specially sent by our 
Lord himself to the Gold Coast, because he was spared to labour 
nearly half a century, and deserves to be called by us ^'Father 
Freeman." But our climate had a contrary effect on Mrs. Freeman, 
who immediately after landing set about the female department of 
the mission work in the same spirit as her husband, arranging 
plans for future usefulness. But suddenly she was called to part 
with her dear partner on the ^0'^^ February, after a residence at 
Cape Coast ot 48 daj^s. 

Under the energetic exertions of Mr. Freeman the mission at Cape 
Coast had been rising, when the prospect of a wide and effectual 
door opening for the preaching of the Gospel in Kumase, already 
reported to the late Mr. Wrigley, again reached Mr. Freeman. It 
was in the spring of 18H9 that Mr. Freeman paid his first enter- 
prising visit to the capital, of Asante. He was cordially received 
by the king, and arrangements were made towards establishing the 
mission there. (See Missionary Notices for 1840.) 

On the 20"> November 1839, Mr. and Mrs. Mycock and Mr. Robert 
Brooking embarked for Cape Coast, where they arrived on 
January 1.3, 1840 and were heartily welcomed by the people and 
Mr. Freeman, who up to this time had been toiling alone. 

During the year 1840 considerable interest was excited in England 
in favour of the Gold Coast Mission, occasioned by Mr. Freeman's 
visit to Kumase. In June, he and Mr. William De Graft, the native 
local preacher, arrived in England, when that feeling was greatly 
increased, and became universal, A special appeal was made to 
the friends of missions, and the noble sum of ^^ 5,000 was raised 
in a few months to enable the Committee considerably to augment 
the number of missionaries on the Gold Coast. 

Mr. Freeman and the party appointed to accompany him to the 
Gold Coast embarked at Gravesend on the 10*'' December. In 
addition to Mr. De Graft, it consisted of Mr. and Mrs. Freeman, 
Mr. and Mrs. Hesk, Mr. and Mrs. Shipman, with Messrs. Watson, 
Walden, and Thackwray. This noble band of missionaries were 
favoured with a safe voyage to Africa, and landed at Cape Coast 
Castle on February 1, 1841. Their arrival increased the staff ot 



238 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

missionaries and wives on the Gold Coast to the number of twelve 
persons. But in March Mr. and Mrs. Mycock were obUged to return 
to England for their health, and in about six months after their 
arrival at Cape Coast four of them were numbered with the dead, 
and a fifth had to return home to save his life. The history of the 
Gospel Mission in Africa is a history of the ravages of death! 

Mr. William Thackwray died at Anoniabo, May 14, 1841, three 
months and three days after he had landed. Charles Walden was 
the second, on the 29"^ of July; Mrs. Freeman died on the 25*'\ and 
Mrs. Hesk on the 28*'^ of August. Mr. Hesk returned home. Thus the 
mission party at Cape Coast was now reduced more than one half, but 
notwithstanding these heavy afflictions and mysterious bereavements, 
Mr. Freeman, early in November, in com[)any with Mr. Brooking 
and the two Asante princes, Owusu Ansa and Kwantabisa, who 
had been educated in England, started for Kumase. They were fa- 
vourably received by the king, a piece of land was granted by 
His Majesty, on which to erect suitable mission-premises; and the 
nucleus of a Christian church was speedily formed in the blood- 
dyed streets of the capital of the sanguinary kingdom of Asante. 
Mr. Freeman returned to the coast and left Mr. Brooking in charge 
of the mission. The Committee of the Wesleyan Missions felt it 
to be their imperative duty to send out three missionaries to fill 
up the ranks occasioned by deaths and returns. They were Messrs. 
William Allen, Henry J. Wyatt, and Thomas Rowland. The first 
arrived on the 27*'' January, and the two others on the 21*'^ Fel)- 
ruary. Thus the little missionary band, who still had been enabled 
to maintain their post, was strengthened, — strengthened, alas! but 
for a short time. Mr. Wyatt died on the 6^^ of April- 1842, and 
Mr. Rowland, who was sent in Mai to join Mr. Brooking in 
Kumase, was attacked with illness on the journey. He was 
partially recovered as to awaken hopes of his entire restoration, 
but on the 10"' of July 1842 he entered into the joy of his Lord, 
at Kumase. A reinforcement, consisting of Mr. and Mrs. Watkins 
with Mr. George Chapman, arrived at Cape Coast on January 
23, 1843. But the staff of standard-bearers on the Gold Coast 
was again reduced about this time by the death of Mr. Shipman 
and Mrs. Watkins. Mr. Shipman after a few weeks' residence at 
Cape Coast, proceeded to British Akra (James Town), early in 1844, 
to take charge of that important station, where he continued to 
labour to the time of his death. In addition to his other work, he 



Chapter XIX. ■ 239 

was employed in compiling- a vocabulary of the Fante language^ 
and had then completed a translation of the Commandments, the 
Lords' Prayer, and part of the Conference Catechism, He had also 
several native converts under a course of training, preparatory to 
their becoming native teachers, and subordinate agents in the 
mission. But in the midst of usefulness, rhis faithful and zealous 
lierald of tiie cross was removed from earth to heaven, on Febru- 
ary 22, 1843. We relate witii deep sorrow the death of this ener- 
getic missionary, whose removal was a death-blow to the Wesleyan 
Mission. The tine institution he opened at Akra, where promising- 
young men, from Cape Coast, Anomabo, and other places, were 
being trained for the ministry as well as for the Gold Coast Commu- 
nity, came to an end. Even the study of the vernacular was given 
up in consequence of his death. Mr. Watkins died at Cape Coast, 
on March 1, 1843, after a residence of only 39 days on the Gold 
Coast. 

After the energetic labours of the Wesleyan Mission on the Gold 
Coast, from 1835 to the beginning of 1843, precisely eight years, their 
loss of able missionaries and wives of missionaries amounted to 14, 
and the result of their mission labours, according to the Gold Coast 
Almanack for 1843, is the following: 6 principal stations and 14 out- 
stations: Cape Coast: Rev. Thomas B. Freeman, with 6 native agents 
as local preachers, interpreters, leaders, and teachers, and Miss 
C. Waldron as school-mistress; Dominase: Rev. W. Allen, with two 
agents; British Akra: Rev. J. A. Shipman with 4 agents; Dixcove: 
Rev. John Watson with 2 agents; Kumase, Rev. R. Brooking; 
Badagry: Mr. William De Graft; and Anomabo under Mr. George 
Blankson with 6 agents. The number of members in Society was 
690, and 360 scholars. We heartily congratulate our brethren for 
the success they have achieved within those 8 years, and join them 
to praise our Divine Lord for such blessing on the labours of 
His servants. 

In the middle of October Mr. and Mrs. Annear, with Mr. Timothy 
J. Greaves and Mr. John Martin, embarked for the Gold Coast. 
They arrived on the 12**» December. Mr. Annear had spent nearly 
a year and a half at Sierra Leone. On the 7*'^ of February 1844 
Mr. Benjamin AVatkins, who after the death of his wife, took charge 
of the circuit and institution at Akra after the death of Mr. Shipman, 
was also removed by death. Mr. Brooking, sent out for the second 
time, after upwards of three years labour, and accompanied by 



240 ■ History of the Gold Coast and Asaiite. 

Mrs. Brooking, arrived on March 20, 1844. Mr. Chapman was at 
Kimiase, and Mr. Greaves took charge of the Akra Circuit after the 
death of Mr. Watkins. In June, Mr. Freeman, who had been in la- 
bours more abundant, again left the Gold Coast on a temporary visit 
to England ; but a few weeks after his departure Mr. Greaves died 
at Akra on July 14, 1844. Mr. B. Chapman was sent to the Gambia, 
where he arrived on March 19, 1845, and Mr. Allen returned to 
England, for a temporary change. 

Mr. Freeman remained in England till May 1845. During his 
stay there, he was called upon to defend himself and the mission 
from one of the most unfounded and bitter attacks that was in- 
vented. But the Committee and the friends of the mission rejoiced 
that he came of this trial ''more than conqueror" and that it had 
the effect of raising him and the mission still higher in the esti- 
mation of the friends of missions in general, and also of obtaining 
some additional supporters to the same hallowed cause. 

On Mr. Freeman's return to the Gold Coast, he was accompanied 
by Mr. Henry Wharton, a man of colour, a native of Grenada in 
the West Indies. They embarked on May 17, 1845, and on the 
23''*' June they reached Cape Coast. In August Mr. George Chapman 
embarked for England with the hopes of returning to his interesting 
sphere of labour, but was sent to Southern Africa, and Mr. Wharton 
was appointed for Kumase. 

On the 10"' November, another little band of missionaries — Mr. 
and Mrs. Allen with Messrs. George Findley and Edward Addison 
and Mrs. Brooking embarked and landed at Cape Coast on the 
3Qtii December. But unfortunately Mr. Brooking had been com- 
pelled to leave the coast on account of ill health, so that the hus- 
band and wife missed each other on the passage. After a residence 
of only two months and ten days Mr. George Findley died, March 10, 
1846, at Cape Coast town. Mr. and Mrs. Annear were compelled to 
leave the coast for England. In Januarj^ 1847 the Gold Coast 
Mission received a re-inforcement by the arrival of Messrs. .lohn 
Thomas, John Harrop, and Charles Hillard. On the 15**' January 
1848 Mr. and Mrs. Allen and John Martin were called to leave their 
interesting spheres of usefulness at Cape Coast, through failure of 
health. Mr. Martin had laboured more than four years, and Mr. Allen 
upwards of six years. Mr. Frederick Hart arrived at Cape Coast 
in March, but two excellent labourers, Messrs. Addison and Thomas, 
and also Mr. Harrop, were obliged to leave their spheres of labour. 



Chapter XIX. 241 

The fornier was an infimate inissioiiary brother to Mr. Schiedt of 
the Basel Mission. It was very delightful indeed to sec these two 
heralds of the cross working in harmony for the common cause of 
Christ, the former at James Town, the latter at Chrislianshorg. 

At the district meeting of 1850, Messrs. G. P. IJrowii, Joseph 
Dawson, Timothy Taing, and .1. (), Ansa were received Ity the 
committee and recommended to the English conference of 1851 as 
assistant missionaries on trial. The report of the Wesleyan Mission 
for the year ending April 1850 was as follows: 

The district, then called (Jape Coast district, consisted of the 
following circuits: Cape Coast, Anomal)0, Dominase, IJritisli Akra, 
Kumase, and Badagry. The following were the statistics for the 
jteriod: (5 missionaries, 10 chapels and preaching-houses, 857 mem- 
liers, 946 scholars. The stations were as follows: In the Cap(! Coast 
circuit: Cape Coast, Dixcove, Sekundi (Saknnne), Beulah, Providence, 
Elmina, Abrobonko, Ekroful, Abakrampa, Dunkwa and Abaka. In 
the Anomabo circuit: Anomabo, Edwumako, Abasa and Asafa. In 
the Dominase circuit: Dominase, Donase, Abuadze and Ayeredu. 
In the Akra circuit: British Akra, Winneba, Prampram and 
Ningo. In the Badagry circuit: Badagry and Abeokuta. Mr. 
Freeman was still the General Superintendent of the mission. F]very 
effort was made by him to let civilization go hand in hand with 
evangelization in the country. For tlie purpose of giving industrial 
training, a large garden was established at Beulah, which cost the 
Home Committee a great outlay annuallj'. In his report about this 
branch of missionary labour in the year 1850, he remarks: The 
scholars in the industrial garden behave well, and are, many of 
them, of great promise. They present quite a new feature connected 
with the civilization of this country. The circumstances of a lad being- 
able to read the scriptures, and at the same time able and willing 
to use with a practised hand the bill-hook, axe, and spade, and 
jterform a fair day's work, is one which will tell above all others 
on the masses of the people in the great work of civilization. 

From the year 1852 Methodism began to progress by rapid 
strides. Prior to this period, advance was rather slow, owing to 
the great barriers of paganism Ijdng in its way. But the circum- 
stances which happened in this year, in connection with the great 
fetish at Mankesim, resulting in exposure of fetish tricks, almost 
shattered tiie strongholds of [»aganism to their very foundations. 
(See Cruickshank's work, volume II chapter XI for details; also 

16 



242 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

extract from a letter of Mr. Freeman to Mr. Cruickshank appended 
to that volume.) 

The words of the superintendent of the Anomabo circuit at that 
time embodied in his report to the general superintendent throw 
light on the general aspect of the mission during the period among 
the Fante tribes. ''Great is the bloodless triumph which Christian- 
ity has achieved over idolatry in titis country in consequence of 
the recent exposure of the tricks connected with the worship of 
fetish. The confidence of the people here and in the neighbourhood 
has been very much shaken. The national gods of the Fantes, 
Nanamu, are now forsaken, and no one goes to their groves to 
consult them now. Tliis could never liave been accomplished by 
any human power, but the preaching of Christ crucified. The present 
state of the people is, that they now stand halting between two 
opinions. Our energies are therefore required to win them for 
Christ... In Asafa paganism stands tottering, and there are hopes 
of its downfall in some future day, and making way for the tri- 
umphant wheels of the gospel chariot."' 

The following statistics of 185o, the year immediately following 
that in which the great Fante fetish fell, wdll give an idea of the 
rapid manner the work of evangelization had prospered after the 
occurrences above referred to. The number of members, which 
was 857 just three years ago, ran up to 1124; scholars 1242, mis- 
sionaries 9, chapels lo, preaching-houses IH. 

The success of missionary work, however, was at this time being 
confined only to the coast. There had been no such revolutions 
for good, respecting fetish worship, in Asante, as had taken place 
on the coast. And even the few whose hearts were inclined to 
receive the gospel could not come forward for fear of their despotic 
king, who would surely have them butchered, should they depart 
from that religion (fetishism) to whicli himself was devoted. The 
Rev. T. Laing who was residing in Kumase in the year 18.53 says 
in his report: 

"The state of the work of God in Asante is rather discouraging 
at present, from the circumstance of the people being afraid to 
expose themselves to the ire of the king, whose frown is indeed 
death for people becoming christians. Many of the Asantes are 
wishful to embrace Christianity, but they are afraid to come for- 
ward. The Asantes are not free people, they are fast bound in the 
chains of despotism, so nuich so, that no one dares to do what he 



Chapter XIX. 243 

fliiuks proiier in his eyes, how good soever the lliiiig may be. Tliey 
alwa,ys do whatever the i^ing sanctions, whether good or bad, so 
that, the king himself being a pagan still, they all remain pagans 
still.'' ' - 

About this time hostilities took place between the protected terri- 
tories and Asante. The missionary, Rev. T. Laing, was shut up from 
all communications with the coast till the restoration of peace. He 
then was relieved b3'' a catechist, Mr. Watts, the last of the society's 
servants in that hot-bed of cruel superstitions. This devoted man 
plodded on this uncongenial soil up to tlie war of 1863. Like his 
predecessor, he also was a prisoner at large for years till peace 
Avas made and he was removed. Since that time no footing has 
been gained by the mission in Kumase. All attempts at re-estab- 
lishment were frustrated by the machinations of the wily despots, 
till the capture of Kumase in 1874, when the mission was again 
introduced into Adanse, Bekwae, and other chief towns, only to 
collapse after a few years' working, by the internal wars of the 
various tribes. To-day the thousands of Asante still grope in heathen 
darkness, still rejecting the healing beams of gospel light. 

In Cape Coast a boarding department was opened, to which 
children from the various stations were drafted for training; the 
girls were placed under Miss Elizabeth Waldron according to an 
agreement between her and the mission. This very needful de- 
partment was given up in the year 1853. 

The staff of native ministers was being gradually increased. In 18.52 
Mr. .lames A. Solomon was recommended to the English conference 
as assistant missionary on probation, and in 1853 Edward .lonah 
Fynn and Edward Bickersteth were also recommended. The con- 
dition of the mission was one of steady progress from 1853. In 
1856, the statistics showed 12 missionaries and assistant mission- 
aries, 20 chapels, 16 preaching houses, 20.53 members, 1439 scholars 
and 7420 attendants at public worship. Messrs. William C. Fynn? 
.John Plange, Henry F. Morgue, and Peter W. Bernasko were added 
to the staff of native ministers during the year. Within the same 
year a deputation from the Home Committee, the Rev. Daniel West, 
arrived for the purpose of inquiring into the financial condition of 
the district, accompanied by the Rev. William West who was to 
supersede Mr. Freeman as General Superintendent. At the district 
meeting held on .January 14^'>, 1857, Mr. Daniel West presided. 
During the short interval between the date of his landing and the 

16* 



344 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

time of the holding- of the district meeting-, he had by his kindness 
and fidelity won tlie sympathy of all the brethren in the district 
as well as the people generally. The following- is the testimony 
of the brethren concerning- this godly man at the close of the 
district meeting. ''The brethren cannot allow themselves to sepa- 
rate withont recording their thanks to the committee for appointing 
a deputation to visit their district to inquire into the spiritual and 
financial state, and at the same time expressing- their high sense 
of the qualifications of the Rev. Daniel West for the discharge of 
the duties of his important appointment. The kindness, faithfulness 
and ability which have characterised Mr. West's intercourse with 
the brethren both in j>ublic and private, have produced on their 
minds the most favourable impression, and the recollections of his 
visit, so far as he may have been personally concerned, will ever 
be of the most pleasing- kind.'" 

Mr. W. West became the chairman and General Superintendent 
from this year instead of Mr. Freeman who voluntarily retired. In 
the mysterious providence of the Almighty the beloved man. Rev. 
Daniel West, who was expected to set the work on the Gold Coast 
in a better light before the Wesleyan public in England, and thereby 
elicit more sympathy and support, died at Gambia on his way 
homewards. At the district meeting this year the name of Frederick 
France was added to the list of native missionaries. 

The Home Committee had desired the European missionaries to 
acquire a knowledge of the native languages; but owing to their 
short turn of service on account of the climate, all attempts on their 
part to do so had proved fruitless. In 1858 the committee through 
Dr. Hoole wrote to the chairman of the district, recommending the ne- 
cessity of translating the Scriptures into the vernacular. The following 
is the recorded reply of the district committee: "The brethren are 
fully alive to the necessity of a translation of the Scriptures into 
the Fante language; but as the missionaries of the Basel society 
have in hand such a translation into the Otyi language, the breth- 
ren are of opinion that the day is not far distant when they 
shall be able to avail themselves of the aid thus afforded, by making 
the necessary alteration to meet their case. The translation of a 
portion of the gospel of St. Matthew by brother Laing having been 
given into the hands of Mr. Hart on his leaving the district and 
Mr. Laing not having retained a copy of the same, the brethren 
are not in circimistances to form an opinion on the merits ot the 



Chapter XIX. 245 

same or of the success likely to attend his undertakiiig- in such a 
\york. So far as we are able to ascertain the number of those 
who speak Faute by a reference to the poll-tax returns, it is about 
500,000; the number calling tlieniselves Christians must be about 
10,000; and possibly Ys <^>' these may be capable of reading English. 
At pi-esent the use of the Faiite Scriptures woidd be very limited, 
but in the event of our adoiitiiig the plan of teaching in the native 
language in our schools in the interior, their use would be very 
greatly incieased." 

The above remarks explain why the work of translating the 
Scriptures into Fante was not taken up in time. It was, however, 
a great mistake. Had our missionaries fully recognised the import- 
ance of native literature, and encouraged such of the native min- 
isters as wore competent, Mr. Laing for instance, to undertake the 
work of translation, our Mission would have been more progress- 
ive, our converts more intelligent, and gospel truths much more 
diffused amongst the nuisses. Latterly this mistake was seen and 
efforts put forth to meet the want, but though something has been 
done, we are still left far behind in this very important and in- 
dispensable department of our work by this fundamental error.*) 

^Ir. William West returned to England on a furlough in 18b0; 
and during his absence tlie oflice of the chairman was filled by 
the Rev. Henry Wharton. During the three following years the 
following missionaries arrived on the Coast: Messrs. Agur B.Gardiner, 
Alfred Taylor, George Davis and Christopher B. Sj'kes. These were 
immediately followed by Messrs. H. H. lliclimond, .Tames Cuthbert 
and George Robinson. Mr. West returned to the chairmanship 
with the three latter gentlemen, and was presiding at the district 
meeting held in January 14^'', 18(54. 

Statistical Returns of the Wesleyan Methodists for 1890. 

The Gold Cost district is divided into two sections : Cape Coast 
section and Akra section, with 7 circuits, viz., Cape Coast, Anomabo, 
Abora, Elmina, **) Winneba, Akra and Aburi. 



*) Although it is an error, we hope it would be easily remedied, if 
our brethren of the Wesleyan Mission body, both Europeans and Na- 
tives, would be willing- to meet the Basel i\Iission body for the purpose 
of effecting some alterations in our Tshi Bible to meet the common 
object of both Missions. — R. 

**)' A Roman Catholic Mission, of the African Missions of Lyons, has 
been established at Elmina. — Chr. 



246 History of the Gold Coast and Asaiite. 

Chapels, 60 '^ other preaching places, 224; European missionaries, 4; 
native ministers, 18; assistant missionaries, 22; catechists, 45; day-school 
teachers, 53; sabbath-school teachers, 170; local preachers, 319; full 
and accredited church members, 5,812 ; on trial members, 486 ; sabltath- 
schools, 34; sabbath- scholars, 2,908; day-schools, 35; day-scholars, 1,710; 
attendants on public worship, 18,216. 

A Wesleyan mission exists also at Little Popo, the place to which the 
Akras repeatedly took refuge. In 1894 there was one (German) mis- 
sionary with about 200 church members in 3 places, and about 200 scholars. 

A brief history of the Bremen Evangelical Mission 

on the Gold Coast, or rather, in the countries east of the Volta, 

adjuining the Gold Coast. 

The North German Missionary Society was founded in Hamburg in 
the year 1836, and the first missionaries of this society were sent out 
to the East Indies and New Zealand. On the 5'^' of May 1847, these 
four missionaries, viz , Messrs. L. AVolf, L. Hultmann, Jens Graff" and 
Ch. Flato, landed at Cape Coast, with the view of selecting a suitable 
region on the West Coast for the operation of their missionary society. 
The Wesleyan missionaries then at Cape Coast very cordially received 
them ; and shortly after their arrival, they received orders from their 
committee to begin the missionary work at Gaboon. 

Mr. Wolf and Mr. Bultmann then embarked for Gaboon, leaving the 
other two missionaries behind them. Very unfortunately both mission- 
aries were attacked with fever during their voyage. Mr. Wolf recovered, 
but Mr. liultniann died on the 5"' of June in King Glass Town in 
Gaboon ; so Mr. Wolf was left alone. He went on, however, fearlessly 
seeking a region for missionary work. He might have succeeded iu 
settling at (raboon, had not the French cominandaut driven him from 
the place by force. Mr. Wolf consequently returned to Cape Coast, where 
lie met Mr. .J. Graft" alone; because Mr. Flato had also been removed by 
death on the 14"' of June. 

The two surviving Hamburg missionaries therefore left Cape Coast for 
Christiansborg, and were joyfully welcomed by the Basel missionaries 
and the then Danish governor Mr. Schmidt. They were lodged iu tiie 
Basel Mission House, very kindly treated by their missionary l)rethren, 
and waited for an opportunity to start their mission. During their stay 
iu Christiansborg Mr. Wolf and Mr Graff" assisted occasionally in school- 
work and in preaching. And fortunately, one of the mission house 
schoolboys, Nyafikomago, the son of the king of Peki, told the mission- 



Chapter XIX. 247 

aries that his fatlier Kwadsho Dei would be very glad to receive the 
white teachers in his country. Thus the luud of Krepe (as the Eu- 
ropeans then called the country of the Ephe speaking people) was chosen 
for their mission work. Mr. Wolf then left for Peki, and was joyfully 
welcomed by the king and his people. He got a piece of land from 
the king and began at once to build a house for himself. But when 
jn-oposing of coming down to Akra to fetch Mr. Graff, he received the 
sad news, that he also had died on the 1 1*^» November 1847. Thus 
from the 5"' May to 11*'> November 1847, within 6 months, three mission- 
aries had been called to their eternal rest! 

Mr. Wolf had again to stand alone in the Krepe land, as once in the 
(Jaboon, and that moreover with no connection with the coast excei)t 
by the Basel missionaries. Yet he went on with his work in Christian 
fortitude without fear. The pity then was that he did not understand 
the language and was at the mercy of bis interpreter, who very ofteu' 
deceived him. He wrote to Hamburg for a re-inforcement of the mission,, 
but had to wait a long time before ]\Ir. Groth and Mr. Quinius arrived 
at Akra in February 1849; and in March the following year Mr. Wolf 
got his partner Mrs. Wolf at a time when his health was broken and 
he was suffering from an attack of drojjsy. In January 1851 not only 
]\Ir. and Mrs. Wolf were forced to leave this important sphere of labour, 
but also Mr. Groth and Mr. Quinius left for Europe in consequence of 
broken health. In the harbour of Hamburg, Mr. Wolf breathed his last 
to be for ever with his Lord. Thus ended the first period of the North 
(Jerman Mission in Western Africa. 

In the year 1850 — 1851, the missionary society was translocated from 
Hamburg to Bremen. From that time an arrangement was made between 
the two committees of Basel and Bremen, that the former undertook 
voluntarily to supply the latter with missionaries tor the field. The 
first two mis.sionaries from Basel were Mr. W. Diluble and Mr. J. Menge; 
these accompanied Mr. and Mrs. Quinius to Peki in 1851. l>ut on 
April 23, Mr. Menge died. Mr. Dauble, being convinced that the mission 
ought to start from the coast, wrote several letters to the committee 
about it, but they did not approve it. Mrs. Quinius falling sick, Mr. 
Quinius was compelled to leave Peki for Christiansborg for a change, 
and as no improvement ensued, they were forced to leave for Europe. 
Mr. Dauble had to wait at Christiansborg for a re-inforcement of the 
missi(m, when in January 1853 Mr. Plessing and Mr. Brutschin arrived. 
His first ([uestion to the new missionaries was, "Where shall we go ? 
Where shall we begin now?'' Their reply was, "to Peki again!" This 



•J48 History of the C4ol(l Coast and Asante. 

was very hard for Mr. I)iiiil)le, who was fully convinced that the mission 
ought to start from the coast. However, in obedience of faith, he brought 
his Itrethren to Peki. All the buildings of the late Mr. Wolf were in 
ruins; the roofs had been eaten up by the white ants, and so rain de- 
molished every thing. New Iniildings were erected, and with joy they 
began their difficult work, which now showed signs of progress. fSchools 
were opened, and the preaching of the glorious (iospel was listened to 
by the people. 

But then suddenly, they received intelligence from the IJasel mission- 
aries at Akra, to quit their })romising sphere for Akra as hastily as 
possible, because the Akw^amus, old enemies of the Krepe people, had 
invited the Asantes to invade the land. 'I'hey accordingly came to 
( Jhristiansborg, reported the state of things to their committee, asked 
whether they might be allow^ed to start their mission at Keta, and a- 
waited their reply. The Committee agreed to their request, and on 
September o, 1853, Mr. Plessing and Mr. Diiuble went to Keta and began 
the mission. In 1856 tlie station of Waya was founded among the 
Adaklu tribe: in 1857 Anyako was the next station, l)Ut being unhealthy, 
a new settlement. Ho, was in 1859 taken up as the })rincipal station in 
the Krepe land. In 1869 tlie tiourishing Ho station was destroyed by 
the Asantes, but was rebuilt in 1876. The Bremen missionary work, 
after 34 years' labour, assnmed a joyful aspect and conld show marked 
progress in 1881. 

Ho in the Krepe land had 6 out-stations, including Waya, and Keta 
on the coast had 4, including Anyako. In 1890 a healthy mountain- 
station, 2300' above the sea, was built at Amedjophe. On Dec. 31, 1893, 
the 3 stations had 20 out-stations, 20 schools, 1247 church members, 
591 scholars. The Gospel had been preached in 1893 at 313 places. 
The number of missionaries in Oct. 1894 was 18, ladies 10 (including 
8 deaconesses), native assistants 37. Tlie loss which the Bremen mission has 
sustained from 1847 up to 1894 is, 63 missionaries and missionary wives. 

Whilst Keta and the Anglo tribe were deemed subject to the Danes 
and since 1850 to" the English, the various Ephe tribes in the interior 
were independent. But in October 1886, many of them placed them- 
selves under the protection of the English, as other tribes had accepted 
the German tiag. By the treaties of 1890 between England and Germany 
concerning their possessions and spheres of influence in several parts of 
Africa, only some parts of the Ephe speaking tribes remained under the 
English, and the greater part are under the Germans. I'he Keta station 
with 4 out-stations and 277 Christians and 5 out-stations of Ho (especially 
those of Peki) with 474 Christians are in the English territory. Ho 
station with 6 out-stations and 289 Christians, Amedjophe with 4 out- 



Cliapter XIX. 249 

stations and 171 Christians and 1 out-station of Keta, Tove (with Denu 
and Lome), with 36 (Jhristians are in the German territory. 

lumian Catholic missions also were established at Keta in the English 
territory and (in 1892) at Little Popo (Adjido), Lome and Togo, with 
(5 priests and 8 lay-hrethren in 1894, 185 scholars and 130 adults, 

Tlio Church of England, which now comes last, was rather con- 
temporary with the Moravians; she began her work on the (rold 
Coast in the year ITol, The Kcv, Thomas Thompson, as already 
remarked, was sent out by a section of the Church known as the 
Society for the Propagation of tlie Gospel. The missionaries sent 
out attempted the evang-elization of the people, but the severity of 
the climate and the number of deaths among them, caused them 
to cease from their work for a time. It was through Mr. Thompson 
that Philip Kwaku was trained up, ordained and sent out in 1765. 
He laboured as chaplain till 1816, after which no permanent work 
was established. Yet these short-timed efforts at diderent dates 
left some seeds in good soil for future growth, and the self-sacri- 
licing heroes of the Gospel left their foot-prints behind for others 
to find them after they had become victims to the terrible eftects 
of the climate, as we have seen in the introduction of the history 
of the Wesleyans. 

It was in 1879 that the Right Reverend Dr. Cheetham, Bishop 
of the diocese of Sierra-Leone, in which the Gold Coast is included^ 
visited Akra. On his arrival, a number of leading natives, as, 
Messrs. J. O. Brown, Alex. Bruce, Thos. F. Bruce, Ph. ('. Reindorf, 
John and Isaac Vanderpuye and others, waited on him, and pointed 
out the need of the establishment of the Church of England here. 

Soon after this meeting, a young native clergyman. Reverend 
W, .Johnson, was sent out here, who laboured zealously and earnestly 
for over three years. Illness caused him to resign his office and 
return to Sierra-Leone, where his remains w^ere laid in his owii 
native home and soil. After a short Interval, during which the 
native members endeavoured by their service to keep the tlame of 
spiritual life alive and the embers of the altar from dying out, 
another native missionary of Sierra-Leone, Rev. F. W. Smart, came 
to take up the work and gave his supjtort for about one year. 

Some time after this, Dr. Ingham, the present Bishop of Sierra- 
Leone, visited Akra, and with the help of the governor of the col- 
ony, Sir W. Brandford Grilfith, a new plan for the reconstruction 
of the church of England Brancli in Akra was discussed and settled. 



250 History of the Gold Coast nnd Asaiite. 

SO tliat the clmrch was placed on a more selt-sapportiug- basis. 
The Rev. D. ir. \Viinaiiis, a native of Sierra-Leone, was licensed 
by the Bishop to the charge of it in 188G. Since that time stated 
services have been held in the District Commissioner's Court at 
Akra and at Christiansborg- Castle on Sundays. In 1888 a change 
took place again, which caused an extension of this good work in 
the colony, and gave it a still more solid foundation. A colonial 
chaplain. Rev. Maxwell, a native of Sierra-Leone, had been oftici- 
ating at Cape Coast in a church which had been built there between 
the years 1861 and 1863 by the war officers" and by private sub- 
scriptions. His retirement at this time was the means of transferring- 
the Rev. D, (1. Williams from Akra to Cape Coast as assistant 
chaplain and of bringing out a European, Rev. .John H. Davies, M. A., 
as colonial chaplain of the (jold Coast, whose residence should be 
at iVkra. This has been the means of conducting- earnest and sub- 
stantial work in Akra and Cape Coast, of extending the work by 
sowing the seed broadcast, by Gosj)el preachings and by good works 
of various kind, and especially by constant daily work among tlie 
surrounding heathen. The colony is large and teeming with souls. 
The missions already at work invite the aid of others to help them; 
and although Akra and Cape Coast are the only places where Church 
work is carried on, still by God's help, we trust that from these 
places labourers will go forth. 

Statistics of the Anglican Church, Akra: communicants 6U; suiiday- 
scholars 100; attendants on })ublic worship 400. — Cape Coast: com- 
municants 30; sunda^'-scholars 3.30; attendants on public worshi[i 450. 

May the Lord, the head of His church, pour out more of His 
spirit on all the labourers engaged in the missions of all the de- 
nominations who are toiling for the salvation of the Gold Coast people! 
We call on all who are benefited, spiritually and temporally, by 
these missions, to su^iport them by their godly lives as well as by 
their money. An object which all the missions are aiming at, is, 
that their congregations may become self-supporting. And we call 
particularly on tlie members and scholars of the Basel Mission to 
do more than what the}^ have done hitherto: because for the pur- 
pose of getting a self-supporting church, our mission established 
the industrial departments. 

And casting a glance at the vigorously carrying on of the missions 
still, after so many sacrifices of valuable lives, we Mud the excellent 
hymn of Bishop Heber thereby verih'ed : 



Chapter XX. 251 

Can we, whose souls are lighted with wisdom from on hi;^h, 
Can we to meu beuighted the lamp of life deny? — 
Salvation! O salvation! The joyful sound proclaim, 
Till each remotest nation has learnt ^[essiah's name. 



CHAPTER XX. 

The expedition under Chief Aukra to Bame 1829. 

Elated l)y the late victories over the Asaiites, tlie Akras could 
easily manage to organize an expedition to foreign countries, as 
they were reported to have done in former times. They were fully 
convinced that their enemies would bow to their military prowes.s. 

Previous to the expedition there was in Otu Street in Dutch Akra 
a petty dealer called Dodu Knnui, who employed Akomea Kwame 
of the same place as a load-carrier to Peki, capital of Krepe. Some 
of his goods were sold at Ahodome, but finding no sutiticient hands 
to convey all the cowries to Peki, he was obliged to leave some 
heads in charge of his landlord Edufy. Akomea Kwame was sent 
to bring the cowries over, which were, of course, delivered to him 
by the landlord: but on his way up to Peki, just reaching the top 
of Tshibu hill, he was overtaken by Edufo with his friend Duduvg. 
They all on a sudden fell upon Akomea, snatched the load from 
his hands, murdered him barbarously, and hid his body under a 
rock. For two days Akomea did not return home, hence Dodu 
despatched messengers to Ahodome to ask after him. Edufo tohl 
the messengers that he had three days before delivered up the 
cowries to Akomea and that he had returned. 

When the two murderers Eldufo and Duduvo were sharing the 
ill-gotten booty, a quarrel broke out between them. Prince Ado 
Kwadwo of Akwamn happened to be in town that day. He heard 
of the matter and informed his father Akoto what a hideous murder 
had been committed at Ahodome. The king thereupon sent his 
son Ado with linguist Gyensanom and a detachment of 10() men 
to Ahodome to require the chief Ado Kokroko of the place tu 
search for the murderers. With the assistance of Adsheshi, an 
intluential man of the place, the murderers were found out, arrested 
by the chief, and sent to Akwamn. They were judged and con- 



252 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

demiied by the king, delivered up to Kwadwo Ntsherema, and sent 
to Akra with the body of the deceased. Sentenced to death by 
king- Taki, they w.ere beheaded by the executioners Ashong Nketia 
and Kwaku Mensa. The linguist Gyensanoni and his party, who 
escorted the criminals, were sent back to Akwaniu with thanks, 

A few months after the execution of the murderers, a dispute 
arose between two towns in Krepe about an elephant killed. A 
hunter by the name Akwabina Dadshavva of Adshokoi met an 
elephant in the bush, but could not shoot him; so the animal es- 
caped towards Ahodome. A few minutes later he heard the firing 
of a musket in that direction. He soon after saw the same animal 
retreating to the old place, and shot him down. 

The hunter who had fired first, and who was from Ahodome, 
came now to the spot and contended that he had been the one 
who killed the animal. But after a short time their friends appeared 
from both towns and shared the flesh. The Adshokois claimed the 
head tor Akoto, king of Akwamu, whilst the people from Ahodome 
claimed it for Adsheshi. The quarrel was finally settled by each 
party obtaining a tusk. The Adshokois, discontented, reported at 
the next town, Kpalime-brofbng, that one of them had killed an 
elei»hant with the intention to present the ivory to Akoto, but had 
been deprived of one tusk l;)y a party from Ahodome, who had 
sworn to present it to Adsheshi instead of the king. The inhabitants 
suddenly rushed upon the Ahodomes, carried off their tusk, and 
then sent both to the king. They reported every thing connected 
with the ivory to the king, who upon inquiry found that tlie animal 
was not killed in the bush of Ahodoijie, despatched messengers to 
congratulate the Adshokois, and assured them that he was ready 
to fight the Ahodomes in case they dared to molest them. Adsheshi 
was in the meanwhile informed of what had happened, and im- 
mediately resorted to arms. Witli the assistance of the people of 
Kpalime he attacked Adshokoi and slew or captured great numbers. 
The king's messengers reached Adshokoi too late, however he was 
informed in time of the attack, and forthwith marched against the 
Ahodomes, when he blockaded the way to Boso. The following 
towns confederated against the king: Tshito, Onyerewase, Kwanta, 
Avengu, Patakrowase, Tshibu, Nketieso, Adame and Agome; their 
principal chiefs were. Ado Horoko (Kokroko) of Ahodome, Adsheshi, 
and Adabo of Tshito. The next morning at 6 o'clock, Akoto des- 
patched messengers to summon chief Dra and his captains Awukupo, 



Chapter XX. 253 

Nyame Dadshawa, and Kofi Akrashi of Kpaliine to meet liiiii, and 
request the Akra traders in town to pack up their goods to avoid 
being plundered by the warriors. 

Akwabina Dunu of Kpalime, having set out with his wife for 
Hoso, was so unfortunate as to fall into their hands. He was be- 
headed and his head thrown into the town. The iidiabitants being- 
thus incited, the attack there and then began. It was most fearful! 
The Kpalime people were compelled to retreat; their town was 
captured, but no one touched anything belonging to the Akras. 
They retreated through Agodome to Kpalime-brotong, hence the 
king retired to camp at Kpalime. Adsheshi had hired a large army 
from Several towns to assist him against Akoto, and with them he 
attacked the king very hotly, but was driven back with loss to 
Bame; and there the king encamped. Having been re-inforced by 
a larger number of the Krepes, the Ahodomes repeated the attack 
on the following morning, which forced the king to march back to 
Kpalime, where he could neither retreat further to Akwamu, nor 
take the held against so numerous and powerful an army. 

While Akoto was thus so perplexed as how to carry on the war 
with success against the Krepes, Adsheshi was very actively en- 
gaged in re-inforcing his army daily by other Krepe tribes. He got 
a large army from Avatime, Angula, etc., and could have succeeded 
in obtaining the whole Krepe forces, if Kwadsho Dei, the Krepe 
king, who was then in alliance with Akoto, could have been in- 
duced to withdraw from his allegiance. That would have certainly 
put an end to the Akwamus already at that time. 

Now there was an Akra linguist A were Boi in camp with Akoto, 
who advised him to ask the assistance of the Akras. He said, 
''You have recently joined the Akras against Asante, and being 
now in trouble, I iam quite certain, my people could consent to 
render you assistance, if you would only send me first to the king, 
to prepare the way for your success." A were Boi was commis- 
sioned to Akra, and being a linguist, he knew how to manage to 
obtain their consent. He went back to Akoto who was still in 
camp, and captain Aforo was then commissioned to Akra with 
12 slaves and some money, as presents to king Taki and his chiefs. 
The message was thus delivered, "Since Akoto returned from Kata- 
mansu, his Krepe subjects had become. unruly, and were trying to 
throw otf their allegiance to him. The king therefore commissioned 
me to crave the assistance of king Taki and the Akras." 



254 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

King- Taki called a meeting of all his great chief's, such as Akwete 
Krgbo Saki, Akotia Owosika, Dodu Nyang, Ahuma, Dgwuona, etc., 
and they unanimously appointed chief Ankra of Dutch Town as 
commander-in-chief, and authorized him to organize an army in 
defence of Akoto. A Portuguese slaver being- in the roads at that 
time, chief Ankra arranged -w'ith the captain, and obtained a large 
amount of goods, arms and ammunition, on credit, payable back 
in prisoners after the expedition. He notified the public that he 
was appointed Ity the king to organize an army in defence of king 
Akoto, and that whoever wished to join the expedition might come 
forward for any amount of goods ^on credit payable in prisoners 
after the campaign. Thus chief Ankra succeeded in organizing an 
army. Detachments of warriors from James Town to Ada, the 
River-side-people, Shai, Osudoku and Krobo were appointed by 
every chief to join the expedition. Chief Kwafum of Aburi, with 
a large numbei" of the Akuapems, and chief Awua of Begoro in 
Akem with about 600 men also got arms and ammunition and 
joined. The Krgbos alone absented themselves, although they were 
supplied with arms and ammunition when they came for them. 

In the first week of .luly lf-29 chief Ankra started from Akra 
with an arm}^ of 1.5,000 men, and with three iron one-pounder 
field-pieces, which were fired ever}^ morning and evening during 
their march to frighten the enemy. At Asutshuare the army was 
by order of Akoto who had sent two of his captains, ferried over Ofo 
and Oketeku, and the linguist Kwa to escort the army to camp. 
They stayed one week in Akwamu and then marched through 
Anum and Boso, where the respective chiefs, Kumi and Kwadsho 
Nyako, grandly entertained them. They proceeded to Kpalime. 
Here they met with a grand reception; a salute was fired b}'^ the 
whole army, and chief Ankra swore in assurance to Akoto that he 
had been commissioned by king Taki to extricate him from any 
embarrassment. A three days merriment was kept by all, and 
after a week's stay in camp, the whole arm}' was ordered to march 
on one Tuesday to encamp at Bame. On crossing the rivulet Ame- 
mere, the army was attacked by the Krepes, who could not keep 
their position and were forced to give way. Not knowing that the 
rivulet had been poisoned by the enemy, two Akem warriors fell 
dead on the spot from having drunk the water. Putting fire to 
Kpalime-brofong, the army encamped there as night was coming 
on. The march was not resumed in consequence of rain, till 



Chapter XX. 255 

Saturday next, when a second attack was made, but was repulsed 
with loss; they then encamped at Bame. On Monday next Akoto 
despatched messengers to inform the inhabitants of Tokokoi, Have, 
Nyangmo, Amfoi, Avatime etc., that he had returned, and wished 
to know whether they were for war or for peace? Ambassadors 
with white flags^ pieces of fire-wood (signifying- submission to servi- 
tude), yams and plantains from each and all those [)eople aforesaid 
came to assure that they were for peace. But, alas, it was the 
known Krepe strategy; early the next morning they made a severe 
attack; but six of them were captured by the Akras, sold to Akoto 
^.nd slaughtered, as the owners did not choose to kill them. The 
army was again attacked, because the enemy could not engage 
openly. Enraged by these repeated attacks, the Akras pursued 
the enemy as far as Nketieso, and there the camp was fixed for 
three weeks, during which time several detachments of warriors 
were sent against the enemy's towns far and near. Prisoners and 
provisions were captured plentifully, and thereby the warriors ob- 
tained the necessaries of life daily. Nearly all the palm-trees in 
the country were felled to provide the army with wine. 

Chief Ado Horoko of Ahodome, moved by the deplorable condition 
oftheKrepes, despatched ambassadors to Ankra pleading his inno- 
cence in the war and desiring to know why Ankra, being an Akra, 
did not do Justice by first investigating the cause of the war; that 
the Krepes had grown tired of the whole aifair, and were longing 
for peace at the expense of Adsheshi, whom Ihcy had unanimously 
agreed to deliver up to Ankra, to purchase peace. The unfortunate 
Adsheshi was not aware of what was going on against him. The 
camp was therefore removed from Nketieso to Bame, where the 
Krepes were ordered to assemble. A very large and grand meeting 
was held on the plains of Bame, chief Atikra with the forces under 
him in one direction, king Akoto with his in the other, and all 
the Krepes who had engaged in the war, as well as the Ahodomes 
who had sheltered themselves in other countries and towns; men, 
women and children were all brought together in a very large mass. 
Chief Ankra thereupon required to know thereat cause of the war. 
The linguist Kwa was ordered by the king to present the whole 
thing in the hearing of the assembly. After him tlie linguist of 
Adsheshi stood up and began to defend his master of the charge 
made by Kwa. He was assaulted, the assembly moved and at 
once seized Adsheshi, who was beheaded. Men, women, and children 



256 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

of Aliodome, over 2000, were all plundered instantaneously. The 
Krepes, althoug-h well armed, did not show the least sign in defence 
of the unfortunate people, knowing already what was to take phice, 
consequently every one was cooled down by the beating of several 
drums of the army. When order and silence had been completely 
restored, the Krepes were asked, whether they had any objections 
to raise about that cruel, unjustifiable and mean act of theirs V — 
an act contrary to the law of nations herein violated in the highest 
degree! They were so coward as to reply in the negative, and 
thus the campaign was brought to an end. 

When the whole transaction was over, Akoto was trying to get 
possession of the head of Adsheshi, which Ankra positively opposed; 
the jawbone was, however, given to him; the skull was retained 
by Ankra as a trophy of the expedition. Most of the Krepes were 
inclined to throw off their allegiance to Akoto, and to enter into 
a new alliance with Akra; but Ankra objected to it, advised them 
to remain with their master on condition that Akoto should give 
up selling their children or offering them as sacrifices. 

The Akras were very anxious to return home, when everything 
had been finished; but Akoto desired them to wait for the grand 
yam custom, wMiich he intended to celebrate in camp. Before that 
took place, an incident happened there which nearly brought on a 
fight between the Akras and Akwamus. Some of the king's wives 
had bought several things from the Akras, who being very anxious 
to leave camp, set up demanding the wives very urgently. They 
even went into the women's quarters, where any man is on pain 
of death forbidden to enter. Hence they were beaten by the wo- 
men's guard, who in return received several blows with stones; a 
fight then issued. But Akoto was prudent enough to check it very 
soon, and brought order again in the camp. 

At last the grand yam feast came on, when Akoto very impru- 
dently, but only to revenge himself for the skull of Adsheshi denied to 
him, publicly revealed the old skull of the late king Okai Koi, 
which one of his ancestors had got possession of during the war 
with the Akras in 1G60. This foolish act of the king so irritated 
the Akras, that they marched off at once without taking friendly 
leave of the Akwamus and their king. In April 1830 the expedition 
reached home with an immense number of prisoners; several of 
them were presented by Ankra to all the chiefs and elders of every 
town that had sent a contingent to join the expedition. 



Chapter XXI. 257 

It was the intention of Aukra, as he had planned already at 
Banie, to march against the Krobos on his way home, to punish 
them for pertidionsly obtaining arms and ammunition, but not joining 
the expedition. He despatched two messengers, Messrs, Niezer and 
Otu, to warn them of it, and also informed king Taki of his in- 
tention to fight the Krobos before reaching home; but he was ad- 
vised to desist from doing so, as the Krobos, being Danish subjects, 
would only involve them into trouble with the Danish Government. 
The amount for arms and ammunition obtained by them was paid 
back to Ankra by the Danish Government. 

Chief Ado Horoko gave two of his own daughters as hostages 
to Ankra; both became his wives, and he got children by them. 



CHAPTER XXI. 

Peace made between Asante and the Protectorate, April 27, 1831. — 
The prisoners ransomed back to Asante. 

After the battle of Katamansu, the road to Asante was blockaded, 
and trade with them was entirely stopped. They greatly felt the 
want of salt, rum, tobacco, cloth, etc., yet they kept on without a 
good supply of these necessaries for one year; after which time 
they became compelled to ask for peace, but were unable to send 
ambassadors direct to the coast through fear of the Asens and 
Akems. Mr. Amisah, who seems to have been the Government 
native official detained in Kumase when the war broke out, was 
consulted concerning negotiations for peace. He seems to have 
advised the king to send him down to the coast to open commu- 
nication for them. On his return back to Kumase, Princess Akyiawa, 
one of the captives, and two Asens accompanied him. 

Several of the tributary states liad, after the defeat at Katamansu, 
kept aloof, trying to throw off allegiance to the king, and the roads 
were blockaded.'') Osei Yaw had gone to Aseremaso to ask for 
divination from the priestess Siawa Petegj'awa, the widow of 
Okomfo Anokye. The arrival of Akyiawa and Mr, Amisah to Kumase 



*) This state of things was chiefly brought about by the "Kosankobi", 
a bad usage of confiscating or plundering parties who did not join a 
campaign. 

17 



258 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

was announced to the king-, and he returned to the capital. A 
grand meeting was held for their reception and everything- arranged 
for the negotiation of peace. The two Asens who accompanied 
Mr. Amisah were so imprudent as to sing against the king, and he 
was obliged to kill them. 

On the pt September 1827 the king's messengers, viz., linguist 
Okwakwa, Amankwa Kuma, Kwantabisa, Kankam Kyekyere, Afa- 
aboo, princess Akyiawa, and Mr. Amisah arrived at Cape Coast to 
negotiate for peace, saying that the king of Asante found it was of 
no use fighting against white men and wished to make peace and 
be in future subservient to them. Envoys were sent from Cape 
Coast, and negotiations were entered into, a treaty was agreed 
upon, and drawn up in December 1827. Sir Neil Campbell was 
the governor at that time, and wished the allies and protected tribes 
to consent to terms of peace; but he found it impracticable to obtain 
their consent. It appears that, when those ambassadors were sent 
down to Akra, the kings and chiefs refused to accept their suing 
for peace, on the ground that the king of Asante should send one 
of his principal captains to represent him, with an indemnity, bo- 
fore a permanent peace could be made. The ambassadors had to 
return to Cape Coast, thence to Kumase. Princess Akyiawa, the 
royal prisoner of war, accompanied them. 

On their return the second time, Governor Maclean was holding 
the reins of the government. The two royal hostages, Kwantabisa, 
the king's son, about 10 years old, and Owusu Ansa, son of the 
late Bonsu, about 9 years old, with 600 ounces of gold, were de- 
livered by the king to Mr. Amisah, one of the envoys. He brought 
down the ambassadors, chief Okwakwa, Amankwa Kuma, Kwanta- 
bisa, Kankam Kyekyere, Afaaboo, princess Akyiawa, and the two 
princes with the 600 ounces of gold to Cape Coast. We are told 
that on the arrival of the ambassadors His Excellency Governor 
Maclean came down to Akra with them, and had first an interview 
with the chiefs of Akra. Notices had been previously served on 
the kings, chiefs and headmen who took part in the late battle, to 
come to Akra. 

Queen Dokuwa, Agyemang, Apaw, captain Ofo representing king 
Akoto, Ado Dankwa, etc. had arrived at Akra. It is related that 
an incident happened at Akra which almost brought a fight between 
the Akems and the ambassadors and their people, who had come 
together at Akra. But the governor immediately interfered and 



Chapter XXI 259 

stopped it. It is further related tliat the governor had to order out 
some men-of-war to the roads of Akra to keep down any further 
disturbances. The Akras were said not to favour at all the nego- 
tiation for peace; however, they were pacified by large presents 
given them privately by the influential native merchants. A very 
grand meeting was held before James Fort, and the following treaty 
may have been read to them or a new one was made, of which 
no trace could be had. We are quite certain of that, as no names 
of the kings of Akra, Akem, Akuapem, and Akwamu, especially 
of the three last, who were also subjects of the king of Asante, are 
appended to the treaty. 

Asante Treaty of Peace, April 27, 1831. 
"We, the undersigned, namely : The Governor of Cape Coast 
Castle and British Settlements, on the part of His Majesty, the King 
of England; the Princess Akyiawa, and the Chief Okwakwa on the 
part of the King of Asante; Ageri, King of Cape Coast; Adoko, 
King of E'ante; Amoenu, King of Anomabo; Tibo, King of Dankera; 
Owusu Oko, King of Tshuforo; Animiri, KingofWasa; Tibo Ku ma. 
King of Asen; the Chiefs of Adwuniako and Asikuma, and the 
other Chiefs in alliance with the King of Great Britain, whose 
names are hereimto appended — do consent to, and hereby ratify 
the following Treaty of Peace and of Free Commerce between our- 
selves and such other Chiefs as may hereafter adhere to it. 

1) The King of Asante having deposited in Cape Coast Castle, 
in the presence of the above mentioned parties, the sum of 600 
ounces of gold, and having delivered into the hands of the Governor 
two young men of the royal family of Asante, named Owusu Ansa 
and Owusu Kwantabisa, as securitj^ that he will keep peace with 
the said parties in all time coming, peace is hereby declared be- 
twixt the said king of Asante and all and each of the parties afore- 
said, to continue in all time coming. The above securities shall 
remain in Cape Coast for the space of 6 years from this date. 

2) In order to prevent all quarrels in future which might lead 
to the infraction of this Treaty of Peace, we, the parties aforesaid, 
iiave agreed to the following rules and regulations for the better 
protection of lawful commerce: 

The paths shall be perfectly open and free to all persons engaged 
in lawful trafiic; and persons molesting them in any way what- 
ever, or forcing them to purchase at any particular market, or in- 
lluencing them by any unfair means whatever, shall be declared 

17* 



260 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

guilty of infringing this treaty, and be liable to the severest pun- 
ishment. 

Panyarring, denouncing, and swearing, on or by any person or 
thing whatever, are hereby strictly forbidden, and all persons in- 
fringing this rule shall be rigorouslj^ punished; and no master or 
chief shall be answerable for the crimes of his servants, unless done 
by his orders or consent, or when under his control. 

As the King of Asante has renounced all right to any tribute or 
homage from the Kings of Dankera, A sen, and others formerly 
his subjects, so, on the other hand, these parties are strictly pro- 
hibited from insulting, by improper speaking, or in any other way, 
their former master; such conduct being calculated to produce 
quarrels and wars. 

All palavers are to be decided in the manner mentioned, in the 
terms and conditions of peace already agreed to by the parties to 
this treaty. 

Signed in the Great Hall of Cape Coast Castle, this 27*^' da,y of 
April, 1831, by the parties to this Treaty, and sealed with the great 
seal of the Colony in their i)resence 

(Signed) George Maclean, Governor. 

(Their marks) Akyiawa, Princes of Asante. Okwakwa, Chief 
of Asante. Ageri, King of Cape Coast. Adoko, King of Fante. 
Amoenu, King of Anomabo. Abuku, Chief of Akumfi. Otu, Chief 
of Abora. Tibo, King of Asen. Kwadwo Tibo, King of Dankera. 
Gyebi, Asen Chief. Owusu Oku, King of Tshuforo. Apollonia 
Chiefs. Akinie, Chief of Agya.'" 

A salute of twenty-one guns was fired at Cape Coast v\'hen the 
public proclamation of peace with Asante was made. 

After the grand meeting of all the kings and chiefs with Governor 
Maclean at Akra, we are told they assembled in the same manner 
at Christiansborg on the following day. Another grand meeting it 
was; especially as there were then a good number of the Danish 
Government officials in the castle, who had been commissioned by 
the king of Denmark on purpose to organize a large regular Native 
force. Bearing in mind that war with the Asantes could not be 
done away with by a single engagement as that took place at Kata- 
mansu. The native soldiers had since their arrival been redoubled 
in number, and well drilled, the infantry as well as the artillery, 
and with the destructive weapons known at that time. 

Sir N. Campbell had the same commission concerning a good 



WILLI AH H. BO YL 

Chapter XXI. 261 

preparation against the Asantes; but as they had been beaten at 
Katamansu before his arrival, the immense preparations could not 
be pot into use. — There were then in Christiansboro^ Castle, Go- 
vernor Hein, Magnusen as the Secretary and Treasurer; Brock, 
book-keeper, captain Biien, adjutant Ahrenstorff, Messrs. Meisner 
and 8chenon, artillery inspectors, and several others. The soldiers 
in their new uniforms paraded before the Castle of Christiansborg, 
to give reception to the Asante ambassadors and the kings and 
chiefs of the Protectorate. It was a very imposing sight to the 
Asantes. Another treaty was said to have been drawn and signed 
by princess Akyiawa of Asante, chief Okwakwa, Kwantabisa, Afa- 
boo and Mr. Amisah; then a salute of five guns (some say 21) was 
fired to ratify the treat}' of peace, and the ambassadors were dis- 
missed with large and rich presents. 

It is said that the Akras verbally added this to the treaty, that, 
if any Asante trader came to the coast with a wife, and any illegal 
intercourse happened between the wife and an Akra man, nine 
heads and thirty strings of cowries, equal to eight shillings now, 
was the damage to be paid by the offender, whilst on the contrary 
an Asante man who might be found guilty of such a crime must 
be sold into slavery. 

The next important thing to be done was, how to bring the re- 
deemed prisoners safe back to Kumase. Several of the prisoners 
were redeemed by the inlluential merchants on the coast, and to 
encourage the trade and friendship of the Asantes, they were sent 
back to the king free of charges. Among them were the following 
persons of the roj^al family: Aka Pusua, the king's wife; Akyiawa I, 
the princess who acted as ambassador in negotiating for peace; 
Kokowa, Boaten's wife; Akyiawa 11; Odorowa, Gyesi, with many 
others. To ensure their safety in passing through the Fante country, 
Mr. Richter played the following game. Kwadwo Tibo being the 
most influential king in the Fante country, Mr. Richter invited his 
mother, Aya Daukwa, to Christiansborg, to become a concubine of 
his. She ran down with all speed, and was allowed a house to live 
in and people to attend her. She imagined herself a friend of the 
old gentleman, while in reality she was kept there as security for 
the safety of the redeemed prisoners. 

Meanwhile the ambassadors arrived at Cape Coast with the cap- 
tives, who were escorted by 24 armed men of Mr. Richter, the 
renowned Pobi Asawa of Akra at their head. Governor Maclean, 



262 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

after having gone through with the negotiation for peace with the 
Danish Government and the kings and chiefs of Akra, Akuapeai, etc., 
summoned all the Fante kings and chiefs to Cape Coast Castle, 
on the arrival of the ambassadors with the ransomed captives. 
There were present Kwadwo Tibo, Tibo Kuma, Wasa Animiri, 
Kwame Basagyi, Boampong, and several others. But unfortunatelj^ 
an incident happened in Cape Coast, similar to the one which took 
place at Akra, only with some slight difference, here a quarrel 
only broke out between the Akems and the ambassadors, whilst 
at Cape Coast, stone and stick-light occurred between some Wasa 
chiefs. The Governor immediately checked the disturbance, and 
ordered that 100 lashes should be given to each of the chiefs who 
allowed their people to fight. Boampong, feeling it a very disgrace- 
ful thing for a chief to undergo, stole away behind a house at 
Cape Coast town, and cut his own throat. 

The Governor made the Fante kings and chiefs to understand 
that the Akras had given their full consent to the negotiation of 
peace, and then they signed the treaty of the 27*'^ April 1831 in 
the great Hall of Cape Coast Castle. It appears that the meeting- 
held by Governor Maclean with the kings and chiefs of Akra, 
Akuapem, Akem and Akwamu took place in the middle of June 
1831; that at Cape Coast was previous. 

After due preparations and with large presents from the Govern- 
ment and influential merchants of Fante, the ambassadors started 
from Cape Coast under escort of 24 soldiers from the castle, several 
Fante messengers and Pobi Asawa with his two dozen armed men 
of Mr. Richter, but the Governor did not sanction their carrying 
arms along v^ith the soldiers, therefore they gave them loads, and 
kept their arms in the castle until they should have returned from 
Praso and then to get possession of the same. An obstacle which 
came on their waj-- up to Praso at that time was, that an Asen 
man, Dankwa Tutu, had murdered one named Toku and conse- 
quently escaped into the bush of Asen which had made the road 
dangerous and unpassable. At Odraease the ambassadors and escort 
were detained for two weeks, for fear of Dankwa Tutu. The chiefs 
of Abora thereupon assembled at Nyankumase and swore to abide 
by the peace which had been made by the Government. King 
Otutu and his chiefs therefore appointed armed men, who escorted 
the whole body of men from the coast as far as to Manyamanso, 
the town of Gyebri, and thence they returned to their quarters. 



Chapter XXII. 263 

But the soldiers and Mr. Richter's men accompanied them to Praso, 
and returned to Cape Coast; the latter got their arms back from 
the governor and came home. Pobi Asawa vvitli the messengers 
from Cape Coast alone had the charge of the ambassadors and re- 
deemed prisoners to Kumase, and handed them to the king. Princess 
Akjiawa, on reaching Kumase, was said to have bought a slave 
whom she named: '^Nkrahfo ye mmoa, the Akras are fools", for 
sparing such a one as herself alive. Aya Dankwa was after all 
sent back with large presents to her country. 

The peace was kept for six years according to the treaty (others 
say, ten years), after which the 600 ounces of gold lodged in the 
castle of Cape Coast as security was sent back to king Kwaku Dua 
of Asante. The messengers who came for it were quite astonished 
not only that the amount was given back, but that it was in the 
same condition as given to the Government. — The two princes, 
Kwantabisa and Owusu Ansa, were sent to England, and received 
a good education under the idea, that they would one day become 
kings of Asante, but as sons and not nephews they got no claim 
on the stool of Asante. 



CHAPTER XXII. 

Agriculture with its implements in Adam's time. — Improvements in it 
by the Ancients. — How the former inhabitants on the Gold Coast 
acquired implements, and the fertility of the soil. Principal plants 
known before the ari'ival of Europeans. — New plants introduced and 
improvements made by Europeans. — Principal occupations of the in- 
habitants, and how not improved. — Different famines known in the 
country, provision and labour being dear. — Folly of the educated 
community in not following the example of tlie civilized ufitions. — 
What the Government should do to get the colony prosperous. 

We read in the Holy Scriptures that our first parent Adam, when 
created, was ordered by God to subsist on the fruits of the trees 
of the garden of Eden, with the injunction: "to dress it and to keep 
if, i.e. to work. After his fall, he was expelled from that terrestrial 
Paradise, to till the ground from whence he was taken. 

Scripture says nothing about the nature or the material of the 
first implements which Adam used for the purpose of digging the 
ground. We suppose that they were either made of some hard 
stone or hard wood. For until the invention of brass and iron by 



264 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Tubal-Cain, the first manufacturer of all sorts of utensils of brass 
and iron — probably the same who was called Vulcan, the God of 
smiths by the Romans — the Antediluvians must have used the 
rude instruments invented by Adam. 

The prodigious length of life the Antediluvians enjoyed, must 
have been very favourable to the advancement of arts and science, 
especially agriculture, to which it behoved them to apply in a par- 
ticular manner in order to procure their subsistence. It is probable, 
therefore, that even in their age, arts and sciences had made greater 
progress in many respects than now with us on the Gold Coast. 
No doubt, by the terrible catastrophe of the flood, many a science 
may have been lost, yet what was known to Noah and his children 
was transmitted to their posterity. For mankind continued in one 
body without being dispersed into different nations. Agriculture, 
arts and sciences must have necessarily advanced till the building 
of the tower of Babel. It is from this dispersion of mankind con- 
sequent upon the confusion of tongues that we must date the origin 
of savage nations. We find in history that the civilized ones founded 
kingdoms in which arts, sciences and agriculture flourished, whilst 
the rest led a savage wandering life. 

To treat therefore of the cultivation of the aboriginal tribes on 
the Gold Coast, the question arises, what was the nature of their 
implements, and of what material were they made prior to the 
establishment of the Europeans? As necessity is the mother of 
invention (the absence of which is the sole cause of the unimproved 
state of agriculture, arts etc.), those aboriginal emigrants may have 
discovered the art of founding iron from the ores, and working it 
into rude implements of cultivation, handicraft, and warfare, as we 
still find with the aboriginal tribes in the interior. The following 
facts may throw some light on the subject. At Adanse Akrokyere, 
where some smiths seem to have resided, we hear that patterns of 
the implements then in use were carved in^a rock. We know 
that inventors of some arts with all heathens of antiquity were 
often converted to a God or a fetish, hence the fetishes. Bona with 
the Tshis and Ayekoaye (Ligble) with the Akras. On account of 
such smith-fetishes, a professor of that trade gives to his male 
child the name of ''Niimo", a Mandingo word, signifying smith. 

From the Mandingos, who are naturally traders and travellers, 
smithery was transmitted to our people. The bellows used by the 
aboriginal people had the form of two clay smoking-pipes placed 



Chapter XXII. 265 

side by side. A proof of the utility of some of their smithery is 
found by the following proverbial saying;: ''Sane le etso Tesi-kpodsi", 
which means, the case (palaver) has become the fish-hooks from 
Teshi. The smiths of the place in manufacturing fish-hooks used 
the common trade iron instead of the best native iron then in use, 
as they seem to have neglected to prepare the ores, when Euro- 
pean iron bars were imported cheap. Those hooks often proved 
useless in fishery, hence the expression for any trial of a bad case. 

As the soil all over the Gold Coast, even to the very sea-shore, 
is so wonderfully fertile, the productions obtained by means of these 
rude implements, twice in the year antl with little exertion, riciily 
compensated the farmer. The virgin soil moreover produced an 
abundance of trees with edible fruit, such as tlie fan-palm and date- 
palm, and several kinds of berries called by the natives : noko, 
kofu, amugui, anyenyeli, awongme (ofe), amuma, aflangme, ang- 
mada, gowa etc., upon which they subsisted during the greater part 
of the year. The fruit of the fan-palm furnished the principal food 
in those days, and was thus prepared. When gathered home, the,y 
are first roasted on fire, and the peels are stripped off, the edible 
part is mixed with a bit of native flour prepared of roasted corn 
and forms a favourite article of food. Some of the berries, especially 
angmada, undergo a process of brewing, and a beverage which 
served as liquor was obtained. The process of brewing corn and 
water into a kind of beer is called ^'iimada" i.e. corn-beverage. 

The wine extracted from the fan-palm they called "adoka", that 
from the date-palm "akudono", of the oil-palm "teda (teida)", in Tshi 
"ns.ifufu". The origin of palm-wine is traditionally thus reported 
by the Western Echo (a local weekly paper edited at Cape Coast 
by Prince Brew of Dunkwa). 

''When the Fantes were on their way from Takiman to the coast, 
their king had a celebrated hunter called Ansa, who used to. go a 
hunting for him. As the Fantes had to encounter the former in- 
habitants of the land who opposed their settling amongst them, the 
king had Ansa to head the scouts whom he had to send from time 
to time. Ansa had a' dog which accompanied him in hunting and 
scouting excursions. 

"It happened that in one of his hunting excursions, he found a 
palm-tree which had been thrown down by an elephant, and a 
hole made in the trunk of the tree by his foot. It seems that the 
sagacious animal had long known the secret of tapping the palm-tree, 



266 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

and had long enjoyed the delicious though intoxicating sap 
that it yielded. The hunter, perceiving some sap oozing freely 
from the orifice made by the elephant, was half inclined to taste^ 
but fearing it might be poisonous gave some to his dog, who seemed 
to relish it greatly. Finding that his dog took a liking to this new 
liquor, he in the morning drank so freely of the sap of the palm- 
tree, that he got fairly intoxicated. He lay in a state of stupor 
for the whole day, in so much that the king and people wondered 
what had become of him, and gave him up for lost. 

"When he was sufficiently recovered, he soon learned how to tap 
the tree and succeeded in getting one pot of palm-wine from the 
tree, which he took to the king. Ansa, before presenting the wine 
to the king, tasted of the wine hrst, as customary, to show that 
it was not poisonous. 

''The king, having tasted of the wine, enjoyed it so much that he 
would not allow any one to partake of it besides himself; the con- 
sequence was, he got so drunk, that he did not recover from its 
effects till the next morning. The people, finding their king" in 
such a helpless condition, thought he was poisoned. They imme- 
diately searched for the hunter, whom they (without asking him 
any questions) despatched, supposing that, as he was so celebrated 
and held such a high position among the people, that he wanted 
to poison the king and reign in his stead. As soon as the king 
was sufficiently recovered from the effects of the wine, the first 
thing he did was to call out "Ansa!" Having heard that Ansa was 
killed by some of his men in their mistaken zeal, he ordered those 
men to be decapitated. Ever since, the sap of the palm-tree re- 
ceived the name of Ansa which is corrupted to Nsa.'" 

Another account of the origin of palm-wine says that one chief Akoro 
Firampong of Abadwirera, a town in Adanse, had a hunter, Werempim 
Ampgng, whose dog accompanied him to his farm, where he found a 
number of palm-trees thrown down by elephants, some of them split 
in two, and the sap oozing freely from the surface of the trees thus di- 
vided. His dog, on seeing the sap, licked some of it, became intoxicated 
and wild, and lay in a state of stupor for the whole day. The next 
day, Werempim Ampong went to the spot, mtlde a hole in one of the 
trees, and having placed some broad leaf in the hole to receive the wine, 
he di-ank the same. The consequence was that he too got drunk, and 
then reported it to the chief Akoro Firampong. On the third day the 
chief accompanied the hunter, drank, freely of the new liquor, and became 
drunk. Un his recovery, he invited his friend Auti Kyei of Akorokyere 
to the spot, and both enjoyed the wine so freely, that Anti Kyei died 



Chapter XXII. 267 

of it. A great alarm was made that the friends of the deceased resorted 
to arms to take revenge, upon which Akoro P^irarapong, to put a stop 
to much blood-shed, offered to kill himself. But before he committed 
the suicide, he ordered the drummer of his kettledrum to beat the follow- 
iuir. which has become the gdiei'il beatini*- of kettledrums: 
Werempim Ampong, wudi usa mu akotene, 
Akoro Firampgng, dammirifiia, due, due! 
Anti Kyei, Firampgng, dammiriftia gyegyegye. 

Maii}^ years afterwards, when rum was introduced in the country 
by the captain of some trading vessel, Mmoro, a brother of Kwa- 
gya, the principal fisherman of Mowure, was employed as a servant 
to the captain. It was through his means the captain effected the 
sale of the new liquor, and in contradistinction to palm-wine it was 
called Mmoro-nsa or "mmorosil", that is, Mmoro's liquor.*) 

The principal vegetables and plants cultivated by the former in- 
habitants, and upon which they subsisted, were: yams, batatas, 
cassada, maize, ngma (a kind of wheat verj small and somewhat 
black), rice, and different kinds of beans. There seem to have 
been other kinds of roots used by them besides these, which are 
no more known to us, being out of use on account of not being 
brought to perfection by cultivation. Even the use of cassada was 
almost given up on account of its being narcotic. As traditionally 
reported, their fetish Sakumo promised to pass its urine on the root, 
so as to remove that power from it, which he did, and so it became 
good. We could hardly have convinced them at that time that it 
was not their fetish, but the constant and careful cultivation that 
brought the root to its present state. The narcotic substance in the 
cassada in its primitive stage is still with that root in the Bights, 
Gaboon, and such places. — Amanfi and Asabu were the chief culti- 
vators of the soil. They were giants who paid more attention to 
it. The establishment of Europeans on the coast gave impetus to 
cultivation, and foreign plants, grains and fruit-trees were introduced 
into the country. A writer in the 16"» century says, "Till now, the 



*) The common explanation is, that the first part of the word "mrusa 
or mmorosa" is the same we find in "borofere, aborgbe, aborgbeii, borg- 
toa" and other things brought by the "borgfo", or Europeans, from 
"Aburokyiri (in Ga Ablotsiri)" = Europe. As in "aborgnoma, the Eu- 
ropean bird = the domestic pigeon", the prefix "a" of ^'anoma, a bird" 
is transferred to the head of the compound, so the nasal prefix of "n-sa" 
was adapted to "b" in "m-borg-sa = ramorgsa", which, therefore, means 
"the European liquor". Chr. 



268 History of the Gold Coast and A saute. 

Portuo-uese are tlie only nation that attempted the improvement of 
the Negroes"'. They did not contine themselves to their garrisons 
or trading factories, but formed considerable colonies on the coast. 
The}^ attempted to instruct the natives in the better cultivation of 
their soil etc. They introduced different kinds of millet and corn, 
plantain and banana, orange and apple, etc. Although there is a 
tradition tliat plantain and banana were indigenous to the country, 
and that Dompim in Akem was the place where plantain and banana 
were found out. Defining the word ''abrode", which is the Tshi 
name for plantain, we say "Abro ode'' i.e. Abro's yam, as we find 
with the introduction of rum. It appears there were indigenous 
plantain and banana in the country before the arrival of Europeans, 
who may have also brought some other kinds of the same plant, 
and one Abro was the one who obtained some suckers from the 
European who fiist brought it.*) 

The following seems, however, the true tradition of how the 
plantain is said to have been discovered. 

A hunter at Dompim in Akem, feeling the cravings of hunger 
in one of his hunting excursions, happened to discover ripe fruits 
on the plantain trees, then called '•ahabaiitetredwa'", i.e. broad- 
leaved tree. Hungry as he was, he tasted one of the ripe fruits, 
and then ate one or two of them. He brought home a bunch of 
the ripe ones and another bunch of the green ones, showed 
them to his fellow-hunters and his wife, and told them how deli- 
€ious its taste was. The green ones were roasted on fire and very 
good to eat. He went out for more another time, which was no 
more roasted, but boiled in water and prepared into mpesi (mashed 
food), as they do with yam, hence the name ''oboode*', which means, 
yam substitute, or more plain, ''obeboa-ode'', i.e. coming to assist 
yam, now corrupted into ^'oborode"'. 

After the Portuguese the Danish colonists, such as Meyer, 
Schonning, Truelsen, Gronberg, Balck, etc. trod in their footsteps. 
Their chief object was not only to instruct the natives in the better 
cultivation of the soil, but to improve cultivation so far as to supply 
European markets with produce from Africa like that obtained from 
the West Indies. After the abolition of the slave-trade, the Danish 
Government encouraged the cultivation of the vegetable productions 

*) The word for "plantain" is "o-brode" (only for many plantain- 
trees a plural form "abrgde" is used) and the meaning is "the Euro- 
peans' yam'\ 



Chapter XXll. 



569 




Mr. Chr. Schonning, 

the iiionecr of civilization and (Governor 
from 1807—1817. 



o-aiued in tlie West Indies. Planta- 
tions of coffee, cotton, etc. were made 
on the Kuku and Leg-ong- hills. Further 
on thej bought several lands from 
the Akuapenis and founded their own 
A'illages: Sesemi, Bebiase, Kponkpo, 
Abokobi, Akroi)ong-, Togbloku, etc. 
Besides coffee the_y introduced sev- 
ei'al vegetables unknown to the na- 
tives. 

After the Danes, the Basel Mission 
stepped in to improve the natives 
in the cultivation of the soil, iirst by 
European lay missionaries sent out 
for that purpose. For the same object, 
partly to show the natives that there 
are christian negroes who cultivate 
lands, 24 members of the Moravian 
Congregation in Jamaica were brought to Akropong in 1843 at the 
e.Kpeuse of the Committee in Basel. Those emigrants also brought 
the coco (mankani) and the mango, mountain-pear, bread-nut, etc. 
into the country. The coco has proved since a valuable boon to 
the country against famine. The Rev. T. B. Freemann oftlie VVes- 
leyan mission also did liis best to improve the country by cultivation, 
having made beautiful gardens. 

Fishery and hunting- were their next occupations. Poisoned arrows 
were used by them for hunting purposes, and by that even elephants, 
buffaloes and any other animals, very plentiful in those days, were 
killed. The ivory as well as the skulls of the elepluiuts were de- 
posited in an enclosure of sticks at Dutch town, Labade, and Poni, 
which enclosure bears the name "Shuowumona" to this day. 
''Shuowu*' means ivory, and "mo" a fence oi- fort. (Tiie place where 
(Criminals were executed and their heads or skulls deposited was 
called Oweremona i.e. revenging fence, now corrupted AweremOna.) 
The art of tishing- in the sea, making nets and fishing canoes etc.,. 
seems to have been found out by the Fantes. 

The iirst European settlers on the coast uuiy liave improved the 
nets, although it is not certain; but no new improvements have 
been made since then. If our people were not satisfied to live 
only from liand to mouth, great improvement might have been 



270 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

made already in fishery, large boats built and better nets made, 
which would certainly pay any trouble or expense therefrom. Our 
whole motto seems to be ^'As our great-grand-fathers did, so we 
must do'". 

The giant Kwagj^a of Mowure, who accompanied Amanti from 
the sea, was the founder of the town Mowure, and being the first 
fisherman, he and his followers carried on that branch of industry. 
From him all the rest of the people on the Gold Coast acquired 
the knowledge of fishing in the sea. Ushangma, the founder of 
the town Ningo, was found by Lasei of Nodo to have contrived a 
means for fishing b}^ placing a piece of a creeping plant across a 
rill of the lagoon Dshange. Placing himself so as not to be seen 
by the fish, when passing either from the rill to the lagoon and 
vice versa, the moment he saw the fish on that creeping plant he 
had laid into the water, he suddenly flung up the end of the plant 
he had in his hand, having previously fastened the other end to 
something. In this wa}^ he succeeded to throw off one or two 
fishes at a time. Thus we see that there were several means of 
catching fish from the sea and rivers till fishing nets of anv kind 
were invented. It is very remarkable that the then principal occu- 
pations of our people, viz., agriculture, fishery and hunting, supply 
proofs that they had a certain knowledge of the creation transmitted 
to them b}^ tradition. Fishermen keep Tuesda}^ as their lioliday, 
and as our holidaj^s always fall on the day of the week on which 
one was born, so our fishermen had known by tradition that the 
sea came into existence on the third day of creation, which was 
Tuesday. The farmers also keep the same day as their holiday ; 
jet in consideration of Adam coming into existence on the sixth 
day of creation, tliey called the earth ^'Asase Afia" i.e. coming into 
existence on Friday — Adam is named from the earth — hence 
Frida}' is another holiday for farmers. 

The hunters' dance is called "Adam"; its song begins: "Adam 
kum mmoa a, mmoa wu, mmoa damfo", which means, when Adam 
kills animals, they die, being the friend of the animals. Is not this 
remarkable! How came our people to know this that Adam has 
the power to kill animals, before they could die, and is their friend? 

As God rested on the seventh day after the creatiun, which was on 
Saturday, the sabbath of the Old Testament, God was considered to 
have come into existence on Saturday, hence "Nyankopon Kwame" = 
Ood of the Saturday, 



Chapter XXII. 271 

The next occupations of the former inhabitants were salt-boiling 
and gold-mining. The manner of obtaining salt seems to have 
been at first to boil the sea-water or the saltish water from the 
lagoons in earthen pots. They set 10 or 12 pots in two rows, which 
were cemented together with clay somewhat similar to a furnace. 
It was then supplied with firewood, and by that process of boiling 
salt was obtained. Copper boilers were introduced by Europeans, 
by which salt was obtained also by boiling the sea-water. All 
such process was tedious. The Portuguese seem to have invented 
salt-pits and pans, into which the salt-water of the lagoons was 
led through small drains to be evaporated by the scorching heat 
of the sun, leaving behind the salt to be gathered. Another process 
was by pans, which the natives called '^takui''. The ground all 
about the lagoons being stored with saltish and nitrous elements, 
a cut of about one foot deep, 12 feet long and 6 broad is as nicely 
prepared as to become water-proof. Water from the lagoons is 
carried into the pans, and within a few days salt is obtained by 
means of the scorching heat of the sun. 

Thus the Portuguese commenced at Akra on the lagoon Kole, 
and when the Akras were conquered by the Akvvamus, the whole 
blame was laid on the Portuguese to say, Kole was offended that 
such pits and pans had been dug on her. 

From that time the Akras forbade the digging of such pits and 
pans on Kole. They as well as those in Christiansborg entirely 
gave up that profitable trade and applied themselves to the trade 
in European goods. 

All the other towns along the coast, where trade M^as not carried 
on with Europeans, applied themselves chiefly to salt-making. The 
trade known before the arrival of Europeans was that in salt, as 
tiie interior people could never live without that necessary article. 
Those who turned great attention to salt-making, acquired riches, 
and, if there were to be continual peace in the country, the people 
of the coast towns would be the wealthiest on the Gold Coast. 

Gold was obtained from mines in Akem, Dankera, Tshuforo, 
Asen, Wasa, Asante and other inland countries. The gold of Akem 
was, and is to the present day, the purest and finest. People on 
the coast, especially in Fante, Elmina and Axim used to wash out 
gold on the sea-shore after the fall of heavy rains. 

Earthenware of various kinds was manufactured, such as water- 
pots, cooking- and eating-vessels, smoking-pipes, etc. 



272 History of the Gold Coast aad Asante. 

The walls of their houses were either built with sticks and swish 
or solid clay, of a pyramidal form of 5 or 6 feet high, and thatched 
with sticks and grass. The houses looked like the present sheds 
of fetishes called '^gbatshu" by the Akras, but miitu by the Adang- 
mes. With no windows, but only a single opening, which could 
be closed by a kind of mats made of fan-palm leaves and called 
''kwo". No furniture whatever inside, but baskets made of the fan- 
palm, with lids in which clothing, precious beads, etc. were kept. 
The clothing of the poorer classes was "obofu", the bark of a certain 
tree beaten soft; but the better classes used country cloths. There 
were weavers in those ancient days; but when Europeans arrived 
and cotton or linen goods were introduced, the weavers gave up 
their trade. (In Ningowa and souie other towns the native weavers 
did so about 50 years ago.) 

Iron founding was likewise given up; but the manufacture of 
earthenware and articles in gold was kept up and improved. It is 
a pity that our people gave up weaving and iron-founding; they 
might have continued to supply their own wants and improved in 
these branches of manufacture. 

The principal occupations of the former inhabitants of the Gold 
Coast may be enumerated as follows: Agriculture, work in gold, 
iron, and earthenware, fishery,salt-boiling, gold-digging, and weaving. 
New occupations introduced by Europeans, are: brick-laying, car- 
pentry, cooperage, trade, clerkship, gold-taking, soldiery, tailoring, 
shoe-making, wheel-wright's work, stewardship, cookery, canoeman- 
ship, schoolmastership or teaching, sea-shell picking. 

Sea-shell picking was a very profitable occupation for women in 
those days, as all the forts and tanks built by Europeans on the 
coast were built with the lime prepared by burning those shells 
with lire-wood. The lime obtained from those shells was by far 
better than our present lime from Europe. If our people would 
keep to that occupation, there would be no necessity for ordering 
lime from Europe. We desire to have an easy life, to have Euro- 
peans to manufacture everything for us, and to send every penny 
in the country into foreign lands, which will only make us slaves 
for all time to come! 

But our brethren will say: Are there not so many kinds of pro- 
duce from the country, which bring thousands of pounds sterling- 
back to us? Yes, there are, and many more may be obtained in 
future, if there are people to seek them out. But the better classes 



Chapter XXII. 273 

amono- us, the educated eoinmuuity, have refrained Croui aoriculture 
by which the riches of a country is developed. Is not aj^riculture 
the mother of civilization, the backbone of national wealth, and 
the type of the various branches of human industry which have 
subsequently sprung up in all the civilized world? If our people 
in being educated refrain from that particular work, is that civili- 
zation we aim at, sound? Can we speak of civilization when the 
real riches and resources of such a wonderfully rich coiuitry are 
l)uried in the ground? When the grass of thousands of acres of 
our grass-lands is consumed by tire every year and not yet by 
cattle? Supposing our government has got all native hands they 
recpiire, the merchants also as many clerks as they want, and the 
missionaries too are well supplied; — what would become of the 
rest of our educated community? If no attention is paid to other 
branches of industry, will not the future of our educated community 
become miserable? Well dressed, fashionable, but with no occu- 
pation; corruption will increase, and instead of improving our 
country will retrograde most shamefully. 

Let us consult on this subject the examples of the most civilized 
nations of ancient or modern times. The Israelites were all hus- 
bandmen and shepherds, driving their ploughs and watching their 
Hocks. Gideon was threshing his corn when the angel told him 
he should deliver his people. Saul, though a king, was driving 
oxen when lie received the news of the danger Jabesh Gilead 
was in. David was keeping sheep when Samuel sent for him to 
anoint him king. Elisha was called to be a prophet when he was 
ploughing with twelve yoke of oxen of his father's before him. With 
the Greeks and Romans, we see everywhere in Homei', kings and 
princes living upon the fruits of their lands and their flocks, and 
working with their own hands. We see by Xenophon's Oeconomics 
that the Greeks had no way lessened their opinion of husbandry, 
when they were at the highest pitch of politeness. Whoever is 
acquainted with the life of Cato the Censor, cannot suspect him of 
a low way of thinking or of meanness of spirit, yea that great 
aum, who had gone through all the offices in the commonwealth 
when it flourished most, who had governed provinces and com- 
manded armies, that great orator, lawyer and politician, did not 
think it beneath him to write of the various ways of managing 
lands and vines, the method of building stables etc. The Cartha- 
ginians, Egyptians, Persians in the height of their power, had 

18 



274 History of the Gold Coast and Asaiite. 

overseers in every province to look after the tillage ofthegronnd. 
The Egyptians had such a reverence for agriculture as even to 
adore the creatures that were of use for it. Neither are our modern 
most eminent and powerful politicians in Europe, such as Mr. 
(Iladstone and Prince Bismarck, exempted from working hard with 
hands in their gardens. But enough has been proved, so we turn 
to our subject. 

Our people, after the Europeans had established themselves in 
the country, did not carry on the traffic in slaves only, but most 
of them turned their attention to tlie cultivation of the soil. Yams, 
rice and corn were so plentiful that slave-sliips were supplied with 
corn, in peaceful times 1000 stalks for 5 shillings, but in times of 
war 1000 stalks for one ounce of gold. From Asabu and the Fante 
countries about 100 canoes were daily laden with corn and yams, 
and potatoes at Mowure for Axim and Akra for sale. 

Bosman says, rice grows in such prodigious plenty, that it is easy 
to load a ship with it, perfectly clean, for one penny or less the 
pound. If our farmers on the Gold Coast had continued with the 
cultivation of rice up to our time, would our merchants have to 
order rice from Europe? 

After the conquest of the Akras by the Akwamus, cultivation 
was carried on close to tlie towns on account of incessant inroads 
and kidnappings by the latter. By and by those high forests and 
bushes which attracted so much rain in those days that the harvests 
were plentiful, were all felled for fuel and home consumption, and 
rain became scarce, hence scarcity of food prevailed in June and 
July every year. This forced the farmers to form small hamlets 
2 or 3 miles distant from town, such as Ologobi, Tatarawa Kpa- 
tshakole, Sowotuom, Abroduafa, Legong, Papao, Hatsho, Kwantanang, 
Ashikuma etc. The meaning of Ologobi and Sowotuom already 
shows how the farmers fared at the hands of the enemies. The 
former shows, they eluded the kidnap[)ers and escaped home; the 
latter, their plantations could be made only by holding on their 
guns in defence. As they could not make their plantations more 
inland, the harvest in corn was never plentiful; cassada and beans, 
especially one called gobbegobbes (akwei), were the principal vege- 
tables (hey planted. Along the whole coast such beans were pre- 
pared to a kind of food called aboboi, sold to children every 
morning. Hence they were obliged, during those days to bu.y corn 
from Fante, Agona, and the Volta towns. In doing this, several 



Chapter XXII. 275 

women and men fell into the hands of man-stealers and robbers. 

When the Akwamus had been conquered and expelled from 
Nyanawase to where they are now, the farmers extended their 
plantations some few miles inland. Yet they could not go farther 
till the Akwamu refugees liad been sought for and reinstated in 
the bush. There were three noble women of Akwamu given as 
hostages in Akra, one was given in James Town, one in Asere, 
whose name was (Jpoma Tia, and one in Obese. Kpakpa Asoanna, 
the head-chief of the Akuashong, got Opgma Tia, who, as appears, 
was kept as a wife by the chief. On account of that connection 
the Akwamu refugee Adsham Botwe, then residing at Amanforo, 
became known to the chief and was treated as a brother-in-law by 
Kpakpfi, through whose advice the king and chiefs of Akra ap- 
})ointed Adsham Botwe as the overseer of the whole conquered land 
of the Akwamus. 

Having been so favoured by the chiefs of Akra, to become the 
overseer of the land formerly belonging to his people, Adsham 
Botwe also called the following Akwamu refugees to his assistance 
viz., Adshama Otuoko, Otabi, Kwasi Adae, Kwasi Batam, and 
Panyin Anyankoe. These hunters assisted Adsham Botwe in the 
management of the whole land, and by degrees they managed to 
call in Atshia and Amoa, who had some connection with the royal 
family of Akvi'amu from Agona and Fante. Atshia founded after- 
wards the village which liears his name Atshiamang, and Amoa 
also that of Amoamang. These Akwamu fugitives, but with some 
blood-relations in Akra, encouraged the Akra farmers to extend 
their cultivation and villages more inland. At that time any piece 
of land an Akra farmer was able to cultivate was considered as 
his. But in course of time the fugitives, perceiving how careless 
the Akra chiefs were about land, and even what was their right 
by conquest, turned round and made themselves chiefs and owners 
of tlie whole land, and began collecting rents and selling back those 
pieces which had been cleared by the former planters and which 
were known as their property, either to their children or to other 
parties who offered large sums for them. A very considerable pari 
of the rent was, however, given to the king. They, especially chief 
Amoa, went on selling the lands till he was warndy opposed by 
the brave farmers at the village of Opa. Amoa impudently sum- 
moned them to the king and chiefs of Akra; which they accordinglv 
obeyed, and at the court the Opa farmers told in the nndionce of 

18* 



276 History of the Gold Coast iind Asante, 

Akra that the laud was the conquered property of their forefathers, 
Amoa, beiug a fug-itive whom they should consider as a captive 
of theirs, could never deprive them of their property. After this 
no i)iece was sold again. 

But in consequence of the unsettled state of the country by the 
incessant kidnapping and plundering of the Obutus and Akuapenis, 
the farmers were unable to cultivate the land as they should have 
done, until the robbers and |)lunderers of l)Oth places had been 
checked. Some even were killed, such as one hunter Nseni of 
Obutu, who was killed by the Labade hunter Kote Amirim,*) and 
several others who shared the same fate from the Akra palm-wine 
carriers and the iron-hearted company known as "Odshofoi," 

The palm-wine carriers formed a most powerful body in those 
days, as they defended the country from such robbers. Any serious 
case was at that time settled by them. If their oath had been 
sworn and the defendant showed a slight sign of contempt, they 
came in full number with about 100 or 200 [)0ts of wine and broke 
them at the gate of the defendant. When the case was then looked 
into and settled^ the defendant had to pay not only for the wine, 
but also for so many pots broken. A whole family must be sold 
to pay such cruel and foolish tine! — The farmers enjoyed peace 
only after General Amaukwa Aluiuyawa had punished the Akua- 
penis and B^antes in 1814. 

Besides the slight general scarcity which prevailed in June and 
July every year, great famines were sometimes caused by war and 
scarcity of rain, or by locusts. 

Famines which are still in the recollection of old people are those 
in the year 1809, which was brought about by the Asante invasion 
of Fante in 1807. Those in 1816, 1822, 1825, 1829, 18:^2 — all came 
on in consequence of war, at which times people could not properly 
attend to cultivation, or sometimes by insufficient rain. It was 
during those famines that man}' a Fante was sold for a lew pounds 
weight of corn. 

During such famines women and children were seen at Akra 
engaged every day in search of wild fruits and roots, — the fruits 
of the fan-palm, date-palm and all kinds of berries, very plentiful 



*) A huuter's song composed by Kote Amirim on this incident was: 
"Amirim, wosua woyi, Af itii Bereka wobisam', Ka-nerebo?" i. e. Amirim 
is the exceptional, who being asked by an Afutu Bereku man: "What 
the matter is?" 



Chapter XXII. 277 

ill thos(3 days, such as uoko, kgfu, aimiyiii, etc. The fruits of the 
fan-pahii especially supplied am[)le food. Another rcsoarce ao-ainst 
famine were the wild roots called akpatsha. They j^rew sometimes 
as big- as the tist and resembled the sweet potatoes in form. You 
saw women and children early every morning- strolling in the 
plains about a mile from the towns in search of akpatsha. When 
a woman found one, she joyfully began to sing, '^Asaba titriku 
amano, mina onu si te oyohV Kolete, Kglema."" There are two 
kinds of ak[)atsha — wuonete and shamoto. When they were 
brought home, they were divided among the boys and girls and 
eaten raw. 

Those who had relations and friends at Akua[)em, especially at 
Berekuso, went there in search of unripe plantains, which they 
dried in the sun or smoked in the kitchen, where a row of wooden 
pins was tixed on the wall three or four feet above the hearth. 
On those pins the plantains were dried by smoke, after which they 
were ground and prejtared. It is related that mothers were often 
obliged to put some pebbles in the pot, pour out water on them 
and set them to boil only to keep their children (|uiet till some- 
thing should turn up for them to eat. As tishes were very plenti- 
ful — a sign of the goodness of our heavenly Father towards His 
children — a herring often costing only one cowry, or 40 herrings 
one string, now nearly half a penny, and several leaves of plants 
served the [turpose of cabbage etc., life was sustained. 

On account of such scarcity of food in June and July every 
year, the Akra name their annual feast, Homowo or Homoyiwgmo, 
which means, a hooting at hunger. Instead of giving thanks and 
praises to God for the blessing obtained, they hoot the hunger to 
shame it! 

We come next to famines brought about by the locusts. Our 
old people s[)eak of the locusts which had visited the Gold Coast 
for the lirst time in about 1740 and destroyed all vegetables, so 
that a very strong famine came and people were obliged to travel 
to Ningo and the Volta towns to buy corn. 

This led to a terrible increase of panyarring and man-stealing. 
Many Akra women were sold. Some were fortunate to be redeemed 
by their relatives, but others were carried away and remained in 
captivity for life 

In the present century locusts have appeared three times. 

In 1833, just when the second corn-harvest was ripening, they 



378 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

visited us, but did not damage the crops much. It was the time 
our people became acquainted with them. They not knowing that 
they are a Divine judgment upon a nation (Ex. 10, 12 — 15; Ps. 
105,34.35; Joel 1,4—7; 2,25—27) entertain the notion that there 
is a high mountain at Agu in Krei)e, where the locusts dwell and 
are worshipped annually as a kind of fetish, and when the priest 
is offended by the people of Agu, he allows the locusts to come 
out from the mountain to destroy their produce. 

In May 1838 the locusts again visited the Gold Coast just when 
the corn-fields were about shooHng out blossoms. They were so 
numerous that the sun was hardly visible, and they destroyed 
every green leaf. Corn, yam, and cassada plantations were con- 
sumed by them as if a great contlagration had swe[)t over the 
whole country. Every tree was seen leafless, the plantain trees, 
the grass on the plains were all eaten up. When they had been 
a few minutes in a plantation, you saw nothing but the naked 
soil without any plant on it. They marched first in a direct line 
along the Akuaj)eni mountains towards Adshenkotoku, but fortu- 
nately a strong storm blew from the West, which kept them back 
from destroying the crops there. This providentially saved the 
crops in Adshenkotoku from being consumed by them, and a rich 
harvest was obtained from that part. Being thus retarded, they 
turned their course to Akuapem and to the coast, destroying all 
the cassada plantations. When that west wind had subsided, they 
resumed their march to Fante where they could not destroy much 
crop as the luirvest was then ripe. 

People were glad to have got rid of them, but alas, not very 
long after they had gone, the canker-worms came up, which are 
more destructive to plants and fruit-trees than the locusts them- 
selves. These could not fly, hence the wind had no power on 
them, and they did more mischief; they were found everywhere 
too numerous to be destroyed. And they were so obstinate that 
no farmer could do anything in his power to [)revent their coming 
to his plantation where some crops had been left. Whereto they 
are prevented to march, there they march to. 'See Prophet Joel 
1, 2 — 7. In the first and second months of the year 1839 nobody 
knew where they went to. 

In about 1842 the locusts appeared again in the country, but 
not so numerous and destructive as before; they kept Hying only 
in the air till they were seen no more. 



Chapter XXII. 279 

Durinjj;- all such times of trouble the people applied for aid to the 
fetishes; so numerous sacrifices were made in every town in all the 
country. As our peo[)le generally find fault with anythiug- they 
fancy was the cause of such troubles, imagining- such as otYence to 
their fetishes, the inhabitants of Labade attributed the coming of the 
locusts to their chief having a superfluous number of fingers. The 
venerable kin^ or chief was ordered to give up his services in the 
court of Lai<pa, and his successor to act in his place. 

People becoming aware of the famines brought about by the 
locusts, changed altogether the mode of jilanting cassada in their 
plantations. They hitherto had [)lanted the cassada thinly in their 
bean plantations, now the farmers along- the coast set upon 
making- s[»ecial large cassada plantations. Those in James Town 
and Dutch Town made large cassada plantntions at Dshonya, which 
proved wonderfully fruitful, that others were encouraged to follow 
their example. 

Resides, most of the Europeans and native merchants then on 
the coast made several gardens ; we heard of Hansen, Rannerman, 
Henry Rarnes*), Ankra, Richter, Holm, Svanikier, Truelson, Toun- 
ing etc., who had nice gardens close to the towns; the native 
headmen also had their gardens. 

Provisions were cheap in those days. A load of corn of 80 lbs. 
weight cost 15 — ^25 strings of cowries, say about 3*'— (>'' in our 
days. A loaf of bread of 1 lb. cost y cowries, of 273 lbs. 25 
cowries, whilst presently four of 1 lb. loaf cost o«^ . A big hen 
cost 5 strings, a cock 4 strings, and an ordinary chicken 2 7' strings. 
As provision was cheap, so labour was cheap. A common labourer 
got 2^5 strings per day, a carpenter or bricklaj^er 1 — 3 heads of 
cowries per month; a soldier got 2 7a heads of cowries per month, 
which being paid generally in goods, the workmen retailed those 
goods with good profit. The piece of iron bar which was the 
ordinary pay of a soldier was sold for 6 heads of cowries; the 
four yards of cloth (or 12 lines and 16 lines of country cloth, the 

*) Mr. Barnes not only made a plantation or garden on the Shooter's 
Hill in 1835, put the first mango seed into the ground in June '23, 1843, 
which he may have obtained from our West-Indian Emigrants who came 
out that year; but he also made a carriage road from Anomabo to 
Akrot'ul, which took him 3 years to finish, being commenced on Thurs- 
day 5'^' November 1840 to Monday 20"' November 1843. For which 
he spent J^ 147 sterling. Hansen, Bannerman and Richter also made 
such roads from Akra to Christiunsborg. 



280 History ot the Gold Coast and Asuute. 

former cost 2b strings, the latter 30 — 50 strings), whicli was the 
monthly pay for a carpenter or bricklayer, was sold for 1 head and 
10 — 25 str. Even when silver coins were used in paying labourers 
and things, as there were no shilling and six-pence pieces, the 
dollar was cut into four pieces, called quarter-moneys, which the 
employers and buyers even used to deceive the employe by cutting 
the pieces as they liked, until we were favoured by good Old Eng- 
land with these small coins. 

But our people of the present age would say, the ancients were 
fools, we would never condescend to be paid thus! We think, we 
rather are the fools in our present age, and we shall remain fools 
until we understand what civilization means. If a farmer becomes 
rich by his trade, and instead of improving that trade by employing 
many hands and planting several plants, he takes that money and 
invests it in mercantile pursuits, a in'ofession to which he is igno- 
rant, is that civilization V A fisherman becoming rich by his trade 
ought to improve it by buying new boats, yea, if possible, ordering 
out any such tiling in use in Europe; of course, if one man can't 
undertake to order out such a boat, let a number of such men form 
a sort of a company. But if instead of this he makes himself a 
trader and is not trained for such a profession, he must certainly 
fall. What is thatV When all the educated community are too 
polished to become farmers and fishermen etc., but the whole body 
must become clerks and clerks alone, or traders, the consequence 
will be the dearness of provisions. The last 30 years have made 
a wonderful change in the prices of everything, as we have seen 
above; another 30 years again will make us miserable, that, to use 
the popular phrase, 'Sve shall have to live on silver"', that is, 
money will be cheaper than provision is. In illustration we give 
an instance of the state of provision in Krobo. The Krobos are 
known to be the best and able farmers on the Gold Coast; all the 
inhabitants of about 40,000 in number are engaged in farming, 
viz., palm-oil making, which obliges them to have all their lands 
planted with palm-trees. Although they buy thousands of acres of 
land from the Akuapems, Akwamus, and Akems, but these lands 
are so distant from towns that provisions there obtained can scarcely 
be conveyed to market, hence provisions are dearer in Krobo than 
even on the coast. If the whole population on the Gold Coast will 
only turn their attention to one trade and being clerks, the con- 
sequence will be just the same. 



Chapter XXII. 281 

Tlic rearing' of cattle and poultry, which was introduced into the 
country by European farmers, so that bullocks, sheep, and turkeys 
etc. were i)lenty, is entirely neglected; the Adas alone keep to 
that trade and supply the coast with these necessaries. The g-rass 
in Keta is worse than any other else, but through industry there 
bullocks are o-btained. We have every facility to become monied 
men, respectable men, if we onlj' give up the false notion of civ- 
ilization which we aim at, and turn to our rich soil, and work with 
our own hands! With i-eg'ard to our educated men, we may say 
they do their best to earn their living; if those not employed, 
would turn their attention to other occupations, that so many hun- 
dreds of youths leaving school every year would not depend alone 
on being- employed as clerks, then it will be well. 

But our educated ladies not only refrain from hard working, they 
have also no desire for education. The only desire they have 
seems to be, "Let us learn to make our dresses as European 
ladies and to dress like them, but never trouble our minds much 
about books.' (There are, however, some exceptions.) If our ladies 
have no desire for education and to be able to read for themselves 
as a lady's life is passed in the civilized world, neither are desirous 
to work, what would be the civilization we aim at? The pros- 
perity of a family, the prosperity of a town, of a Christian Church 
and of a whole country depends on ladies. If they be better edu- 
cated, if the}' be good Christians and are industrious! Indeed, we 
admit that some degree of civilization on the Gold Coast sprang- 
from the Mulatto ladies and gentlemen, who were the children of 
the European big merchants and high officials once residing- on 
the coast. They having- been favoured by inheritance to become 
owners of large estates, would of course not do otherwise than live 
as such. The lower classes imitate them with the mistaken idea 
that to go in a European dress is to play the lady, and that, as 
soon as one puts on dress, she is to live as the rich ladies. But 
our ladies would ask, what kind of work are we required to do? 
We do needle work, trade on a small scale, and what else? We 
say, does that pay? Trade may pay, but can you keep your 
accounts as traders generally do? Go to Sierra Leone and Lagos, 
and you will lind ladies doing what other people of their sex do; 
but on the Gold Coast you lind the contrary. If we make our 
uneducated mass of girls and boys to understand education in that 
light, we become a stumbling-lilock on their way to civilization. 



282 Histuiy of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

The Basel missionaries have introduced a mode for educated females 
up in the interior, that althonj^h one is so educated, she does not 
refrain from working in her husband's plantation, or do all manner 
of women's work during the week; yet yon find them in their 
dresses on Sundays. If one from the interior comes to the coast, 
where she should do as she was in the habit of doing there np, 
you find her putting off dressing and go in the habits of the un- 
educated, only not to be laughed at by coast ladies, whilst we find 
the Sierra Leone and Lagos women of the lower classes put on 
their dresses and do all work that others do in their country. 
They keej» to the princij)les which had been implanted in them, 
but not one of the Gold Coast ladies keeps to the princi[)les in 
which she was trained. 

This want of [)rinci[)les in us Africans, especially we (liold Coast 
Africans, that those who have got education in Euroi»e look down 
on our own brethren who were educated in the country, is the 
sole cause of the unimproved state of the country. Such of us who 
are so i»rovidcntially favoured, prefer to keej) rather with the white 
men, who in reality will never take them as one of themselves; 
yet they ingratiate themselves into their society. But they may 
ask, wliere is a society suitable for our jiolishment, but that of the 
Europeans? Our brethren are too low to keep our society. We 
say, no! There are people, althongh educated in the country among 
the mass, who are respectable, behave respectably, who could be 
selected to form a society if we don't despise them. For the last 
15 years the European residents on the Gold Coast have ke[>t 
society with the natives, although not alwaj'S beneficial for the 
country, but nowadays they have refrained entirely to keep with 
us. Is this no lesson for us that we should form different societies 
among ourselves? Let the better classes among us diffuse their 
better qualifications, their Christian and moral qualifications, into 
the rest, and then a change will certainly take place on the Gold 
Coast. It is better now, we suppose, in the Fante country, if all 
we hear is as reported. If there were such associations as Chris- 
tian Young Men's Associations and the like, any undertaking for 
agriculture, education or Christianity could be easily carried out 
among us with success. 

But, before we say anything about what our Colonial Govern- 
ment should do to get the colony prosperous, we must first take 
a short glance on the past state of the (xold Coast. Some two hun- 



Chapter XXII. 283 

(ired years aoo, the Gold Coast was split into several parts under 
different native and Enroi)ean ^governments. After the Portuj^uese 
had left the coast, the Dutch had possessions and influence, the 
Danes and the English had theirs, the French and (for a short 
time) the Hranden burgs also had theirs. Sucli a small country of 
an area of 20,000 sq. m. had so many different masters of different 
nationalities and different laws; what a pity! lUit after the Danes 
and the Dutch also had gone, good old England has been left alone 
on the field. What all those governments might have done re- 
S})ectively for the improvement of the country and the amelioration 
of the dilTerent portions of the p(;ople under them, could now be 
effected more easily than before. And we are very glad and 
thankful that Providence has placed our country and people under 
C'hristian England. May it please the almighty God, whose chil- 
dren we too are, to bless and extend the empire of our most 
gracious sovereign (^ueen Victoria! 

We are fully content to be under the sway of our most blessed 
sovereign, because, when we cast our glance on all the colonies 
under England, we see great improvement. Even in those colonies 
where our brethren had been dragged to as slaves, but were made 
free by England, great improvements have been made, while the 
mother country is behind her daughters. We however entertain 
all hopes that the true old English spirit and English blood is still 
running in the reins of the peo[)le of England, which inspires us 
with courage, that although we of the mother country are behind, 
yet our time is not far distant when we also shall be elevated 
from our degradation. We therefore look to England, we look to 
the English people, but principally to our colonial government to 
help us on. The Basel Mission, if we be allowed the expression 

— the divinely-sent mission for the improvement of our country 

— the mission that does not only teach and preach the glorious 
gospel, but educate the people nearly in every branch of industry, 
and for that purpose have opened several industrial establishments 
at (Jhristiansborg for joiners, wheel-wrights, lock-smiths, black- 
smiths, shoemakers, etc., has done and is still doing its [)art for the 
country. We expect our colonial government will now come for- 
w^ard to do its part. We live in the best period of the Gold Coast, 
because war, which hinders the advancement and improvement of 
a nation, is no more to be heard of in the country since the power 
of Asaiite has been broken into pieces l)y the Piritisli army under 



284 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Lord Wolseley. And therefore any undertaking for the improve- 
ment of the country can easily be carried out with success. 

We l)rin<i; this to the notice of our colonial government that a 
few years after the battle of Katamansu (Dodowa) in 1826, the 
Danish government introduced industrj' into the government school, 
that the scholars must not depend only on becoming soldiers, bnt 
should be taught properly in fishery, agriculture, etc. It appears 
that that kind goveiwior Henrick G. Lind, who introduced that plan 
and for that [)urpose brought out his whole family and several 
immigrants, was forced to return to Europe on account of ill-health 
in 1831, .Ian. 20, and his successor allowed that scheme to fall off. 
It is, therefore, high time for our English colonial government to 
do something for the present and the coming generation. Either 
to co-operate with the painstaking and frugal Basel lay missionaries, 
by allowing our mission a certain sum annually for teaching in- 
dnstry. If that were the case, our mission would then enlarge their 
esta!)lishnients to employ more hands than at |)resent. Or, that 
our colonial government should undertake to build such work- 
shops and send out the best West-Indian artisans to su[»erintend 
those estalilishments, if they would have it independent of our 
mission. 

Above all this, the most im[)ortant thing needful in the colony 
is, roads! WhatV we may have and already have wheelwrights, 
but where are the roads V If our colonial government even would 
at once undertake to open industrial establishments, but no good 
cart-roads, it would be a mistake. Hence, we want roads, say, 
for the present, three good cart-roads for Akra, of at least 30 miles 
each, as a trial. By these the provisions which are so plentiful in 
the plantations, could be conve,yed to the coast very cheap, and 
the [>roduce for the merchants the same. B'irewood for home con- 
sumption is [tresently too dear, lbs. 50 weight for one shilling; it 
will also become cheap. Our joiners and wheelwrights as well as 
our architects will be supplied with all materials for their work, 
and then our money will remain in the colony for the colony's 
own jirosperity. Otherwise the future of our colony as to its ad- 
vancement, improvement, and j)rosperity is doubtful. We humbly 
suggest to our colonial government chapter XVIII, pp. 249 — 264 
in the ''Sketch of the Forestry of West Africa*" by his P]xcellency 
Alfred Moloney C. M. G., a book written by one of our governors ! 



Cliapter XXIII. 281 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

The causes that led to the iirst*) civil war between Kumase and Dwaben. 
Battle and retreat of Boaten to Akem 1882. 

As tlie capture of Kumase by general Loi'd Woiselej' and Sir 
John II. (Jlover resulted in a civil war between Kuniase and Dwa- 
ben in the year 187(1, just so the defeat of the Asantes at Kata- 
mansn led to a civil war between these two kingdoms in 1882. 

Hoaten, the king- of Dwaben, was a great favourite of the late king 
Osei Bonsu during the time of his reign. Osei Yaw, who siu^ceeded 
Bonsu, was envious of the favors shown to Boaten when the king 
was alive. Tiie old ill-feeling was cherished even on his accession 
to the stool, and became stronger after their inglorious retreat from 
the coast, during wiiich Boaten had managed to secure the golden 
stool from being captured on the tield of battle. The envious cap- 
tains of Asante increased this ill-will by putting an unfavourable 
construction upon the conduct of Boaten in this matter. They even 
charged him with luiving retained the public treasure lost in the 
campaign, insinuatino that, as he had managed to seciu-e the golden 
stool, the j)ublic chest carried with it must likewise be in his i)OS- 
sessiou. 

Yaw Osekyere of Nsuta, one of the principal captains over the 
left (lank of the van, fell in the battle of Katamansu. On their 
arrival to Asante the following persons, Oweredu Kwatia and 
BeriO on one part, and Mafo and Okwawe Dgkono on the other 
part, were competing for the stool of Nsuta. Oweredu Kwatia and 
Beriti with most of the inhabitants of Nsuta applied to Boaten to 
settle the dispute and to j)lace one of them on the stool. 

But their rivals, Mafo and Okwawe applied to the king at Ku- 
nuise. When that became known to Oweredu Kwatia and Berifi, 
they requested Boaten to ask the king that a fetish oath should 
be administered whether their lives would be safe if they appeared 
in Kumase. To which the king replied that there was no neces- 
sity of taking any fetish, as he had nothing personally against 
them. Boaten, to appease their minds, ordered his brotlier Kofi 
Boaten to take fetish with his clients. Athough the king of Dwa- 



*) The Dvvahens speak of three or more civil wars wliich had taken 
place between them and the Kumases jirior to this But this one is the 
first one known on the coast. 



286 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

ben may have the riglit to settle R,uy case of Nsuta, yet as the 
king of Kimiase had the right over both states, he invited Boaten 
to appear in Kumase to settle the case there; which he accordingly 
did and brought his clients to Kumase. 

A grand court was held in which Mafo stated all the secrets lie 
knew of Oweredu and Okwawe, how they had been in the habit 
of murdering the king's people passing through Nsuta to Salaga 
and taken their property. The king's servants thus murdered se- 
cretly were said to be about 80 persons. As there was no evidence 
in their defence, they were condemned and the king appointed 
one of his nominees to the stool of Nsuta, but ordered Boaten's 
clients to be ironed with all their relatives, 60 persons in number. 
The case being thus settled, the king went to Bereinan, thence he 
commissioned Oteng with about 1000 men to kill those unfortunate 
persons at dead of night. The king of Dwaben, hearing of this 
heinous act, returned home in a rage. Some believed that those 
60 persons had committed suicide, when their two chiefs, Oweredu 
Kwatia and Berifi were condemned by the king to be beheaded. 

Knowing what ill-treatment he had given to Boaten, the king 
sent several presents to pacify him, which of course, he indignantly 
received, and after one year, he could feel at ease to go to Kumase 
again. A few months after this the following case happened. 

Yaw Odabo, alias Kotiaku, a subject to the prince of Dwaben, 
so resembled the prince, that one could scarcely tell one from the 
other. They looked like twin brothers; hence Boaten took him 
for a companion. He loved him so tenderly that he shared every 
tiling equally with him. That state of companionship continued 
uninterrupted even after the prince became king of Dwaben. 

One day Kotiaku had to spend a good part of the night in the 
parlour of Boaten in conversing with him. But on his retiring 
home he stole into the king's harem and committed rape on three 
of his most beloved wives. "It is a very long time since I had 
the favour of being seen by my lord the king, said Osewa Kramo, 
I wish therefore to call for a light to see your face, before you 
take leave of me." The light was forthwith brought in, and to 
her great surprise she found that it was Kotiaku, but not the king. 
"Akuamua Bena!" was the loud cry she made. ''What was the 
matter?" asked one of the wives Being told that it was Kotiaku 
— "Was it he who was with me too?" she also asked. The third 
wife then said, "It must have been Kotiaku who was witii me 



Chapter XXTIT. 287 

too." A great alarm was consequently made in the women's yard, 
and the king- was apprized of what had happened. 

The big kettledrum was beaten, and the whole DvVaben assembled 
in the king's house. The unpleasant story was told, and ex[)ress 
messengers were dispatched to Kumase the same night to inform 
the kino-. Meanwhile tlie unfortunate Kotiaku had effected his es- 
cape also to Kumase, where he was apprehended. The king of 
DVv^aben insisted upon his being delivered up with his family and 
relatives, his mother Akuwa Friyie, his sister Ofewa, and his wife 
Otrewa and child, to be punished with death. According to the 
law of Asante, the offender alone is to be punished, but not with 
his family. The king knew that Boaten had the same right as 
himself to make a demand as the national law prescribes; yet 
Boaten would not have it so, but claimed the offender with his 
whole family. The king insisted that the offender alone must suffer 
for the crime comndtted, and not the innocent parties. Messengers 
were dispatched to and fro, urging the delivery of Kotiaku and 
his people to be punished. But the king was positive against the 
demand of Boaten, who consequently said, "Let the king exchange 
Uwaben with Kotiaku and his parties." Hence he deternuned never 
to go up to Kumase. 

After three years had elapsed, Kwantabisa, general of the van, 
was commissioned with seven of his chiefs to Dwaben to bring 
Boaten to Kumase, in order to settle the case which had been 
pending so long. Thus he addressed the court of Akuamua: 'Mn 
olden times'" said he, "it was said, a dispute arose between Akua- 
nuia and his uncle, the king, which lasted for four years unsettled. 
I have got the same commission to-day, to invite you to your 
uncle, to see his face, that matters may peaceably be settled." 
To which Boaten replied: "The idea of the king wishing me to 
come over to him! Does he believe I have torgotten the case with 
the inhabitants of Nsuta? Was there ever a sinnlar case, since 
the world was created? Is not Nsuta"s case vividly in my mind? 
I have l)ecome wiser by that, and therefore I will not go to Ku- 
mase! If the king really means peace, he would never have killed 
all those friends of mine at Kumase. For we say, if a neighbour 
has gone astray, he is recalled home by the tune of the horn blown 
l»y another neighbour. And as such is not the case, neither shall 
I attend the call, nor be forced to go by one like j^ourself. I am 
a man, but not a coward to be thus treated." Kwantabisa was 



288 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

outrageously disgraced and insulted. Kofi Boaten, the king's brother, 
even attempted to kill him. He was pelted with stones, hooted at, 
and with shame sent back to Kumase. On reaching the capital 
he applied a leaf of a tree to his mouth — an indication of the 
very abusive words he had been subjected to. Upon such occasions, 
the king must swear first to the commissioner before he gives 
utterance to those hard sayings, else he might be punished with 
death. Being prudent enough and knowing the consequences of 
uttering all those hard expressions, Kwantabisa only touched the 
better parts of them. The king was enraged, and ordered Kotiaku 
with all his parties to be sent to Dwaben. ^'Should I allow this 
little fellow to insult me so much?" was what the king asked his 
chiefs. To which they replied: "We might do something but for 
the mat-shrubs'" (a large species of Bromeliaceae planted between 
Kumase and Dwaben by order of Anokye, by whose magic virtue 
the power of Asante was established; they are as a memorial 
that Kumase sliould never take up arms against Dwaben). The 
king replied: "Were people not sleeping on mats in Kumase, when 
those Bromeliaceae had not been planted by Anokye?" 

Two weeks afterwards, Boaten sent two messengers to Kumase; 
but the king did not allow them to speak and barbarously killed 
them. This act was very shocking to the Kumase people. Two 
other messengers were again sent to Kumase eight days after that, 
who shared the same fate. Others have the opinion that the 
chiefs of Kumase were rather annoyed at Boaten's demand. 

The king thereupon distributed arms and ammunition to his cap- 
tains, commanded them to start on one Monday, so as to fight the 
Dwabens on Krudopa-(_)ku, the most sacred day of the Asantes, 
which falls on Wednesdays. Among the captains who swore to 
the king was one Adu Brade, the son of one of the late kings, 
who said: "If I mean by this expedition to drink from a spring, 
but not from a pool, I forfeit the oath of Koromante," On reach- 
ing Abankuro, having Buraso before them, the troops met two 
messengers from Boaten. They said: ''Akuamua wishes to know 
why a force is marching against Dwaben to-day? For such a thing 
has never been heard of since the creation (meaning by creation, 
the founding of the kingdom of Asante). The troops must march 
back to Kumase with us to settle the case there.'' Not agreeing 
to their request, the troops seized tliem, put them in irons and 
sent them by an escort to Kumase. The king ordered them also 



Chapter XXIII. 289 

to be killed. Then the troops marched on a tew miles and en- 
camped on that Tuesday so as to get to Dwaberi in time to light 
on the tbllowing day. Early on the morning of the following day, 
being Krudopa-Oku, Boaten assembled all his chiefs and told them, 
"Had Berebere not come, no trouble would have come; for it 
was Odabo (Kotiaku) who had offended me, that all these troubles 
are upon me now; I wish therefore that the offender and his people 
must beforehand be made away with!" Thus saying, every one 
of them was beheaded and the little child of Yaw Odabo, who was 
hanging on his mother's breast, was snatched from her and drowned 
in the river Owaram. 

. A few minutes after the execution of Odabo and his relations, 
tlie king ordered the inhabitants of the town, men, women and 
children to quit the place; only the armed men should form an 
ambuscade about the town, to see what the enemy would do when 
there, whether they came to settle the case pending or to fight. 
The enemy, however, upon entering the town forthwith fired at 
a bullock,— thereupon Okra Dehee and Gyesaw, who had painted 
their bodies with white clay, were commissioned by the king and 
chief Yeboa Kore to inquire thus: ''Were you not aware how the 
world was created (meaning the founding of the Asaute kingdom)? 
Where have you kept the saying of Anokyes, that an army from 
Kumase is upon Dwaben?" "Know, it is a bullock that was shot", 
was the reply. Pao, a dog was also fired at. The men in white 
clay ran forward and inquired: "Akuamua wishes to know, where 
you have kept the sayings of Anokye, that guns are being tired 
upon Dwaben to-day?" They again replied, "It is a dog that was 
shot." A few yards on, the troops found the dead bodies of Odabo 
and his relations lying about. There and then a heavy fire was 
opened on the Dwabens. The first captain who fell on the Kumase 
side was Adu Brade. His head was cut off, and brought to Boa- 
ten, who ordered it to be burnt. The Asantes were forced to re- 
treat as far as Ekyereso. 

During the heat of action, one of the captains of Boaten blew 
himself up with powder. His dead body was thonght to be that 
of Boaten, therefore it was conveyed to Kumase. An old woman 
who was captured was called by the king, who said to her: "You 
old grey-haired woman, who should have given better counsel to 
your king, never did so! He that pretended to do wonders lies 
here now!" "Nana", said she, "it is not Akwasi vi'ho lies here 

19 



290 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

now!'* The king asked: "Who is he then?" She replied, "I do 
not know who i£ is; but it is not Akwasi." "Where is Akwasi 
then?" the king asked. The woman replied, "Akwasi has walked 
away." "Where to?" was the king's last question. The woman 
answered, "I do not know; it may be to another country." Okye, 
a captain of 1000 men, by the king's order carried the dead body 
back to the troops at Dwaben, with these words, "You fellows, 
come! get away with your Boaten" and with other abusive words 
too, he left the body to them and returned to Kumase. 

Boaten had proposed to blow the royal family and himself up 
with powder when his ammunition had run short; but Yeboa Kore 
and the chiefs had opposed it. They said to him, as long as God 
had spared them, they should not do any injury to their persons, 
but go to some other country and prepare against the Asantes. 
He replied, "That would have been possible, if I had not destroyed 
all my personal effects. Seeing I have broken my large drums, burnt 
all my clothes, and have even scattered about all my gold-dust!" 
The chiefs again replied, "So long as the Asantes could not anni- 
hilate us, we must not destroy ourselves. We had better march 
on to Akem and surrender ourselves up to queen Dokuwa, and 
fight the Asantes when we have gained footing there." The king 
agreed to what chief Yeboa Kore and others proposed, and they 
started. Chief Yeboa Kore stayed behind as if preparing to start, 
but made his way to the river Pimkyim and there committed sui- 
cide with about 60 persons of his blood. It was the body of chief 
Yeboa Kore that was conveyed to Kumase. This suicide was said 
to have been brought on by Boaten's powder having run short. 
He was unable to supply the chief with any when asked for. 

Boaten had given an imperative command to captain Kwabena 
Nketia, the husband of his sister Boatema, who had the charge of 
the royal familj', as well as the women and children of Dwaben, 
to shoot down his sisters and all of the royal blood, the moment 
he heard that he had blown himself up with powder. Pursuant 
to that order, Nketia, on hearing the blasting of gun-powder dur- 
ing the heat of action, thought it was the king who did it, and 
immediately shot down Boatema his own wife, and then the whole 
body of women and children dispersed, so that most fell into the 
hands of the enemy. At that very moment, a cry was raised, 
"The Asantes are clearing off, the enemy is retreating!" Being 
frightened by that, Nketia was benumbed and could no more shoot 



Chapter XXIII. 291 

any one more, however he shot himself. Their orphans Sapomma 
and Sapong- 11. were brought to Akem by Boaten, and there the 
latter died. 

The enemy left the battle-field for a time, and the king was 
anxiously awaiting the arrival of chief Yeboa with his people. 
But when the sad news reached him, he also determined to com- 
mit suicide. His captain Apententia prudently advised him to de- 
sist from doing so till they had reached Praso, where no enemy 
could discover their remains to dishonour them. By this the king- 
was cooled and they resumed their march towards Akem. The 
Agogos and Amantras under chief Amoako attacked the king at 
Peterensa, but he scattered them to the winds. Continuing his 
march, he slept half way and on the following day reached Dua- 
frasuom. His messengers were dispatched to Dokuwa to inform 
her of what had befallen him, what his uncle Osei Yaw had done 
to him, that he had now no bed to sleep on, no pewter-basins to 
use, in short no royal effects at all with him, and was wishing 
therefore to come over to her. 

Meanwhile the troops had been ordered to march back to Kum- 
ase. Two of the royal blood of Boaten, Sapong and Sapomma, 
a son and a daughter of his sister Afrakuma I.; with the state 
properties, the royal stool, and his own sons: Agyei Twum (who 
afterwards became king of Dwaben, known as Asafo Agyei), Yaw 
Kyere, Okyere Panyin, Agyei Sunkwa, and Apea Dankwa (who 
also was made chief of Dwaben), with many others, were taken 
prisoners in the conflict and were brought to Kumase. The young 
princes were given in charge of Kwadwo Duawa, chief of the eu- 
nuchs. The elder was about six years old, the younger only four. 
At the reception of the troops those poor captives were carried on 
shoulders while saluting the king and his assembly. The younger 
boy, on seeing the assembly, said to the elder one: '^Behold the 
large state umbrella of our grand-father, his castle, oh dear, here 
he is!" When brought before the king, the little one said to his 
bearer, ''Let me down to go to my grandpapa!" Both were put 
down, and the king took them on his laps. "'Nana", said the little 
boy, "I feel hungry indeed, for when the grand yam-feast came 
on yesterday (the poor innocenr boy thought it was a yam-custom), 
guns were fired, we ate nothing at all.'' "All right, you shall eat 
soon", answered the king. After the reception of the troops they 
were brought home, and richly served, but the elder couldn't eat 

19* 



292 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

much. They were kindly treated by the kin^- for some time; but 
at length the king assembled his chiefs and said to them, "My 
grandchildren must be dispatched on account of Adu Brade; they 
must be dispatched," The chiefs then remarked, "As they are 
little children, they should he spared for a memorial to the world. 
According to the sayings of Anokye these youngsters should be 
spared." The king insisted upon their being killed on account of 
Adu Brade, who fell in the engagement. The chiefs opposed their 
being killed, "We were strongly forbidden by Anokye never to 
imbrue our hands in the blood of Dwabens.' The king said: "I 
know how to manage that their blood be not shed." The poor 
little things were smothered in a large wooden trough and buried! 

Boaten's messengers were kindly received in Akem by queen 
Dokuwa. On their return, Dokuwa sent everything necessary for 
Boaten to Duafrasuom. The Dwaben royal famih' consisted of 
Boaten, his mother Osewa, sister Afrakuma 1. w^ith a child, and 
brother Koti Boaten. These with their people and the whole of 
Dwaben were cordially received by Dokuwa, her sons king Ata 
and Obiwom, and all their people. After their reception, presents 
were lavished on them, and a site was granted them to build 
their towns and villages on. 

A few days after his arrival, Boaten dispatched three ambassa- 
dors, Kwabena Puntua, Gyimadu and Mogyabeng, with his compli- 
ments to the Danish governor Brock, the British governor Maclean, 
and the kings, chiefs and principal men of Akra, Fante, Dankera. 
Akwamu and Akuapem. The ambassadors had to swear the oath 
of allegiance on the fetish given them by those kings and chiefs. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

Of Boaten's residence at Akem. — His being recalled to Asante. — ^ The 
atrocious request of having his cousins and some captains put to 
death, before he consented to return. 

The ambassadors returned to xVkem after having executed the 
commission given them. From all the principal merchants, Messrs. 
Ridley, Richter, Hansen, Bannerman, Fry, etc., as well as kings, 
chiefs, and principal men, large presents were sent with their com- 
pliments and sympathy to Boaten. The message sent by Kwadwo 



Chapter XXIV. 293 

Tibo was, "At Asante I was your subject, but having come to this 
country, you have become my brother. I deeply sympathize with 
jou, bid you welcome, wish you success in your battles. Having 
come 1 receive you with embraces, to live in peace with each 
other, that the wicked man alone may stay in his country, that 
in course of time should he, Osei, think of any invasion, we stand 
together against him." After these negotiations, the merchants 
opened comaierce with the Dwabens at Akem. 

During the stay of the Dwabens at Akem there was no peace 
between them and the Asantes. Whenever they met they fought, 
either with sticks, knives or guns. The king of Dwaben organized 
an expedition under Opoku Sakoree against the Boem people and 
obtained a great number of prisoners, besides quantities of ivory 
and other spoil. He sent some of the prisoners as presents to the 
principal men on the coast, and sold a good many of them for his 
personal expenses. Those prisoners of war were captured chiefly 
from Boem, because the expedition to Afidwase and Asgkore proved 
a failure by the presence of an Asante army met there. For after 
the expulsion of Boaten from Dwaben, Osei Yaw ordered the Ka- 
rakye and Namonsi people, who were tributary to Boaten, to throw 
off allegiance to their former master and to come under him. As 
they were not willing to do so, general Nubeng was ordered to 
march against them. At Bankoro Wiawoso the general received 
intelligence, that the Dwaben expedition from Akem against Afi- 
dwase and Asokgre was marching there. Unexpectedly Opoku Sa- 
koree met the Asante army. A sharp contest ensued, in which 
the Dwabens and Akems were defeated. 

The general now marched to Karakye. Many of the people were 
taken prisoners; the rest fled across the river Oti. The grove and 
cave of Odente were plundered and desecrated. Elated by this 
brilliant success, the general was passing the day in merriment and 
dance, when suddenly an army of Bagyam people appeared and 
attacked the unsuspecting party. The general and several influen- 
tial men and people were slain on the spot. This forced the Asante 
army which had gone to plunder to return in haste and drive 
the Bagyams back. 3000 captives were taken from Karakye and 
Bagyam. 

The defeat of the expedition and the destruction of the Karakye 
and Bagyam people was reported to Boaten, and he forthwith sent 
a large supply of ammunition by a captain of Atipini to Karakye 



294 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

to support them against the Asantes. But being weakened by the 
late battles, the Karakj^es did not venture to take the field against 
their enemy. 

Skirmishes continued between the Dwabens and Asantes for a 
long time, which disturbed the peace of the country as well as 
trade. At last the following ambassadors were dispatched from 
Kumase: Akoa Yaw, Barefi, Osei Bedikwa, Ata Kunkn (bearer of 
the gold stool), Etuahene (bearer of the gold calabash), Amankwa 
Kuma, Kankam Akyekyere, Boakye Mpamkye, chief Kwakwa and 
Okra Boadu. Boaten appointed envoys with linguist Oduro Ako- 
tedwan at their head and presented the state of things to the chiefs 
ofAkra, who also apprized the Danish governor Morck, the British 
governor Maclean and commandant Fry. A grand meeting was 
held at '^Tunyean'" (now '^ Victoriaborg") on the 27*'^ May 1835, 
and peace was brought about between Asante and Dwaben. A 
total eclipse of the sun was visible that day. The Asante ambas- 
sadors prudently gave every chance to Oduro Akotedwan to win 
the case in order that Boaten might be easily persuaded to return. 
Oduro accordingly won the case, that the verdict was given in 
Boaten's favour, for which a linguist cane was presented to him 
by the officials. The eclipse made it necessary to put off the court 
till the following day. 

There was no true and permanent peace between Ata, Obiwom, 
and Boaten when the latter was at Akem. He appeared to be 
like a tiger in a cage, though his influence and munificence were 
so great that several persons attached themselves to him. Besides 
being an Asante prince, he was magnificent in state embellishment, 
in short, he was superior in every respect to Ata and Obiwom. 
From him they acquired the art of ruling in the Tshi style. Yet 
for all that, they not only envied him, but intrigued with ladies 
of his harem. Obiwom had an illegal intercourse with one of the 
wives of Kofi Boaten, whereof an incident happened one day, which 
nearly brought on war between them, had not Ata very prudently 
put a stop to it. Kofi Boaten, the brother of the king, was informed 
of that intrigue with one of his wives. The woman not confessing 
the truth, the offended husband watched and detected them, and 
she was ordered to be apprehended and beheaded. Effecting her 
escape she was pursued by her husband. ''Ata, gye me e! Ata, 
gye me e! Ata, gye me e!" i.e. have me rescued, Ata! have me 
rescued, Ata! The poor woman fell on a fetish at the entrance of 



Chapter XXIV. 295 

the house, the enraged husband fell upon and beheaded her. Ata 
not knowing- the cause of it, was greatly offended at such an in- 
sult; consequently a stone and stick fight broke out between the 
Akems and Dwabens. Boaten, being away from town at the river 
Bereni for amusement, was informed of it. The Dwabens were 
forced to retreat, but on seeing their king, who had been called 
to stop the outrage, they drove the Akems from Kyebi, when he 
said, '' Whereto?"' King Ado Dankwa of Akropong was informed 
of that riot in Kyebi. He dispatched his principal linguists, Aye 
Kuma and Apenteng, to Akem. These assisted Kofi Abrantee, chief 
of Kukurantumi. The case was investigated, and Obiwom was 
found guilty. He was fined 70 peredwans, equal to ^81. Osewa, 
mother of Boaten, nearly ordered the Dwabens to resort to arms, 
when that riot took place. On account of that with other things, 
Boaten never talked to her over a whole year. His chiefs managed 
with difficulty to reconcile them. 

Another deplorable incident happened thus. One Ofosu Atimu, 
a servant of king Ata, offended his master by some misconduct 
towards the queen mother. He was ordered to be beheaded, but 
effected his escape to the coast, where he sought protection from the 
government. One day Ofosu happened to be found in the house 
of Boaten's basket-cairiers. The king, informed of this by his 
people, immediately sent information to Ata; but instead of send- 
ing his own people for Ofosu's apprehension, Ata sent a flask of 
rum to the king's basket-carriers to catch him, which, of course, 
Boaten opposed, saying: "A refugee never catches another refugee"; 
should his people do that, it will reach the coast that he had brought 
Asante cruel acts to Akem, and w^as teaching people the same. 
If Ata would not send for Ofosu's apprehension, neither should his 
people do it. At last Ofosu made his way to the coast. A court 
was held about that case. The Akems tried to find Boaten guilty ; 
but lie did not submit to that decision. Through such cases the 
Dwabens began to think of their country, and were longing to 
return. On account of such disturbances of the public peace, a 
detachment of one dozen soldiers of the Danish and English gov- 
ernment were stationed at Kyebi for every six months, when a 
fresh detachment was sent to relieve it. Thus it continued the 
whole time the Dwabens were at Akem. 

Boaten had several times laid his request before the Danish and 
British tjovernors as well as the king and chiefs of Akra to allow 



296 History ot the Gold Coast and Asante. 

him to visit the coast, but had been positively refused. He tried 
at least to be allowed to see Akra; but even that was denied him. 
The reason why he was not allowed, we could not make out. 
Some say, the Akras thought: "Blood is never wanting- in the 
head of a horsefly." Being an Asante king, formerly an enemy, 
he might design some sorts of mischief against them, if lie were 
permitted to visit the coast or stay permanently in the Protectorate. 
Others were of opinion that it was through Kwaku Dua's repre- 
sentations to the principal merchants on the coast that he was not 
allowed to stay in the Protectorate, but was forced to return. 
Through all these hindrances it came to his mind to return if 
possible. Besides this, his mother and sister Afrakuma I, insti- 
gated him to go back. 

In the year 1839 Rev. A. Riis of the Basel mission on the Gold 
Coast arrived in Akem and did his best to begin a mission among 
the Dwabens and Akenis; but neither Boaten nor Ata supported 
him. However Boaten sent a number of Dwaben youths to the 
coast to be trained as musical band performers; but for a school 
and the preaching of the gospel he did not show any interest. 

Boaten, not allowed to visit the coast, received message after 
message from the Danish and British governors, urging him to go 
back. Prince Kwaku Dua had been made king of Asante, after 
the demise of Osei Yaw, and was dispatching ambassadors after 
ambassadors to the governors of Christiansborg and Cape Coast, 
king Taki I., Ata, Kwadwo Tibo, Tibo Kuma, and all the chiefs 
in the Protectorate, to induce Boaten to return to Dwaben. The 
first ambassadors were Osei Dankyere, Yaw Kgko and Barefi. 
They brought 60 peredwans equal to ^'^ 487 (some say 300 pere- 
dwans were sent first), to Boaten with this message: "Boaten is 
the principal man who has to place Kwaku Dua on the stool. 
Unless Boaten returns, no one can perform the ceremony connected 
with the coronation.'' The amount sent is said to have been di- 
vided between Boaten, Sapong, head chief of the Oyoko family, 
Agyei, chief of Asafo, and Agyei Bohen, captain over the body- 
guard. 

One of the ambassadors, Barefi, had a confidential commission 
to Boaten alone. On his arrival Boaten tried to behead him. Ba- 
refi, knowing what he had to expect at Boaten's hand, said, the 
king has determined to send out 1000 messengers to recall you 
home; if you kill me, another will come until you desist. In reply 



Chapter XXIV. 297 

to the request of Kwaku Dua by Barefi, Boateii requested the kiujj^ 
lo r'^turn all the property and men captured from Dankera, Asen, 
Akem, Akuapem, etc. to the respective owners before he would 
agree to go back. The king, in answer to this request, sent back 
Barefi to say, that it was impossible for him to return those things 
and people. For neither did he know where those objects were, 
nor was he the party who took possession of them. Their fore- 
fathers had captured those things, and as they were dead, he could 
not make out where they were to be found. He should therefore 
let by-gones be by-gones, but try to come back. Boaten replied : 
"I am plunged in debts; how can I leave my creditors behind 
me and go to DvVaben ? If the king desires me to return, I ought 
to receive sufficient money to defray my expenses before I go 
back.'' Barefi returned the third time with 800 peredwans to say, 
"Where one like Akuamoa is, no pecuniary embarrassment could 
befall him; he may, however, accept 800 peredwans, and on reach- 
ing Kumase anything more he desires will be given him." Mr. John 
Magnusen, a Danish native soldier, was ordered by governor Giede 
to go to Akem and settle any account between Boaten and Dokuwa. 
In his presence the account was made, and Boaten was found in- 
debted to the amount of 16 peredwans, which he forthwith paid 
to her. The principal ambassadors sent by the king of Asante 
were Ahenkuro Sei, Owusu Agyemang and linguist Boadu. They 
announced their arrival at Akem to the Danish and English gov- 
ernments, and had to stay more than one year to collect the 
Dwabens who were trading all about the Protectorate, before Boa- 
ten was able to start. 

Boaten's last request by Bareli was, that his cousins Aberedwase 
Opoku and Nerebehi Poku and their families should be killed be- 
fore he would agree to go back. But their troops should be spared 
for himself. 

Kwaku Dua replied to this wicked request, that he would not 
raise any objection to it, provided he would send his own people 
to do it, he would not do it himself. Having obtained the consent 
of the king, Boaten, under false pretences, represented the case to 
the Danish and English governors and king Taki, that he was ready 
to go back, but that some ambassadors should be sent by the gov- 
ernors and Taki to accompany his men to Kumase to settle a dis- 
pute pending between himself and some parties there before he 
would 0:0 back. 



298 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Not knowing the real object of Boaten, two soldiers, Christian 
Yelstrup and Henrick Eng-mann, with one Nkudshei, were appointed 
by the Danish governor. A soldier by name iStifro was also ap- 
pointed by the British governor, Taki appointed his linguist Dshang 
of Akra, to go with Boaten's messengers to Kumase. 

Aberedwase Opokii and Nerebeiii Poku were cousins to Boaten. 
The mother of the former, Agyei Badu, was the youngest sister 
of Osewa, Boaten's mother, but elder cousin to Boaten; aud the 
grandfather of Nerebehi Poku was one of the kings of Dvvaben, in 
whose reign a civil war broke out between himself and subjects^ 
consequently he abdicated the stool and resided in a village till he 
died. He had therefore a claim on the stool of Dwaben as well 
as Aberedwase Poku, who by the right of succession would have 
the first claim to the stool, as being elder cousin to Boaten; but 
it was denied to him on account of his being the son of a younger 
sister to Qsewa; j^et he was made a captain of high rank by 
Boaten. 

A misunderstanding between the king and his cousins was created 
thus. After Kwantabisa had failed in his commission to bring 
Boaten to Kumase, and consequently the first messengers of Boa- 
ten had been beheaded at Kumase, lie ordered his people to pre- 
pare bullets; and Aberedwase Poku, not knowing anything about 
it, one evening came to see his cousin, but was denied admittance^ 
as both Aberedwase and Nerebehi envied his power and sided 
with the king of Asante in hopes of obtaining the stool. Abere- 
dwase Poku became very uneasy at not being admitted into the 
king's house; hence he quitted Dwaben that same night, in spite 
of the expostulations oi" Nerebehi, and sought refuge at Kumase. 
Next morning three messengers arrived at Nerebehi's, enquiring 
for him. They were asked by Nerebehi, why such a treatment 
as that was given to one like Aberedwase Poku even at the king's 
house? And on that account he was frightened and quitted Dwa- 
ben! The messengers were going to pursue him, but Nerebehi 
advised them to go back, as by that time Aberedwase Poku had 
reached Kumase, where, of course, they could not dare to appre- 
hend him nor do any injury to his person. He said: "For my 
part I would advise 3'ou to go back to Dwaben, give my compli- 
ments to the king and ask why Aberedwase Opoku was denied 
admittance into his house? That on that account he was frightened 
and escaped to seek protection at the stool of Twum and Antwi. 



Chapter XXIV. 299 

I advise that the case pending between my cousin and the king- 
should be amicably settled, otherwise, I will be neutral, neither 
for heaven nor for earth." The messengers reported to Boaten 
wliat Nerebehi had said; and when the civil war broke out between 
Dwaben and Kuniase, neither of the cousins took part in it, hence 
Boaten desired to kill them and their families before he would 
return. 

Others are of opinion that those cousins of Boaten left Dwaben 
the same night when Yaw Odabo was detected. Thej went to 
Kumase with the view of siding with the king so as to claim the 
stool for them, as the king did in the Nsata's case. As cousins of 
Boaten it was their bounden dut.y to support him in a case such 
as that, but never to leave him alone. 

The three soldiers and king Taki's linguist acting as ambassadors 
arrived at Akem. Boaten appointed Kwabena Puutua, Gjimadu, 
linguist Damansafo, Asare Panyin, Mogyaben, and a party of 50 
armed men to execute that atrocious commission at Kumase. Pun- 
tua and his company announced their approach, and a grand meet- 
ing was held at Kumase for their reception. Which being done, 
they got their quarters at Ntuom. The king sent presents of every 
known eatable thing and gold-dust to them on the following day, 
after which the whole Asante nation was ordered by the king to 
send in their presents. They got a large supply of provisions and 
gold. 

As it was the great yam feast, Aberedwase Poku with his whole 
family as well as Nerebehi Poku were in Kumase. Prince Owusu 
Dome was ordered by the king to invite the ambassadors and 
Aberedwase Poku to his house to enjoy palm-wine and other drink. 
At the party they were told that Akuamua was expected soon, 
therefore they must be placed in irons for a time, till he came, 
when any case pending between both parties should be settled. 
To which Aberedwase Poku replied, '^Akuamua may come at any 
time, I have nothing serious with him !" Nerebehi Poku responded^ 
"Why should you continue talking for being required to be put in 
irons? Stretch out your hands to be manacled!" He did so, yet 
none of the Dwabens could take hold of the hand, but all kept up 
weeping! There were more than 400 men of the king's basket- 
carriers and a set of the king's bearers who allow their hair to 
grow long and hang over their faces, who had surrounded the 
house to prevent any one from escaping. Aberedwase Poku was 



300 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

tirst handcuffed, then Nerebehi Pokusaid: ''We are never warned 
by the earth, else what happened once in one country might come 
to pass in another, for I am the grandson of Twum and Antwj 
(ancestors of DvVaben and Kumase kings). I, who neither gold 
nor silver handcuff could ever be used for my arrest, must now 
submit to an iron hand-cuff even in Kumase?"' After being hand- 
cuffed, they were removed to a house engaged for that purpose. 
Their wives and children were immediately seized and handcuffed. 
Among them was Boatema, a sister, and Kwasi Gyenti, a nephew. 
They were told, as royal personages, they should not be kept in ' 
that state in which they were, in Kumase. To avoid their being 
seen by people, it would be advisable and most convenient to re- 
move them to a village, until Akuamua's arrival. All to decoy 
them to the spot of execution. A few yards beyond Nsuben, Pun- 
tua and his party (the soldiers excepted) overtook them. The sign 
of blockading the road by tying up the grass on the way-sides — 
three knots towards the city and three towards the villages — was 
now performed, and Puntua ordered his men to murder the whole 
party. The poor vv^omen uttered heart-rending cries, lamenting their 
sad fate, how they were honourably born and must now perish so 
miserably! The number of inoflfending men, women and children, 
butchered on that day, was above seventy persons. Some speak 
of only ten. General terror prevailed. One of the intended victims 
effected his escape and reported what had befallen them to the 
people of Nerebehi. The king, not aware that the sad news had 
reached those people at their village, sent two messengers to bring 
them over to Kumase. The messengers, being cunning, perceived 
a change in the movements of the people and returned quietly, 
without them, to the capital. They were ridiculed as cowards for 
not bringing them over, and two other messengers were sent. The 
villagers betrayed no ill-feeling, but supplied the messengers with 
food and drink, and then killed them. They bought plenty of 
drink, made a large dinner, ate and got drunk, and began to dance 
lamenting the fate awaiting them ! They dug a large pit in which 
they packed all their children, covered them with straw from their 
houses, and set it on fire. A mother danced about for some time, 
and then said, "Dispatch me quickly, for by this time my children 
are waiting and weeping for me." Then she was shot down. A 
father, after dancing for a good while, exclaimed, "My time is up, I 
must be sfone!'" and then shot himself. Thus they continued the 



Chapter XXIV. 301 

whole day and night, till most of them were killed. The king, 
hearing- of this, dispatched armed men to interfere, but it was too 
late. They found a large heap of dead bodies, about six feet high, 
their clothes burnt, baskets and guns smashed. Such and other 
articles were brought to Kumase. 

This hideous wholesale destruction of human beings did not move 
the wicked heart of Puntua. A little girl of the royal family, who 
had escaped, was drowned by him in the river Oda. The king 
pleaded urgently in her behalf, but in vain. The body of the poor 
girl was brought to land and buried by order of the king. The 
heads of Aberedwase Poku and Nerebehi Poku were brought to 
Hoaten. He insisted upon hanging the skulls on his big drums, 
though his mother protested. It is said that during the night both 
the skulls dropped down. Besides those unfortunate victims, the 
following principal men and captains of Asante were also killed 
by Boaten's order: Lamte, Obuadaban, Bantama Aparaku, Ansere 
Tepa, Yaw Da, Qteng and Kwaso Odabo. All these were beheaded, 
and some relics of theirs were sent to Boaten at Akem. 

''The dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cru- 
elty!'' Ps. 74, 20. May our Heavenly Father hasten the time, 
that error and superstition flee, and Christianity prevail! 



CHAPTER XXV. 

Hoaten on the way back to D\Vaben, aud his death. — The arrival at 
Kumase of his mother Osewa and the DvVabens. — The rebuilding 
of Dwaben. — Trade with Asante revived, and full peace restored. 
1839—1842. 

Boaten had at last obtained what he wished. He therefore sent 
messengers to the coast to inform the Danish and British gov- 
ernors, the king and chiefs, that he was about to leave Akem for 
Dwaben. Presents were again lavished on him. One day he took 
leave of Kyebi with all his men, women and children, and the band 
playing before him. He had reached Saman and wanted to pass 
through Gyadam to take leave of Agyemang, when Ata sent mes- 
sage that he intended to fight with the latter, wherefore Boaten 
should not go there. Boaten replied, "That would never do! I 
have taken refuge with both of you, when Dwaben was destroyed 
by the Asantes, and just taken leave of the place of my refuge; 
should that place too be destroyed? What would people say of me?" 



vi02 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

He therefore sent the royal lace of precious beads to put on the 
neck of Ata, entreating him never to step from the place he was 
occupying, till the next da}', when he would come over himself to 
hear what complaints he had to make against Agyemang. (The 
royal necklace of precious beads is the emblem of the king's power 
to stop war or to reconcile hostile parties.) Ata took off the neck- 
lace from his neck, and the messengers brought it back to Boaten. 
He blessed his stars for having got such an opportunity of obtain- 
ing some fine to gratify his people with. For such a misconduct one 
is liable to the fine of 32 peredwans, equal to ^^259.4 sh. sterling. 
The following day Boaten marched to Sin no, looked into the case, 
and found Ata guilty. He fined him 12 peredwans and two sheep, 
and Ata went back to Kyebi with shame. 

Boaten was preparing to visit Agyemang and to take leave of 
him, when one day, enjoying himself in the street with a certain 
^ame (antwe), he fell into a swoon all of a sudden. His medical 
men did what was in their power to get him awake, but to no 
purpose; he was dead; it was in the year 1839. People reported 
that he poisoned himself; and that may be true, because he said 
plainly to the native Danish soldier, who was sent to urge on his 
leaving Akem, that he knew how to put an end to his life. He 
said, he would never see Kumase alive. The real cause of his 
death was from a case in his own family. When at Kyebi, his 
daughter Sewa Nkraii was given in marriage to one of the prin- 
cipal European merchants at Akra, Kwabena Puntua, his confi- 
dential captain, but also the husband of Afrakuma 1., had the charge 
€f Sewa Nkran to the coast. During their travelling an illegal in- 
tercourse passed between them. When this was known afterwards 
to Afrakuma, she determined to have Sewa beheaded, which Boa- 
ten opposed, as she was his favourite daughter. Afrakuma told the 
king, ''Was it not on account of a similar case you fought with 
the Asantes, which brought all these troubles upon us, and yet you 
deny my rights?" — The best of his servants and captains, men 
like Puntua and others, shot themselves. A grave was dug and 
well prepared, a bedstead was placed inside, and his remains were 
laid on it until they could be conveyed to Dwaben. A grand but 
bloody custom was made for him. After three months they started 
with the intention to pass through Gyadam to see Agyemang: but 
being advised, they went directly to Mampong, where they were 
received by Agyemang and his people with presents and expres- 



Chapter XXV. 303 

sions of condolence. Their inarch continued to Okwavvu, where 
they rested for a time and were about to resunie their journey, 
when his brother Kofi Boaten also died in 1840. 

Osewa, nnother of Boaten, sent to Gyesi, captain of the right wing 
of Dwaben, who also was of the royal family, and told him: "Gyesi, 
let me obtain blood to wash the remains of my son Kofi Boaten, 
before he be buried." Upon which he asked: "Do you mean my- 
self?" She replied: "Yes, you Gyesi!" "Who has ever wrought 
such a thing in the world?" was the stern question of Gyesi. She 
ordered him to be apprehended, and he was beheaded. That atrocity 
was reported to Gyesi's sons by the lad who accompanied him to 
Dsewa's. They flew to arms, gave a shout, and were marching 
to attack Osewa, when they were met by the horn-blowers and 
stopped. Baffled in their attempt, Gyesi's sons retired to their 
quarters and about 30 persons in number blew themselves up with 
powder. The rest of them, half went in company of the Dwabens, 
the other half retired to Akem and Akuapem and resided there 
permanently. It was reported that Gyesi was killed on suspicion 
of having caused Kofi Boaten's death. 

After this hideous act of Osewa at Okwawu, she sent information 
of the death of Kofi Boaten, and Gyesi being sacrificed for him, 
to Kwaku Dua. He was grieved to hear what had been done to 
Gyesi and therefore asked, "Who was beheaded? Gyesi? it is 
horrible! Why should Gyesi be killed to bury Boaten? I deeply 
sympathize with Osewa's losses, but she should not have killed 
Gyesi! Who would bury a son with a brother's blood?" Osewa 
assumed the government when Kofi Boaten died. In November 
1841 Osewa and the Dwabens reached Kumase, and a very grand 
reception was given to them at the capital, where Akwanng swore 
at the meeting, "We went out as men with horns, but have re- 
turned as women. Should any one venture to take advantage of 
that, to deal with us contrary to the known policy by which we 
should be treated, what once happened may be brought to pass 
again!" They got numerous presents from the king and subjects, 
and had the sympathy of everybody. All their property and people 
captured during the late civil war were restored to them. The 
king rendered them great assistance in rebuilding their town in a 
much more splendid style than the old one, and so peace was 
established. The rebuilding commenced in .January 1842, during 
which time the Rev. T. B. Freeman of the Wesleyan Mission had 



304 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

the opportunity of visitino- Kumase and Dvvabeu with tlie gloridus 
gospel of peace. 

Osewa determined to claim back Adakwa from the government 
of Kokofu, Apea Gyei, to become king of Dwaben, as there was 
then no male issue from her to assume the government. But as 
in olden times the inhabitants of Dadease had given themselves 
over to the prince of Kokofu and 32 peredwans had been paid on 
tlieir behalf, Osewa's demand was not complied with. She died 
after a reign of four years and a half, and was succeeded by her 
daughter Afrakuraa I. — 

After public proclamation of peace between Asante and the Pro- 
tectorate had been made, the mei'chants on the coast, both in Fante 
and Akra, took upon themselves not only to redeem at their own 
expense the prisoners taken at Dodowa, whom they sent free of 
charge to the king, but they also sent special messengers with 
large and valuable presents to him, and thereby trade was encour- 
aged, so that Asante traders came to the coast by hundreds. But 
in consequence of the civil war between Kumase and Dwaben in 
1832, which resulted in Boaten escaping to Akem, who continued 
the same hostilities against the Asante traders to the coast by 
murdering several of them, the trade was again suspended for a 
length of time. The merchants represented the state of trade to 
the English and Danish government at Cape Coast and Christians- 
borg. When the meeting of both representatives of Asante and 
D^vaben had been called at Tunyean ( Victbriaborg), peace was 
made and trade began to flourish. 

Governor Maclean was reported also to have brought some of 
the prisoners himself to Kumase and given them back to the kiug^ 
and a good understanding was arrived at ujjon his visit. — Roads 
were opened, trade with the coast revived and flourished. The 
merchants on the coast got such a sale of their goods for pure 
gold and ivory, that a single house could ship by one vessel from 
one to four thousand ounces of gold per trip. 

Thus Messrs. Hutton, Swanzy, Ridley, Bannerman, Richter. Han- 
sen etc. grew very rich during those days. Akras, who were long- 
before that the brokers to the merchants in the slave- traffic, turned 
their course to more legitimate trade, and therefore travelled to and 
resided at Akem, Asante, Krepe, etc., whence they brought many 
slaves for domestic services and made their country more populous. 



Chapter XXVI. 305 



CHAPTER XX VI. 

The expedition under chief Kwatei Kodsho to Nyive. — The war for 
independence of the Krepes from the yoke of Akwamu. January 
1831—1833. 

The cause that led to the organization of a second expedition to 
Krepe was a fight between two Krepe towns, Nyive and Atikpoi. 
Nyive means an elephant-forest, Atikpoi a stump. Chief Gugu of 
Nyive hired Oku, the king of Agotime, to assist him against Ofori, 
chief of Atikpoi. The latter, having obtained informations that king 
Oku had been hired to assist the Nyives against him, came directly 
with 8 armed men and his own daughter, desiring Oku to remain 
neutral, as it was a case between the two chiefs alone. Ofori said, 
" I hav^e been informed that your assistance has been asked by the 
Nyives to fight against us; but so long as thou, the old elephant, 
wilt engage in the tight, we are unable to carry on war against 
yon. In my days Atikpoi should never be ruined. I offer myself 
to be sacrificed, and the 8 men sold to brush my blood from your 
hands, and my daughter married by you." King Oku thereupon 
assembled all the chiefs and captains of the three Agotime towns, 
and submitted to them the request of chief Ofori. They replied 
that, since the Nyives had requested their assistance and obtained 
a definite promise, it was impossible to change it, fight they must. 

Chief Ofori had to return home with his daughter and tlie eight 
men, and told his people the result of his mission. They immedi- 
ately set to work by fortifying their town with ramparts made of big 
trees and loopholed, to prevent being overrun by the enemy in 
case of a failure. The day to fight was appointed, and the Ati- 
kpois were attacked ; but they defended themselves so gallantly that 
the Nyives had to flee, leaving the Agotims alone on the field 
with immense loss of lives. King Oku thereupon proposed a re- 
treat to GblT, chief captain in command of the army, who in reply 
swore, that if he should retreat to Nyito-i, the king's appellation 
"an elephant" must be changed to that of an antelope of the lowest 
species. They therefore remained in the camp, when Ofori, though 
knowing the discomfiture of his enemy, yet ran among them with 
IH heads of cowries and some sheep, earnestly negotiating for 
peace. By Gbli's refusal to remove the camp, the request of Ofori 
proved a failure the second time. A second engagement took place, 

•20 



306 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

the Agotinis got the day, and the Atikpois became tributary to 
them. The Nyives, who fled, were impeached as cowards, and 
promised to pacify the Agotims, For which Giigu gave his daugh- 
ter to Oku to be married, but not choosing to do so he gave her 
to his brother Nate Ngo, and so brought everything to a close. 

But after all, the children obtained from that marriage, as well 
as the mother fled to Nyive, and their people refused to send them 
back, and for that account war was declared by the Agotims against 
them to claim the children back. 

Chief Gugu therefore confederated with the following towns: Shia, 
Krunu, Kpaleve, Tove, Atshave, Agu, Azavi, Azahu, and Atigbe, 
and was chiefly supported by the chiefs Krunu and Namote. 

The Agotims, being friends of the Akwamus, became obliged to 
ask their assistance, and captain Akonng Kuma was appointed. 
The Nyives were engaged and defeated, but before prisoners would 
surrender themselves, Akoto maliciously called the captain with his 
force back to Akwamu, and greatly disappointed his friends. 

Nate Ngo, the king of Agotime, was obliged to dispatch mes- 
sengers, with his own son and daughter and the state-linguist-cane 
which was embroidered all over with precious blue beads, to Akra, 
very earnestly asking the assistance of chief Kwatei Kodsho with 
the promise that any amount of money he required to organize 
an army should be advanced by himself and paid at Agotime, as 
the battle had been fought already, and what he required was an 
Akra army to get them to surrender. Chief Kwatei, anticipating 
short and easy work there, thoughtlessly gave his consent, and then 
submitted the case to king Taki and his chiefs. A meeting was 
held at Sakumo-Tshoishi. The king and elders advised Kwatei to 
consult first his quarter's people, and after obtaining their consent, 
they also would consider to supply him with additional warriors 
to join the expedition. But expecting easy work at Krepe, and 
himself commanding a large part of the warriors of James and 
Dutch towns, he foolishly objected to the proposal of the king and 
elders, and told them, he could muster an army himself of his own 
quarter's people and slaves, if they were not inclined to assist him. 
Captain Kotei of the Audacious Band now got up and swore that 
since he was captain of the Audacious Band of Asere, he would 
certainly join the expedition with his company, provided chief 
Kwatei would only provide for the warriors, as himself had not the 
means. The chief agreed to do his best, and the meeting broke off. 



Chapter XXVI. 307 

The king- and chiefs appointed armed men to join the expedition, 
yeko Agboleme and Botwe Akplehe with one dozen men from 
Abora quarter. Chief Krgbosaki appointed Ayi Dadekpoti and 
Ashong- Katai with 8 armed men; chief Dodu Nyang also sent 
Krote, Oto Tshuru and Okanta with 60 men, Kome from Teshi 
with 20 men. — These with 300 of Kwatei's own people, and 350 
of the AudacioQS Band of Asere under the captains Kotei, Mensa 
Commodore and Ayiku comprised the whole of his force, viz., 
about 10(X) men. Captain Kwate Lai commanded the force of Kwa- 
tei. Chief Kwafum with some warriors of Akuapem also joined 
the expedition. 

After due preparations, chief Kwatei Kodsho ordered the expe- 
dition to march on the first week of January. He had one iron 
one-pounder field-piece with him, which was fired every morning 
and evening during the campaign. At Dofo they had to wait till 
A koto, king of Akwamu, had given them leave to cross, because 
he knew nothing about the expedition. Besides he was not willing 
to allow any of his captains to join Kwatei, till the following pres- 
ents had been sent to him: 40 heads of cowries, rum, sheep and 
cloth for the king himself; for Akonng Kuma, 16 heads, one sheep, 
an anker of rum and a piece of cloth; the same for Ofei Kiti. 
A koto then appointed 4 captains, Dabara (Nabla) with 300 armed 
men, Ofo with 30, Kwabena Afadi with 20, and Boakye with 28 
men; 378 in all. The camp was removed from Dofo to Manyakoi 
(Banyakoi), 4 days after to Abotia, where he spent 2 weeks, thence 
to Sokode for four days, and then met the Akwamu force at Ho. 
The whole force being then concentrated, they marched through 
Ntakra, Hwadshoe, and Sukpe to Adame.- Here the Aggtime force 
joined the expedition. King Nate Ngo and his chiefs, Kanga of 
Sukpe, Mensa Osa of Kpotgi received 2275 l^egs of powder and 
four hundred lead-bars as ammunition brought for them. The whole 
force, the Akras, Akwamus and Aggtims, numbered 4 to 5000 men. 
On one Saturday they fell in line towards Nyive; but when cross- 
ing the rivulet Hezo they were furiously attacked by the enemy, 
and kept on fighting from morning to dusk without definite suc- 
cess. The enemy was engaged the following Sunday, but with the 
same result, because the site selected by the enemy lor defence 
was bush3^ The attack was repeated on Monday again, and by 
noon the expedition had run short of ammunition. Neither the 
Akras nor the Akwamus nor the Aggtims could supply any. A sup- 

20* 



308 History of the Gold Coast and Asaiite. 

ply of ammunition was asked, but nothing came forth. In their 
perplexity they fell on 3 large kegs carried by Kwatei's people, 
but, to their surprise, they were only filled with chains. Nothing 
more could be done, but to retreat, which gave advantage to the 
enemy to chase them, till they reached Agotime, fortunately with 
few wounded. 

For three weeks no ammunition nor subsistence was obtainable, 
hence a demand was made for the latter, and 16 heads were given 
by Kwatei to the whole army. Scarcity of provision prevailed to 
the highest degree. Captain Odoi of Labade, who was trading 
there, and had been used as a linguist by Nate Ngo, was commis- 
sioned to get subsistence from the king for the army. 200 heads 
were sent, 5000 men to share that"! To maintain themselves at 
their ow'n expense, everybody set up trade, some came to Akra 
for goods, and for fully two years nothing was done. They cele- 
brated three Homowos (yearly feasts) there in camp. At last by 
the advice of the captains Kotei, Mensa Commodore and Ayiku, 
chief Kwatei despatched messengers to his sister Dakowa at Akra 
to send him a good supply of arms and ammunition, which having 
been i-eceived, the lirst thing done was, to ask the assistance of 
king A koto himself, who, greedy as he was, demanded a large 
amount of ammunition and money to be forwarded to him. All 
he required was sent, and he forthwith marched to assist Kwatei. 
The people of Sokode disputed the passage he had to make to 
Nyive; they were engaged for three successive days and defeated. 
Kwatei then informed Akoto that he was coming to clear the enemy 
off the way ; when at noon the same day, some fugitives from Ho, 
who were coming in that direction to find shelter for their wives 
and children, suddenly fell among them, and were captured. The 
Akras caught about 20, Kwatei's people got 30, and the other 
warriors caught a good number of prisoners. Kwatei resumed his 
march. At Ho he found Akoto, who had defeated the enemy and 
caught many prisoners However he was envious of the few pris- 
oners caught by Kwatei etc. on their march to Ho. He said, they 
were victims of his last battle and he had a right to claim them 
for himself. He forced others, and they delivered their prisoners 
to him, but Kwatei not, and those turned out at last to be the 
whole plunder he obtained by the expedition. 

After a rest of 3 months at Ho, the whole army fell in line to- 
wards Nyive. Akoto assumed the command of the main force. 



Chapter XXVI 309 

Kwatei the right winy, and captain Akyiino the left. They had 
their (luarters at Ntakra, on Sunday at Hwadshoe, Monday at To- 
kokoe, and on Tuesday they attacked, and defeated the army of 
the confederate towns, captured Nyive and encamped there. On 
Sunday, after being- in camp for 6 days, they were suddenly and 
furiously attacked by the enemy, and with great loss driven back 
to Yiviefe. The enemy kept up fighting the whole day, 80 of the 
Akras were wounded, and still more ot the Akwamus; yet they 
quartered in the field that night. The following day being Monday 
they marched back to camp, and on Wednesday six ambassadors 
arrived with white flags, pieces of firewood, yams, etc. and asked 
for peace. Nothing more remained than to summon chief Gugu 
and his confederates to surrender. Chief Kwatei appointed 12 mes- 
sengers, Akoto also 12 and the Agotims 12, who should carry on 
the commission. But, whether through Akoto's or his captains' 
unwillingness, nobody knew, the messengers deferred going every 
day. The scarcity of provision was intense, hence Kwadsho Dei, 
the comniander-in-chief of the Krepe forces under Akoto, submitted 
a request to captain Nabla of Akwamu to arrange how the war- 
riors should be provided with food. The only reply was, "They 
must buy provision themselves from Mansai (Matshei) and Lume; 
the king would not do it." Although Dei was not satisfied with the 
reply, yet he submitted and ordered the warriors to buy food from 
those places. Mabere, a first class slave-thief of the king, stole a 
fetish sheep from Mansai. Complaint was made against him by 
the owners, and to satisfy them, the remaining ear of Mabere was 
cut off, as punishment for the theft committed. (One of his ears 
had been cut off some time before that for a similar case.) 

Akoto did not wish to allow Kwatei to have the glory and re- 
ward of the expedition, therefore he acted very indifferently in 
forcing the enemy to surrender. He had been in camp a whole 
year, whilst Kwatei three years, and moreover the warriors were 
suffering from hunger. 

At last, Edshanyi, the son of Kwadsho Dei, was attacked with 
illness, and the father, finding no proper means in camp to cure 
the disease, asked the king to let him go home, to get the son 
cured in Peki, but was flatly forbidden to leave the camp, although 
there was nothing to do. He therefore one day ordered his camp 
to be removed in spite of the king's objections, and left with the 
Krepe forces under him, Akoto, having at last found a plausible 



310 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

excuse, told Kwatei that he should celebrate the yearly grand yam- 
feast and that he must go to Akwamu, that Kwatei should accom- 
pany him to Bame, where he might manage to capture some poor 
people for his trouble. Very reluctantly Kwatei agreed, and the 
whole camp was removed to Bame; but there was nothing to 
plunder. Having played the last game, Kwatei indignantly told 
the king that the Akras never live upon plunder, but upon legiti- 
mate trade, he must therefore depend upon it, that, should he live 
to reach Akra, not a single glass of rum, a shot of powder, cloth 
or any article for trade would be seen in Akwamu. At Ahodome 
they parted, Akoto to Akwamu, and he to Abotia, where from 
grief he was attacked with fever. On reaching Dgfo he removed 
the remains of his son who died there, and then crossed the Volta 
to Ningo. At Teshi he stayed 3 days on account of his illness 
getting serious. His captains did their very best to get him home. 
At Labade he cominissioned captain Kotei to march with the army 
to Akra to tire a salute, he himself would come on during the 
night. Abora Said was carried in a basket to represent him, when 
the salute was fired. Arrived halfway between Labade and Chris- 
tiansborg, he breathed his last in August 1833. Akoto might have 
rejoiced at having disappointed Kwatei from obtaining a glorious 
triumph and a large number of prisoners by the expedition. But 
he did not calculate that he had thereby weakened his own influ- 
ence on his Krepe subjects, who were only seeking for an occasion 
to revolt, but could not do so yet from fear of the Akras who 
might be called any moment by Akoto to assist in crushing them 
down. Neither would God Almighty, to whom all the nations upon 
earth belong, suffer such a barbarous, cruel and bloody kingdom 
to exist any longer upon the earth. 

It is shocking to the civilized world to hear of the deplorable 
and wretched condition to which the Krepes were reduced by the 
Akwamus, since their being driven by the Akras in 1734 to settle 
in the Krepe land. They lived upon war and plunder ever since 
their kingdom was established at the foot of the Akem Peak. 
From 5 — 600 slaves were sold to European slave-dealers by the 
king every moijth during the sixteenth century. They carried on 
the same policy beyond the Volta, even in their dilapidated state. 
Many a town was devastated by repeated inroads, kidnappings, 
extortions, and the like. Many a parent was bereft of all children 
either by war or extortion. Whole districts were depopulated. 



Chapter XXVI. 311 

whole tribes were thinned out by paying yearly tribute or defray- 
ing the expense of law-suits. Boys and girls were sold into slav- 
ery, only to furnish the king with luxuries. For a few pounds of 
fish, an Akwauiu resident in a Krepe town would sell a boy or a 
girl only to furnish himself a breakfast. Poor and harmless per- 
sons were sold like fowl and sheep! In 1822 — 23, when Yaw Ose- 
kyere, an Asante general commissioned by Osei, assisted the Akwa- 
mus against the Krepes, they captured thousands of inofFending 
Krepes, so that a slave boy or girl of 10 years was sold for 25 
strings of cowries, and an adult for one head and 25 strings. They 
locked up thousands of the captives in houses and set lire to them 
because there was no njarket for them. On account of all these 
disasters they composed this poem: "Heretivio, miato nyo, miano 
kuo gbo"' i.e. "Ye stars, your portion is excellent, for when your 
n)other (the moon) dies, she revives." Hence it is obvious that the 
Krepes were always on their watch to throw off their allegiance 
to the king. 

Chief Kwadsho Dei of Peki, the bull-dog of Akoto, had had long 
experience with his masters and studied them so well that he could 
be used by Providence to extricate himself and his people from 
the cruel yoke of Akwamu, and at last the opportunity had arrived 
for him to quit the camp in Nyive once for ever. Messengers were 
dispatched after him to force him back to camp; every demonstra- 
tion was exercised by oaths sworn on him; yet he did not listen. 
The king thereupon sent him 12 large ripe ears of corn with the 
message, that, should he persist in disobeying his orders, a single 
grain of the ears would be charged a head of cowries (1 shilling) 
as a fine. The reply to tliat was, "The 12 ears of corn are fast- 
ened on the muzzles of muskets at Bame, you must come for them." 
A very insulting message! It was incomprehensible why Akoto 
should ask Dei to return to camp, and why he did not march di- 
rect to Akwamu to celebrate the feast, on account of which he left 
Nyive. He may have calculated that, since chief Kwatei had been 
sent home empty-handed, there was a chance of getting prisoners 
for himself from the conquered Nyives. And his bull-dog Dei 
had revolted! It would have been more prudent on the part of 
the king, to overlook that disobedience of Dei, than to think of 
humbling him by a fight; but Providence would have it so! 

During those days Peki was in a flourishing condition, there were 
several influential chiefs and captains, and several rich men. Among 



312 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

whom were: Anion, a captain being- carried in a basket, had 500 
warriors of his own; Grato likewise 500, Tako 400, Labi 500 etc. 
These combined together and strengthened the hands of Dei, pro- 
mising to support him to the uttermost of their power. The whole 
Peki force met Akoto at Bame and drove him back to Abotia. 
Kwadsho Dei did not choose to pursue him, but returned in tri- 
umph to Peki. Indig:nant at such treatment from his own subject, 
Akoto retired to Waya, and set about collecting an army, because 
his way to Akwamu had been blockaded by Kwadsho Dei. When 
consulting his chiefs as to which tribe they might apply for assist- 
ance, Nabla advised him to call for the Akras. He said, ''They 
are the bravest men I ever knew. Au Akra man, when attacked 
suddenly, leaves his cartridge-belt in camp and runs forward to 
discharge his musket before returning to get the belt on." Akonno 
Kuma's opinion was, that the Angulas were the bravest people 
known. "An Angula man", he said, ''would, after discharging his 
gun, lay it down and run among the enemy to drag out a prisoner." 
The Akwamus could not, after the ill-treatment Akoto had recently 
given to chief Kvvatei, think of applying for help to the Akras, so 
they unanimously agreed to ask the Angulas, their old allies. 

A large army of Angulas arrived, and the king was exceedingly 
glad. The night after their arrival they were put to the test by 
the tiring of several guns near their camp. Their clumsy and con- 
fused mode of falling in, proved what sort of warriors they were. 
The Akwamus told them, however, that "the king was only prac- 
tising an enchantment."' With such an enormous army, Akoto 
marched again to Banje, where Kwadsho Dei met him. After a 
terrible contest the latter was driven back to Peki. The king did 
not choose to attack the town, but encamped at Afalime, having 
Peki on the east, himself between that and Akwamu, facing the 
enemy. He gained another victory at Afalime, captured Peki and 
encamped there. Dei retreated to Tshoho (Sohai) with the view 
of fleeing to Pekipong. But chief Sohai Koto kept him back, say- 
ing: "You have irritated the big black ants, and do you mean to 
flee now to Pekipong V I shall never allow you to go. Let us, 
Krepes, join together and fight at the peril of life for our freedom." 
The chiefs then collected their children, and charged Okumko, an 
Akra trader residing there, to bring them to king Taki and his 
chiefs in order to back them, by encouraging traders to bring more 
arms and ammunition to Krepe. Okumko got a present of a slave 



Chapter XXVI. 313 

for going- as an ambassador to Akra. A large supply of arms and 
ammunition were carried to Krepe for sale. 

All the Krepe tribes were summoned to unite in defence of their 
fatherland. At Soliai, Kwadsho Dei got their consent to support 
him. Anum and Boso threw off their allegiance to Akoto. While 
such preparations were being made, the Akwamus spent their time 
in merriment in all the towns of Peki, Every preparation neces- 
sary having been made, the whole Krepe army was divided into 
three main bodies: the center under Kwadsho Dei, the left wing- 
under Nyako and Kumi of Boso and Anum, Ahodome and the other 
Krepes formed the right wing. Thus they marched to Agatei and 
thence towards Peki. The advance-guard met a party of the Akwa- 
mus with a fetish priest practising an enchantment by the rivulet 
Amemere on the main road to Kpaleme. They fired at them, 
the priest was killed and his head brought to Dei; the rest fled, 
and reported it to the king who encam[)ed at Abase. The Akwa- 
nms fell in, and met the Krepes at Blengo, and the battle began. 
After two days' lighting the Akwamus fell back to Dshogbati. 
Here none was willing to give in. It became very critical indeed. 
Both sides had sustained heavy losses, but the Angulas had suf- 
fered most, because they had not taken the necessary precautions. 
It was a drawn battle, and the armies separated. 

Those four influential captains of Dei fell with all their men. 
His son Nutsho and a great many of his chiefs also were among the 
slain. After three days, hunters were sent out as scouts. They 
found to their surprise that the Akwamus had retired, leaving be- 
hind several guns and a vast amount of baggage. All were plun- 
dered by the Krepes. King Akoto tied to Ananse, and there parted 
with the Angulas with grief and shame. He took his quarters at 
Anyensu, feeling ashamed to go back to Akwamu. Kwadsho Dei 
after the battle stayed tor some time at Tshadome, before he re- 
turned to Peki. For a remuneration to the Angulas, who had 
suffered so much loss, Akoto ordered them to plunder Asutware 
on their way home. (All that time the Asutwares were living on 
the other side of the Volta.) The Danish governor of Christiansborg, 
being informed of this, immediately dispatched soldiers, and re- 
moved them to the western bank of the i-iver. The Angulas, on 
arriving, found that all the inhabitants of Asutware had crossed 
the river Volta, and that the Krobos, Shais and Osudokus had been 
ordered by the governor to encamp thereabout, so that the Angulas 



314 Histoi-y of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

dared not cross the river. Seeing an army encamped, thej abstained 
from crossing, and shamefully returned to their country. The Asu- 
twares have ever since remained on the western side. At that time 
already the Mlanfis joined the Angulas against Krepe. By this 
war the Krepes declared their independence, and Kwadsho Dgi 
became their king. Providence did not allow Kwatei Kodsho to 
plunder the poor Krepes, nor Akoto to rule them any longer! 



CHAPTER XXVII. 

The causes that led to the irritated expedition by governor Miirck against 
the Krobgs. — Ado Dankwa throwing off his allegiance to the Danish 
government, and his death. 1835 — 1838. 

The kings of Akuapem, who for several years tried in vain by 
inroads and kidnapping to subdue the Akras, were more success- 
ful with the Krobos and Shais, who are their neighbours and de- 
pend on them for lands to cultivate. They established their influ- 
ence fully on those mild tribes by the well known astute policy, 
and by protection oflered during their troubles with the Asantes. 
Being harmless farmers, whose object from time immemorial was 
the cultivation of the soil and not war, they for that very reason 
lost the sympathy of their brother tribe, the Akras. Hence they 
became tributary to the Akuapem kings, whose influence and law 
I'uled in the country, so that they were not only liable to heavy 
flnes and extortions, but also kidnapping and murder, when a single 
Krobo was found in the bush. The Krobos themselves were first 
rate kidnappers, and murdered travellers not only to get their goods 
but their skulls for the annual festival of the national fetishes Koto- 
kro and Nadu. 

For that reason, the Krobos who were tr_ying to extend their 
plantations far into the bush, constructed sheds with two openings, 
one in front and one behind. They formed but small villages — 
a man and his family in the dense primeval forest, not large ones 
as the Akras. Sometimes, when there was but a single man in 
the hanilet, he would, while taking his meal, drop morsels of food 
on the ground at different places round a single dish, as if many 
persons had been eating. An Akuapem hunter happening to pass 
and seeing the several marks on the ground was sure to think 
there were several persons in the village. The Krobo, when spoken 
to, of course, did not understand, but pointed to the marks on the 



Chapter XXVII. 315 

ground as if to say, his friends had just dined and were close by, 
he could call them back if desired. Stepping- into the shed as if 
to go for his friends, the Krobo efTected his escape through the 
aperture behind and disappeared. 

King Ado Dankwa, wjio had promised general Amankwa to be 
punctual in paying the annual tribute to the king of Asante, once 
found it impossible to make up the full amount in money or in 
men. Hence he was forced to pawn his nephew Adum to the 
Asante taxmaster Owusu Afriyie with the promise to redeem him 
as soon as possible. Adum was brought to Kumase, and there he 
became so independent and highminded as to fall in love with one 
of the king's nieces; she became pregnant and brought trouble 
upon him. Ado Dankwa was obliged to redeem his nephew as 
hastily as possible, because he had by that misconduct incurred 
the displeasure of the king. Unable to extricate himself, Ado re- 
solved to kidnap the poor innocent Krobgs to pay the tribute. 
To carry out that mean object, he sent to Krobo to open a new 
market for pots, pretending that the Akuapems were then in great 
need of that earthen ware. He sent about 14 heads of cowries as 
a bait to the market ofKwayefo; the Krobo women brought down 
plenty of pottery from the town to the market. The Akuapems, 
who were concealed in. the bush, captured 77 of the women (some 
say 170). Ado now paid the king of Asante with 70 of these and 
sold the rest for his own use. 

This cruel and treacherous deed so enraged the Krobos that they 
threw off their allegiance to king Ado. The resident Akuapems 
in Krobo were ill-treated, the king's oath and tribute abrogated. 
A very short time after that, a Krobo hunter by name Madshite 
Petshi happened to kill some antelopes in the forest. In pursuing 
other animals, some Akuapem hunters came to the spot in his ab- 
sence and took all the animals he had killed. Petshi, on another 
occasion, found some antelopes which had been killed by some 
Akuapem hunters; he not only took the flesh, but shot and killed 
one of them and cut off his head. This aggravated the matter. 
Ado Dankwa would have marched against the Krobos when that 
outrage was committed; but there was no peace between him and 
his subjects in consequence of heavy fines inflicted on them. 

Governor Fredei'ick Sigfred Morck assumed the command of the 
Danish settlements, and the chaplain Rev. Torsleff having arrived, 
the Rev. A. Riis of the Basel Mission, who was actintr then as 



316 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

chaplain in the Castle, resig-ned that post for direct missionary work. 
His heart having- always drawn him towards the interior, especially 
to Akropong, he went there now, accompanied by Mr. Gronberg, 
Rev. Torsleff, Mr. Lutterodt and Mr. Shannon, who introdnced him 
to king Ado Dankwa. After having obtained a piece of land from 
the king, and a site selected for a mission-station, the two gentle- 
men returned to Christiansborg. The king having ordered his 
chiefs to build a house for the missionary and a few boys given 
for a school, the governor was informed of it. His excellency there- 
upon went in company of Messrs. Torsleff and Gronberg on a visit 
to Mr. Riis and also to show himself to tlie king as the new gov- 
ernor of the Danish settlements on the Gold Coast. On his arrival 
at Akropong, all the chiefs and captains of Aknapem came there 
to pay their respects and to tire a salute. They did so, the chief 
of Sliai also came and tired, but the Krobos, although they had 
been informed of the governor's arrival, hesitated to come up to 
Akropong. Ado may have told the governor, what sort of subjects 
the Krobos were under him. Tliey had in the meanwhile sent in- 
formation to express their regret at not being able to come up, 
but that his excellency might come down to them, and they would 
do all honour to him. The governor, not knowing the state of 
things between the king and his subjects the Krgbos, was greatly 
annoyed at such an insult, and determined to go down to see what 
sort of people the Krobos were, and to punish them for that insult. 
But he may have been advised by the king not to go alone, but 
that he would accompany him; hence the expedition. 

The governor then sent a dispatch by an express bearer to Mr. 
Brock, the secretary, authorizing him to send u[) 25 soldiers, arms 
and ammunition, rum, provisions etc., to distribute arms and am- 
munition among all the Danish subjects from Christiansborg to 
Ningo etc., to ask Mr. Richter for people to bring the field- 
pieces, and to ask Mr. Lutterodt, Mr. Svanikier and the other 
merchants for people to carry arms and ammunition up to Akro- 
pong; the government labourers should be armed to come up, and 
their wives should carry provisions. Mr. Brock promptly executed 
the orders of the governor and dispatched 24 soldiers under the com- 
mand of sergeant Henrick Malm. On the arrival at Akropong, arms 
and ammunition were given to the king for his chiefs and warriors. 
King Notei Ababio and chief Notei Nyantshi of Christiansborg 
with their forces marched to Akropong, and joined Ado Dankwa 



Chapter XXVIl. 317 

with his forces. They inarched down witli the uovenior to l\robo 
and encamped at the foot of the Ki-gbo mountain. Chief Anvetei 
Kokoranja of Labade, and Ofori Shadsho, the chief of Teshi, ar- 
rived in camp with their troops, and reinforcements arrived daily 
from the coast towns as well as from bhai, Osudoku, Asii- 
tshare etc. 

The governor sent sergeant Christian Yelstrup and private Rein- 
hold, the kings and chiefs appointed their linguists to go in com- 
pany of the sergeant up to the mountain and call down the Krgho 
chiefs to give an explanation of their late message. There were 
then two chiefs — Muala Okumsoro (Tshakite Laila) for the east- 
ern, and Adawura (Kwaw Dake) for the w^estern Krobg, with the 
following principal men: Madshite, Tete Besi, Lawei, Kwesi Apeko^ 
Adowe Tete, Tete Anno, Odonko Azu, Na Odru, Tei Mapoyu, Abusu, 
Ologo Patu, Tei Boloku etc. On the return of the sergeant and 
company they brought down Odonko Azu and Ologo Patu with a 
flag of truce, 12 pieces of firewood, they were negotiating for peace. 
The governor accepted their otTer for |)eace on condition that all 
the chiefs should come down to camp and settle the case there. 
But they were afrairl to come down, and made vain ]»romises to 
the governor every day. To force the chiefs to come down, the 
governor may have suggested stopping their fetching of water from 
Okwei, but not fighting them. But when they came for water, 
they were attacked by the Akuapems, The Krobgs fell back as 
far as Susi; but the Krobo division facing the force of Ningo did 
not ciioose to fight them, but the Akuapems alone. Hence that 
division attacked the latter in the rear and forced the Akuai)ems 
to retreat with heavy loss. With the exception of the Shais none 
were engaged by the Krobgs. Ado, being pressed by his war- 
riors for a supply of powder and shot, applied for the same to 
the governor. But he i)eremptorily declined, saying: "Who or- 
dered you to fight? You have acted contrary to my orders!" In 
that plight Ado gave three of his sons to the Akuajjems to sell them 
for ammunition; but they refused to do so. They said to the king, 
"You fine us heavily, but cannot supply us with ammunition in 
time of war!" Ado Dankwa, stung b^' the threefold disgrace of 
defeat by the Ivrgbgs, discontent of his people, and displeasure of 
the governor, ordered the removal of his camp and marched back 
to Akuapem with all the warriors, having left the governor and 
the Akra army on the lield. 



318 History of the Gold Coast and Asaute. 

The chiefs of Krobo hesitated still to come down after the fight- 
ing with the Akuapems, and wearied out the patience of the gov- 
ernor, who ordered at last some rockets and one or two bombs to 
be sent into tlie town, which so frightened them that they came 
down precipitately. The case was adjusted; tliey were found 
guilty of disobedience, and fined for the sum of 1500 heads of 
cowries. The whole fine not being paid forthwith, the chiefs were 
brought to Christiansborg. Mr. Richter, becoming security, paid 
the amount, and they were set free. 

The principal chiefs of Akuapem, Kwafum, Apagya Kofi, and 
Asiedu, said to the king while on their way back to Akuapem, 
that the Danish government was deceitful, weak, and unreliable. 
They preferred throwing off their allegiance and declaring in favour 
of the English. The king, of course, agreed to this, and when the 
governor on his way back from Krobo passed through Akuapem, 
he was hooted in every town. Rev. Mr. Riis, who accompanied 
his excellency on the expedition, remained at Akropong, while the 
governor, and his staff, among whom was Mr. Gronberg, came to 
Christiansborg. Ado Dankwa and his chiefs were ordered to ap- 
pear before his excellency in the castle of Christiansborg to show 
cause why they left him on the field of battle. The king and chiefs 
had not attended as yet the summons of the governor, when a 
serious case happened in the king's family. 

It was the general custom that whenever a person died suddenly 
and there was any suspicion of his having been killed by poison 
or other foul means, the body was carried by two men in a bas- 
ket, which was believed to knock at the criminal. The one so 
knocked had to shoot himself or was beheaded by the king; his 
remains were thrown away and not buried. The relatives of the 
condemned criminal could not stand that disgrace and had to pay 
large sums before they were allowed to bury the body. 

Kwasi Adae got ill, poisoned as it was believed, by Aniampam, 
and was carried to Late to be treated by a doctor. He died at 
Late, after having told the people to carry his body home again, 
as he would knock at the one who had poisoned him. They did 
so, and the body knocked at Aniampam, who according to the 
custom, must either shoot himself or be beheaded. The king, not 
to lose two persons at once from the family, proposed to pay any 
amount to the brothers of the deceased, but they refused to accept 
anything saying, that justice must be done. The Akuapems were 



Chapter XXVII. 319 

•enraged at that injustice of the king, and demanded that Aniam- 
pam should be delivered up to l)e punished. At last the governor 
was informed what was going on at Akropong, and forthwith sent 
two soldiers to bring down Aniampam and the brothers of the 
deceased to Christiansborg to settle the case himself. The Akua- 
pems had meanwhile determined to dispute the passage the sol- 
diers would make to effect the escape of the criminal. They there- 
fore laid an ambush in the forest between Mamfe and Amanokrom; 
I^fogyo, Kwaku and Awuku, brothers of the deceased, were among 
them. On reaching the spot, the prisoner was apprehended, killed 
and cut into pieces, which pieces all the towns of Akuapem with 
the exception of Akropong shared The soldiers reported this out- 
rage to the governor, who immediately sent a detachment of sol- 
diers under sergeant Christian Briandt and brought down all the 
chiefs — Kwafum, Apagya Kofi of Adukrom, and Asiedu of Late 
etc, to Christiansborg. The case was adjusted and the chiefs were 
fined for the sum of 1500 heads of cowries, ^ 75 sterling now, 
which they paid chiefly with firewood to prepare lime for the re- 
pairing of the castle. 

As already agreed upon, Kwafum, the olo fox, reminded the king- 
to throw off the allegiance to the Danish government. Thereupon 
the king and chiefs and their retainers started for the coast as to 
attend the governer's call, and on reaching Berekuso, they made 
their way towards Akra. The old fox had meanwhile reported to 
the governor what were the intentions of the chiefs — they were 
only leading on the king to Akra to desert him! His excellency, 
however, sent Mr. Gronberg and Mr. Lutterodt to intercept their 
escape to the English jurisdiction. Thej^ were met at Kwabenyan 
by the two gentlemen, who used every remonstrance to bring them 
to Christiansborg, but failed. They arrived at Akra, fired a salute 
to the commandant, Mr. Hanson, and declared in favour of the 
English. 

Old Kwafum was brought to Christiansborg during the night of 
their arrival, had an interview with his excellency, arranged every- 
thing with him, and went back to Akra. 

A grand meeting was convened the next day before James' Fort 
between the English officials and their allies, and the governor and 
the Danish allies. They agreed to lay the matter before the home 
authorities and be directed by their advice. Kwafum had mean- 
while introduced Adum to his excellency, and Adum was assured 



320 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

to be made king of Akuapem. The king and chiefs of James Town 
and Dutch Town had made several promises to Ado that they 
would support his case to the last, and had obtained large presents 
from him. 

The home authorities decided, that the Akiiapems must remain 
with their former masters. Governor Morck then publicly pro- 
claimed Adum king of Akuapem, but Ado an outlaw, and had a 
salute fired upon it. Chief Atiemo of Akropong also deserted Ado 
and came to Christiansborg. A new silver stool was made for 
Adum, and the Akuapems were sent home, having been authorized 
to fight Ado, should he dare to come up to the mountains. 

The chiefs of Akra, who had assured poor Ado, could not do 
much for him. They sent a detachment under chief Ayi Kgkosaki, 
the English also sent a few dozen militia under the adjutant Sam. 
Bannerman to escort the king as far as Kwabenyan, where they 
left him and his few loyalists who were people of Aburi Atwea- 
sin, Odawu, part of Abiriw, and his relatives at Kwabenyan. 

The chiefs of Akuapem, Kwafum, Kofi Kra, who had succeeded 
Atiemo, Apagya Kofi and Asiedu, sent expressly to inform Ado 
that he might freely return to Akropong. To test their veracity 
he might send up one of his blood to take fetish oath together 
that no harm would befall him. Owusu Akem was thereupon ap- 
pointed by his uncle to go up with the loyalists and take the oath 
of Kyenku with the chiefs at Obosomase. He accordingly marched 
to the place, and the fetish Kyenku was administered to both him- 
self and the chiefs, and peace was made. On their return to Aburi, 
a few armed men of C)wusu apprehending an attack, concealed 
themselves in the bush between Obosomase and Afwerease. See- 
ing two women with loads — which they were carrying back to 
Aburi from Tutu, where they had harboured them in consequence 
of the disturbed state of Aburi — and accompanied by a young 
man with a gun, the men in the ambuscade supposed the enemy 
was coming to attack them, tired at the young man and wounded 
him. The}^ rushed out to cut his head off, but the young man 
fired and killed two of them. The women escaped back to Obo- 
somase. Adum and Kwafum, who were on their way back to 
Tutu, on being told what had happened, marched after Owusu and 
his force. But Owusu had no intention to fight after peace had 
been made. He did not stop to give them battle, but came to 
Damfa with altout 800 warriors, wMiere a few soldiers with an Eng- 



Chapter XXVIII. 321 

lish officer were sent to assist him against the Aknapenis. But 
none came to Damfa, nor could they inarch up to attack them. 
Hence Owusu retired to Kwabenyan. Shortly after this, one Ashong 
Patabubu (Agbo) at the head of a number of men from Nsaki and 
Berekuso, among whom were Kwame Akrompi and Tshoku, laid 
an ambush b}' the main road at Ayai - Ngmangmasha on the 
Opoku hill. They caught three Akropong women, among whom 
was Akua Badua, wife of Owusu Akem, and brought them to Be- 
rekuso. Some believe that they were sent by order of chief Kwa- 
fum. The lion-hearted Owusu, on hearing at Kwabenyan what 
had been done, marched directly to the place, just when Ashong 
and his company were delivering the message of that mean act. 
He attacked the town, killed seven persons, viz. Kwame Botwe, 
brother of Ashong Patabubu, Akotoa, Kwadsho Mensa, Manu Kwaw, 
Koemi and Gyano with her child behind her, and rescued his wife 
and people. All Akuapem Hew to arms and encamped at Berekuso 
to tight Owusu at the place; but they were prohibited from doing 
so by the governor of Christiansborg — the place being in the 
jurisdiction of the Dutch government. All these things so afflicted 
the old king that he put an end to his life by poison. It was the 
hand of God for betraying the late king Safrotwe! 



CHAPTER XX Vm. 

Keturu of Owusu Akem back to Akuapem. — Disturbances there about 
the royal stool. — Adam's incarceration and appeal for redress on the 
coast. Death of Owusu Akem. — Disturbances on the coast in conse- 
quence of Owusu's death. — King Adum and chief Saba's deportation 
to Denmark. — Danish possessions on the Gold Coast ceded to the 
English government. 1839—1850. 

In consequence of the late disturbances, the farmers at Kwabe- 
nyan were displeased and told Owusu that they had settled there 
to work, not to wage war, they had better move on ! Kpokpoase 
and the neighbouring villages became their abode, and many a one 
was reduced to bitter want. Those who could no longer endure 
it, went home one by one, while numbers were dying dail,y from 
grief and misery. 

At last Owusu determined to go home with the rest of the 
people. He marched up to Abiriw unmolested. As the only nephew, 

21 



322 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

who protected and supported the late king, he had in his posses- 
sion the stool of the kingdom. Adum, knowing that the silver 
stool presented to him by the Danish government had no value 
whatever according to the notion and custom of the countrj^, claimed 
the original from Owusu, which of course he refused, alleging, that 
Adum had forfeited it by deserting the late king in his troubles. 
The governor, in order to restore peace in the country, went up to 
Akropong with a few dozen soldiers, held a meeting with all the 
chiefs and principal men of Akuapeni, and forced Owusu to give 
up the stool to Adum, and a salute was fired upon this. It was 
expected that the king should stay in the capital, but he, being 
disliked by the people of Akropong, took his abode at Tutu, and 
as it were, neglected his duty as king towards his people. Nor 
did he support the missionaries by sending boys to school, as the 
late king and Owusu had done. The governor hearing of that, 
sent Mr. .Jorgen Sonne, a coloured man, with a few soldiers to force 
Adum to stay in Akropong. He met the king at Aburi, brought 
him over to Akropong, and gave the government instruction, that, 
should he leave the place again, he must know he had forfeited 
the stool. 

While the king was residing in the capital, one Amoako — his 
own retainer, who wore the royal feathered cap — had illegal in- 
tercourse with Atoa, the kings own wife. Amoako was arrested 
by the king and put in irons to be punished with death. Upon 
which, Owusu (for what reason was not known) had the king him- 
self arrested and put in irons. The West Indians, hearing that, 
came over, took him to the mission station and kept him at Mr. 
Hall's house. This sad news reached Adum's relatives in Tutu. 
They dispatched Nkroma, the king's brother-in-law, of Christians- 
borg the same night to Akropong and brought him to Tutu. Adum 
hastened down to Christiansborg and reported the conduct of Owusu 
to his excellency governor Carstensen and the king and chiefs of 
the same. In conjunction with the chiefs the governor dispatched 
messengers up to Akropong, inviting Owusu to come down to ex- 
plain that conduct of his. The chiefs of Akuapem seemed dis- 
pleased with the act and did not accompany Owusu; so he came 
with his own people. The governor, instead of taking such a se- 
rious matter on hand by holding a grand court, either in the castle 
or before the fort, to investigate the matter, allowed the king, 
chiefs and the mob of Christiansborg, who were enraged at that 



Chapter XXVIIJ. 323 

conduct of Owusu's, to settle the case. The native court was, on 
December 2°^ 1844, held at the corner of the castle, and both plain- 
tiff and defendant with their people were present. Owusu was 
indignant at this proceeding, as he had not been called down to 
the coast by the people alone, but by the governor. When threat- 
ened with being put in irons, as he had done to the king, he or- 
dered one Asa Yaw to tell his people, who were prepared, as it 
seems, to open fire on the assembly. They did so at once. Amo, 
a relative of Mr. Bannerman, and one Odonko Mensa were killed 
and several men and women wounded. The party who fired took 
him up on their shoulders and hastily quitted the town. The in- 
furiated people flew to arms and pursued them, which resulted in 
the loss of many lives. Owusu himself and his two brothers were 
among the slain. 

Two sons of Owusu were by the chiefs given in charge to Saba 
Akem, an influential headman of Christiansborg; but without their 
knowledge he cruelly killed them in the town, while all others 
delivered the Akuapems caught to the governor, by whom they 
were kindly treated and sent home. When he heard of that wicked 
murder, he ordered Saba and the chiefs to appear in the castle; 
but all escaped to the bush. Hy investigation the governor found 
out that it was Saba alone who had killed the boys. Adum was 
apprehended and imprisoned. His excellency seemed to have over- 
looked the matter for a time, as Saba was not to be found in town. 
At last he returned to town, which being known. Lieutenant Sved- 
strup with half a dozen soldiers was ordered to apprehend him. 
At dead of night, there was a knock at his door, and upon open- 
ing the same, he was caught, taken to the castle, and imprisoned. 
His people armed to attack the governor, when landing from a 
French man-of-war then in the roads. His excellency had the com- 
mander and some oflticers of the ship in his company. A gross 
insult to a governor in company with foreign officers! Mr. Richter 
and Mr. Lutterodt had to run from their houses to the beach and 
drive the mob away, before the party could land. The officers 
and some of the marines also landed. They marched with the sol- 
diers in the fort to the town and burnt down the house of Saba 
and some other houses in his quarters, after having bombarded 
the house- 
Governor Carstensen reported what had taken place to the au- 
thorities in Denmark, and Commodore Kling of H. M. S. Oernen 

21 * 



324 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

was dispatched to the Gold Coast to investigate the matter. A 
grand court was held, and both Aduni and Saba were judged, found 
guilty, and shipped to Denmark in July 1846. As an interpreter 
for the prisoners Mr. Jorgen Sonne was appointed to accompany 
them to Denmark. Asa, the younger brother of Adum, would have 
been appointed to succeed his brother, but on account of the late 
disturbances, Kwadade was unanimously chosen to succeed Adum. 
Kofi Kra, the chief of Akropong, who had all the state property 
in his possession during the disturbance, took upon himself to re- 
store to Kwaku Dua, the king of Asante, a trophy of a large va- 
luable state-umbrella captured in 1826. This being known, Kofi 
Kra was arrested by the king and chiefs of Akuapem and was sent 
to the governor at Christiansborg. He was imprisoned, and there 
committed suicide by hanging himself A few months afterwards 
his excellency repaired to Denmark, and at home he may have 
had the opportunity of presenting the state of affairs on the Gold 
Coast to the authorities. — 

A few months before liis excellency governor Carstensen left the 
coast on leave of absence, a very grave riot took place at Akra 
between the people of James Town and Dutch Town on the 6*^ of 
September 1846. 

Two men, one named Akoi of Otu Street, Dutch Town, and the 
other Mensa — who in consequence of the riot was nick-named 
Obomang i.e. the miner of a town, and also Odebae i.e. originator 
of the riot — also of Gbese quarter (who was at that time resi- 
ding in James Town at Amanfu quarter with a certain branch of 
his mother's family), were the originators of that riot. 

Akoi had a cousin of Mensa's for wife, and it being the Homo- 
wo-Sunday on which the people generally mourn their family be- 
reavements during the past 12 months, Mensa happened to meet 
Akoi in his mother's familj' house at Akotiakoguare, quarrelling 
with the household people on account of his wife. Very prudently 
on the part of Mensa, as people are far from being sober on that 
Sunday, he pacified Akoi, and gave him a bottle of rum just to 
satisfy him. The offer was accepted and Akoi having drunk the 
rum with the people then present, he left the house. 

After Mensa had completed the Homowo compliments to his 
mother and family, and iiad had a little chat with them, he also 
left in return to James Town en route the main street. On reach- 
ing the corner of the stone-building occupied by the Evans family. 



Chapter XXVIII. 325 

he found Akoi leaiiiiii^ on the wall waylaying him. Mensa, of course, 
did not apprehend the evil intentions of Akoi, accosted him, and 
was passing, when Akoi seized him by the cloth and said, "Now, 
my friend, I have been waiting for you here a long while, and you 
were long indeed in turning up, we are met, let us finish the bar- 
gain as man and man ought to do!" Mensa replied that he did 
not know what he meant, upon which Akoi pushed him and a 
struggle ensued. Then and there appeared one Adote Osiaboo of 
Otu street at the head of a dancing band known as chief Ankra's 
Kete. Adote ordered his followers to beat Mensa to death. The 
onset was furious on the unfortunate Mensa. Other people passing 
the street from James Town ran up to Amanfii quarter and in- 
formed Mensa's friends of what was going on. They rushed to 
the scene and drove Adote and his party away. Nobody in Dutch 
Town was aware of the conflict, and as it was Homowo-Sunday, 
several men hat got drunk. And when Adote and his party were 
running away, the Amanfu people pursued them armed with all 
kind of weapons, and alarmed many people of Asere quarter, 
breaking into houses and rooms, and murdered several people in 
cold blood. 

The Asere people turned up at once, mustered more people than 
the pursuers, but they were soon scattered by the well-armed body 
of .bimes Town. The people of the other two quarters — Abora 
and Gbesc — would have armed, but considering that Mensa, on 
whose account the Amanfu people were fighting, belonged to them, 
they did not interfere. Hence the people of Otu street and those 
of Asere quarter alone were invaded by the James Town people, 
and several men were killed on both sides. Men and women were 
shut up in their houses till dusk, at which time the people of James 
Town set fire to a house in Otu street, which burnt the greater 
part of Dutch Town. This roused the indignation of the other two 
quarters. Captain Mensa Maclean (who was made captain instead 
of Kodsho Ababio when he was elected king of James Town) put 
himself at the head of his company in Gbese, marched to the field, 
and shut up the James Town people from running into or out of 
the town for water, provisions and firewood. 

The influential people of James Town, who boldly appeared on 
the scene, were the late old Bruce and the late Mr. Charles Ban- 
nerman. Both had blood connection in Asere quarter. The mother 
of the former and the grandmother of the latter (that is the mother 



326 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

of old Bannerman) were noble ladies with large connection in that 
quarter. The old Bannerman was absent in Europe, and had left 
his large trading business in charge of his son Charles, who know- 
ing his father's connection in Asere, and having ample means at 
his disposal to bring about peace, offered large indemnity to the 
people of Dutch Town for the loss they had sustained. But they, 
determined only to fight, declined this offer. There was moreover 
no commandant either in Dutch Fort nor in James Fort, which 
state of things obliged governor Edward P. A. Carstensen of Chri- 
stiansborg to interfere by stationing some dozen soldiers from the gar- 
rison of Christiansborg at Akra to prevent the outbreak of civil war. 

Upon the following considerations, king Taki I. and his great 
chiefs resolved to have the matter amicably settled, viz. that king 
Kodsho Ababio of .James Town belonged to Gbese and was the 
former captain over the company which had seized upon .James 
Town — that all the influential people of .James Town were their 
brethren and relatives — • and that Mr. Charles Bannerman also 
was offering large indemnity for their losses, besides the Danish 
governor's interfering for peace. They consequently raised the siege 
of James Town. 

A grand court was held by King Taki, his great chiefs, the 
Akuashong and Anobua (the influential men of a town) with kings 
and chiefs from several Ga towns. The case was investigated and 
Akoi was found guilty. Akoi was drowned in the sea. This was 
the ancient capital punishment of the Akras. Beheading criminals 
is what they imitated from the Twi people. Mr. Charles Banner- 
man's offer was accepted, and Adote Osiaboo, escaping with his 
life, had to pay a large portion of the expenses incurred in the in- 
vestigation in the shape of a fine. — 

At governor Carstensen's departure for Europe governor Schmid 
assumed the administration. 

In December 1847 another disturbance took place at Shai. One 
Otwetwerebo had been killed by order of Odoi Ansa on a sus- 
picion of having poisoned some one. Ansa was arrested by the 
soldiers sent by the governor, but was taken by force from the 
soldiers on their way to Christiansborg. For this offence an ex- 
pedition was immediately organized by the governor to Shai. The 
soldiers under Lieutenant Larsen burnt down the town Mia, arrested 
the chiefs of Shai and brought them to Christiansborg where they 
were punished. 



Chapter XXVIII. 327 

Such repeated revolts, insults, and disobedience in the settlements 
of the Danish government may have induced the authorities in 
Denmark to give up their costly yet beloved settlements on the 
(Told Cost after nearly two centuries' occupation. 

We must speak briefly of the benefits conferred on this colony 
by the Danish government. 

Since the fort in Osu was built in 1659, and especially since the 
African Trading Companj' in Copenhagen surrendered their charter 
to the crown of Denmark during the reign of Frederick III. of 
Denmark and Norway, great attention was paid to the temporal 
and spiritual welfare of the natives. Several good governors and 
officials were sent out, and most had died; several pious pastors 
and European colonists were sent out, who did their best for the 
improvement of the people. Monthlj^ stipends were paid to the 
kings, chiefs, and linguists in every town, besides Christmas pres- 
ents, Sunday's liquor, etc., to all of them. No revenue whatever 
was collected, but every second year a ship sent out with goods, 
chiefly Danish iron-bars, rum, cloth, guns, cowries and cash, etc., 
for government expenditure. In return the ships were only bal- 
lasted with sand!! Their headquarter Christiansborg was so im- 
proved and enriched that it became the first town of great import- 
ance on the whole Gold Coast. Artificers of every description 
necessary during that age for Africa were only sought after and 
employed from Christiansborg. In short, whatsoever things were 
necessary for the comtort, improvement and elevation of a people 
were bestowed by the Danish government. 

But after such a sacrifice of so many precious lives and money, 
apparently with little result, tlie king of Denmark was obliged to 
make overtures to the English government for the purchase of the 
settlements on the Gold Coast. The sum of ^^ 10,000 was paid 
by the English government, and in 1850 the Danish possessions, 
chiefly the forts, Christiansborg Castle in Osu, Augustenborg in 
Teshi, Fredensborg in Ningo, Kongensteen in Ada and Prindsen- 
steen in Keta, were ceded to the English government. 

(Tovernor Carstensen, having arrived from Denmark by an Eng- 
lish vessel, put up at Mr. Bannerman's house that evening, and 
forwarded the dispatch to governor Schmid in the castle of Chri- 
stiansborg. The following day his excellency came in person to 
the castle and held council with the officials, Mr. Schmid, Mr. Schon- 
ning, and Mr. Larsen. The chiefs of Christiansborg, Labade, and 



328 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Teshi were summoned to the castle, and were told that his ma- 
jesty the king of Denmark had ceded his possessions on the Gold 
Coast to the English government, and that the chiefs and their sub- 
jects would now come under the protection of the English, who 
would also take their interests at heart as the Danes had done. 
They asked a few days' permission to lay the matter before their 
people and to return an answer after that. They returned after 
three days to say, they as well as their people would accept the 
English. A grand meeting of all the merchants and principal men 
was held, when governor Winniett, Mr. Bannerman, commandant 
Schomerus of Creve Cct'ur, Dr. Dolce, Revs. Freeman and Whar- 
ton, captain Simms, Charles, James, and Edmund Bannerman, and 
several gentlemen were present, and settled the transfer. The chiefs 
asked, ''Who would be the governor?" "Mr. Bannerman will be 
commandant'", was the reply of governor Winniett. The}" were 
greatly pleased with the appointment, as they knew Mr. Banner- 
man was a generous and kind-hearted gentleman, and after a pres- 
ent of one puncheon of rum by governor Winniett the meeting 
broke up. 

On the 6^^ March 1850, the 1^* West India regiment under Lieu- 
tenant Stocks marched to the castle, the Danish flag was lowered 
and the Union Jack was hoisted up. After that the Danish sol- 
diers under Lieutenant Larsen marched out from the castle amid 
showers of tears. The educated community and all the right-minded 
and grateful parties were in tears, while the rest were rejoicing! 
They had been told, English vessels will henceforth lay anchor in 
the roads at Christiansborg, and they will trade in paltry articles, 
provision etc. with the vessels. Governor Schmid took his quar- 
ters at Miss Nicolina Broch's, Mr. Schonning at the Redoubt, and 
Mr. Larsen at Mr. Biirgesen's. The government furniture and old 
guns of the soldiers and some other things were sold at public 
auction. Governors Carstensen and Schmid, and Mr. Larsen re- 
paired to Europe, but Mr. Schonning died a few days after from grief. 
Some of the people composed this poem at that time: — 
Brofo eba e, Brofo eba e, Nlesi Brgfo eba, wohsumo, 
Brofo ete e, Brofo ete e, Dan Brofo ete, wohsumo, 
Wonsumo gba, wohsumo gba, wohsumo. 
"White men iiave come, English wliite men have come, we like it, 
White men have gone, Danish white men have gone, we like it, 
Surely we like, surely we like it.'" 



Chapter XXIX. 329 

CHAPTER XXIX. 

Admiuistration of Justice according to English law. — Its effect upon the 
people. — Imposition of a poll-tax. — Mode which the government should 
have adopted in collecting it. — Conspiracy among the people to refuse 
paying the tax. — Governor Hill's patience with the folly of the people. 
— Bombardment of Christiansborg, Labade, and Teshi by H M. S. 
"Scourge", commodore John Adams. — Peace made and the rebuilding 
of Christiansborg. 1851 — 1856. 

No native gentleman could better have occupied the most re- 
sponsible post as a commandant for a people, who nearly two hun- 
dred years had been under the jurisdiction of a foreign nation, 
than the late James Bannerman, Esq., of Akra. He was known by 
all the natives on the Gold Coast as one of the three principal mer- 
chants, and highly distinguished by generosity and peaceful dis- 
position, so that Sir Winniett found it verj^ easy to introduce him 
to the people as the English commandant for the Danish settlements 
on the Gold Coast. We may attribute the easy transfer of the 
people to the English solely to Mr. Bannerman's policy in having 
prepared their minds before the arrival of Sir Winniett. Neverthe- 
less, the administration of justice according to the laws of England 
involved some serious difficulties. The first thing which offended 
the people was the law against cruel treatment of wives. In all 
cases of cruel treatment the wives had now the option of leaving 
their husbands, whilst under tlie Danish government liberty was 
given to the native laws and customs in such matters. The second 
offence in the notion of the people was about ill-treatment of pawns 
and domestic slaves, when sometiiiies those people were made free. 
Another offence was, that no stipends were allowed by the English. 
These and other things had already begun to act upon the minds 
of the general public; yet there was no sign of public discontent. 

A few weeks after the assumption of the English government, a 
very grave case, unheard of on the Gold Coast, took place at Ningo 
in April 1850. Shang, a respectable headman of the place, was 
accused of having poisoned a person by enchantment. The chief 
and elders of the place, without reporting the ease to the authori- 
ties, actually roasted the man alive. Besides this, there were sev- 
eral charges against the chief and people for breach of the peace. 
The chief and the elders were brought to Christiansborg; the case 
was investigated, and the elders were sentenced to im[irisonment 



330 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

with hard labour at Cape Coast castle. There several men among 
them succumbed through hardship and died. 

In October a similar crime committed at Ada was reported to 
the government. Otumfoo and several other chiefs were summoned 
to appear, but they refused to obey and assaulted the bailiffs. On 
the 20**^ October Governor Winniett distributed ammunition of war 
to the West India regiment consisting of 100 men; captain Ade 
and some chiefs with their forces got their share, and an expedition 
was marched by the governor himself to Ada. The rebels asked 
for peace, were lined, and the offenders were deported to Cape 
Coast Castle and imprisoned. 

It was thought, when the English became possessed of the Danish 
settlements, that it would facilitate the introduction of custom du- 
ties, which would more than defray the expenses of government;, 
but the Dutch government, whose settlements were dovetailed be- 
tween the different English stations, having declined to impose 
similar duties, it was found necessary to abandon the project. 
Governor Winniett died on 4"^ December 1850, without seeing the 
completion of this his favourite scheme. The company of P* West 
India regiment was sent back to Sierra-Leone, Governor Major Hill 
assumed the administration and the Gold Coast corps was insti- 
tuted. His excellency, acting upon the recommendation of Lord 
Grey, who took a most warm interest in the advancement of the 
natives and made himself thoroughly acquainted with our condi- 
tion, thought he could raise a revenue in the country, capable of 
defraying the expenses of the administration. The Fantes, the old 
allies of the English, may have then become alive to the necessity 
of contributing to the support of the government (it was even said 
afterwards that a single lady in Cape Coast alone suggested the 
idea), but our people here at Akra had not the remotest idea of 
supporting yet. 

King Kodsho Ababio of James Town, king Notei Ababio of Chri- 
stiansborg, king Kwadade of Akuapem, king Ata Panyin of Akem 
Abuakwa, king Agyemang of Akem Kotoku, king Kwadsho Dei 
of Krepe, and the chiefs from Labade to Ada and Krobo were all 
summoned to Christiansborg and had a grand meeting with gov- 
ernor Hill and commandant Bannerman. The necessity of contri- 
buting towards the administration of the government was suggested 
to them. They begged leave to retire for a few minutes to de- 
liberate, which his excellency might have allowed; but captain 



Chapter XXIX. 331 

Ade, an influential relative of Mr. Bannernian, stood and said, "I 
agree to contribute to the support of the English administration.'' 
The kings and chiefs then were forced to second the captain and the 
poll-tax of 15 strings of cowries, now three pence, but then six 
pence per head, was fixed. The customary presents of rum etc. 
were given, and the meeting adjourned; the kings and chiefs re- 
turned to their respective countries. 

The government might in this case have taken a census of the 
whole population, and then fixed the yearly sum to be paid on the 
king or chief of a district or town respectively, holding him re- 
sponsible, and appointing agents to receive the tax collected by the 
chief for the government. That would have certainly saved the 
trouble and all inconveniences connected with the business. Not 
doing so, the government simply constituted the following districts^ 
without knowing the exact number of the people: the Akra di- 
strict, Adangme district, Akuapem and Akem districts, and em- 
ployed respectful native agents to collect the poll-tax. The first 
collection in 1851 was quietly and cheerfully given, yet some com- 
plained they had pawned their sons and daughters in pajang it. 

In 1850 Mr. .J. Bannerman was appointed governor of Cape Coast. 
During his administration the far-famed fetish Nananum of whole 
Fante was found to be nothing but a set of impostors having con- 
cealed themselves in the grove, who were over two centuries held 
as gods who used to descend from heaven into the grove to reveal 
hidden things. Mr. Sam. Bannerman, the commandant at Winneba^ 
assumed the command in the absence of his father. The old gen- 
tleman, we may so say, exercised a sort of moderation in admin- 
istering justice, knowing how leniently the Danish government was 
in exercising the administration on those natives in times past; 
but the new commandant went to the very letter of the Eng- 
lish law, 

A case happened in Krobo between Zota Kakpo and Akokopa 
on one part, and chief Ologo Patu on the other part. Complaint 
was laid in the castle by the two former against Ologo. He refused 
to obey the summons and insulted the bailiffs and constables. An 
expedition under Mr. Bannerman was sent against the recusant 
chief. The Krobg chiefs had to meet the commandant at Asabi 
and to bring Ologo Patu with them. The case was investigated, 
and Ologo was arrested and sent handcufted to the coast. Having 
paid a fine of 3000 heads of cowries he was released. 



332 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

On the arrival of Major Hill in October 1851, Mr. Bannerman 
returned to Christiansborg as commandant, at which time the sec- 
ond collection of the poll-tax was to take place. 

In the first week of January 1854, the acting governor Cruick- 
shank arrived from Cape Coast, and after the customary salute 
had been fired by the young men of the difterent bands of Chris- 
tiansborg, the grandees of the town paid their respects to his ex- 
cellency on the next day. They were told by the governor that 
it was time to begin with the poll-tax again. They asked for a 
few days to consult about it and his excellency repaired to Cape 
Coast to be informed by Mr. Bannerman when the raising of the 
tax was to begin. 

As the grandees had promised the governor, Mr. Bannerman, 
after a few days, sent for them to come to the castle to know 
what reply they had to give. They, knowing what they were 
about, hesitated in going to the castle, but assembled outside, re- 
questing Mr. Bannerman rather to come to them. They were told 
at once to appear personally before Mr. Bannerman and to show 
cause why they should not come inside. They left the summons 
on the spot and retired to town. It was impossible for the com- 
mandant to overlook such an insult. He went out with the few 
soldiers to arrest the grandees, but none was found, save one, who 
even upon being arrested was rescued by his people. Mr. Banner- 
man therefore called the Akuashong and the native merchants to 
the castle and told them to advise the grandees to obey the sum- 
mons on Saturday next. 

But the grandees lelt the town and resided at Labade. Neither 
the Akuashong nor the native merchants could induce them to 
return. Hence this misconduct of the grandees towards the gov- 
ernment was reported by Mr. Bannerman to the acting governor 
Cruickshank at Cape Coast. He therefore returned to Christians- 
borg in February. Meanwhile a night meeting of all the Akua- 
shongs of Christiansborg, Labade and Teshi etc. had been convened 
at Kpeshina i. e. at the mouth of the lagoon Kpeshi, between La- 
bade and Teshi on the 12*^Nlanuary, and there they swore, not to 
let the grandees go to the fort nor pay any tax, even if the gov- 
ernment should fight with them, and to make war with any party 
breaking the agreement. Previous to the taking of this oath chief 
Own of Christiansborg, then employed in the capacity of the gov- 
ernment interpreter, did not take part in this meeting; his brother 



Chapter XXIX. 333 

Anang- was required to take the lirst oath in the name of Own. 
To this he objected, saying, he had not consulted his brother,*and 
would therefore not do it. One Saki of Ohristiansborg then took 
the oath, the other headmen of the Akuashongs seconded him, and 
the meeting- broke up. However, the headmen of Christiansborg 
were told b}^ those of the other towns, that if they listened to tales 
of their coloured masters and mistresses to infringe the agreement, 
they would be made pads by which the castle of Christiansborg 
would be carried into the sea. 

On Saturday the 14*'' January over 3000 armed men of Christians- 
borg, Labade, Teshi, Ningowa etc. assembled at Klgtemushi, im- 
mediately under the loaded cannons and rockets of the castle. The 
educated native community, some Basel missionaries of Christians- 
borg, viz. Revs. John Stanger, C. W. Locher, John Zimmermann and 
August Steinhauser, a deputation from king Taki of Akra and 
Kwame Mienya, an influential man of Cape Coast, assembled in a 
group of their own to try whether they could make peace. Mr. 
Julius Briandt of Christiansborg was the interpreter for the edu- 
cated community. Badu Asgnkg, the powerful linguist of the in- 
furiated people, addressed the assembly to the effect, that they 
would not serve the English government any longer, nor pay the 
poll-tax. Alimo, another powerful linguist of king Taki, replied 
that they might refuse paying the tax, but not throw off their al- 
legiance to the British government. Badu Asgnko was obliged to 
retract that part of his speech as to their throwing off allegiance 
to the English government. 

A second grand meeting of the armed men was held a few days 
after this at Teiashi in the valley between Christiansborg and La- 
bade — where they would be safer from the actions of the cannons, 
than in the site selected the previous day. 

Here Messrs. J. Richter and H. Svanikier most vividly pointed 
out to the chiefs of Christiansborg the danger of fighting the gov- 
ernment, advising them never to mind what the other townspeople 
said, that Christiansborg might not be destroyed. A stir was made 
by some ruffians when they perceived the chiefs of Christiansborg 
were on the point of giving in, upon which the whole assembljs 
amounting to over 4000 men, at once took up arms to attack the 
merchants. Failing a second time with their negotiation for peace, 
the educated community of Christiansborg reported the state of 
things to King Taki. He summoned the armed men to meet him 



334 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

at Okaishi near Dutch Town. Over 40CX) armed men assembled 
there, but with no good result; so they all marched back through 
Christiansborg to Labade. Fires from the loaded cannons and 
rockets could have been easily opened upon them when passing 
by the fort; yet the government exercised patience with their 
folly. They were, however, warned never to come again to Chri- 
stiansborg so armed. 

After such an insult to the British flag the garrison was strength- 
ened with munition, pi-ovision and soldiers, and Mr. Cruickshank, 
witnessing all these, deliberating as to march out against the re- 
bels. Another rush into Christiansborg was made to capture chief 
Own; but he had escaped to Akra. Like mere boys, they first 
sang to welcome the British government, and now composed this 
poem against them: 

VVoapoma aprem antum' antow, 

Woapoma aprem antum' antow. 

Abrofofo akotwa iikontompo ma Abibifo yi tow. 

Etow no, 3'emma o; mpanyimfo, yemma o, 

Wohkose Obroni mma ommera! 

Cannon they have loaded, but couldn't fire. 

Cannon they have loaded, but couldn't fire. 

Whitemen dishonestly imposed poll-tax on the blacks. 

The poll-tax we will never pay, the grandees never deliver up. 

Go tell the white man to come out! 
The pity at that time was, that both the king, chief (manklalo) 
and linguist of Christiansborg had died before the row took place, 
and the people were ruled by the grandees, otherwise all these 
disturbances might have easily been settled. The principal gran- 
dees then were, Omabo Okoi, Adotei Twi, Sewa Kwawushi; these 
three had the care of the stools of the king, manklalo, and Alata 
chief; Badu Asghko, the powerful linguist, Noi Dshetri, Adukoi, 
Sewa Koma, Tete Gbodo, Saba Ogang; Noete Otututshe, Ashong 
Amakoi, Noe Sekang, Koi fio, Abete, Koi Ashong; Adom Agbo, 
Kodsho Baka, Odoi Ati, Otuaio, Awule Fenin etc. The king of 
Labade was Akonno, and Tggbo Teko Asere was the manklalo. 
However prince Frederick Dowuona, the heir to the stool of Chris- 
tiansborg, who had been educated by the Danish government in 
Copenhagen, was called to town from his village at Shantshe. He 
could have done something towards peace, but as not yet on the 
stool, was powerless. He voluntarily offered to go to the castle 



Chapter XXIX. 335 

to settle the case, but the grandees opposed it. Old Adotci Twi 
of Christiansborg advised the other grandees to be careful and never 
to let others make fool of them ; he was fined for that and hooted. 

At last Mr. Cruickshank determined to march out and attack 
the rebels and was making the necessarj' preparations, when his 
excellency governor Hill arrived, and made another attempt to 
settle the case amicably. He sent for the native merchants, Messrs. 
William Lutterodt, John Richter, Hans Svanikier, Lebrecht Hesse, 
Kobert Richter, Julius Briandt, Vald. Magnusen, Philipp Lutterodt, 
Neils Holm, Joseph Fleischer etc. to appear in the castle. They 
were commissioned to bring about peace between the government 
and the rebels; but their mission failed. All the mulatto ladies 
went on their own account to the governor to intercede for peace. 
His excellency was willing to overlook the insult given to the 
British government, if the rebels would lay down their arms and 
come back to town. This was communicated to them by the la- 
dies, who urgently begged them to yield and thus to prevent the 
destruction of town, property, and lives. But their efforts were 
fruitless. Seeing the rebels march towards the town again, the 
governor gave order to attack them the moment they approached 
within gunshot. 

Unfortunately while preparing to carry out this order, adjutant 
Hill and two soldiers were killed and three others wounded by an 
explosion of gunpowder. 

The governor now determined to fight the rebels and therefore 
commissioned Mr. Cruickshank to Akuapem and Akem to obtain 
assistance from Kwadade, Ata, and Agyemang (at least so the 
people said about his commission). The three kings were not wil- 
ling to render any assistance to the government, as they knew it 
was on account of the poll-tax. They dispatched messengers, how- 
ever, in company of Mr. Cruickshank, to assist the government in 
making peace. Both the commissioner and the Akuapem and Akem 
delegates arrived on the 4*"^ March. On the 6^^ a meeting was held 
at Labade, at which Mr. Cruickshank, the educated community of 
Christiansborg with the Basel missionaries and the Rev. Wharton 
of the Wesleyan mission in Akra, king Taki in person, and the 
Twi delegates were present. Through their means the desired peace 
was made, to the effect, that the rebels must pay 2000 heads of 
cowries, and the native merchants secured the fine by pledging 
their gold watches, guards, and jewels to the government; three 



336 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

guns were fired to ratify the peace. Captain Bird was appointed 
commandant and Mr. Bannerman retired to Akra on Thursday the 
9*'' March. Chief Kwame Mienya and Mr, G. Amissah, both of Cape 
Coast, who had done their best to effect peace, but had only been 
insulted by linguist Badu Asohko with these words, "What an 
earthen pot had failed to cook, a calabash pot could never have 
done if, brought our case so far and returned home. When the 
following poem was composed in the Fante country. 

Osufoo, gyaeo, Osufoo, gyaeo! 

Dammirifua mu nni ade! Osufoo, gyae! 

Discontinue, people of Christiansborg, 

For in condolence there is no riches. 
Everybody must come to the conclusion, that after the recent 
disturbances had been put down, the wished -for peace would con- 
tinue, although the turbulant spirit had not sufficiently cooled down. 
Parties summoned to court were not always willing to appear, yet 
every well-disposed person expected that things would right them- 
selves. 

Some months had passed, and the public peace had not been 
disturbed, when Captain Bird, in taking a walk on the main road 
to Akra, in the afternoon of Sunday the 27*^ August, met some 
people rolling a puncheon of rum from Akra to Christiansborg. 
The rum had been bought by one Late and was seized by Captain 
Bird as smuggled, as no permit or duty had been paid on it. 
Whether Late snuiggled intentionally or through ignorance, we are 
unable to say. 

The report of this confiscation was brought to town; the people 
rushed out to get it back by force from the soldiers. A fist and 
stone-fight ensued. The people got possession of the puncheon and 
drove the soldieis into the castle. Captain Bird ordered the sol- 
diers to man the batteries and was on the point of firing upon the 
rebels, but they dispersed. Lieutenant Brownell went out at the 
head of 16 soldiers, and met no resistance whatever. Lieutenant 
Duke and .50 men arrived from Cape Coast castle on Monday, the 
4^^ September, which made the garrison now to consist of captain 
Bird, lieutenants Brownell and Duke, and ensign Clarke of the 
Gold Coast corps with 120 rank and file. Lieutenant Brownell, 
who had arrived on purpose, set about collecting the poll-tax. 

On Wednesday, the SO^^ of August, Messrs. W. Lutterodt, J. Rich- 
ter and people paid theirs. We would say, they started in the 



Chapter XXIX. 337 

right direction, which might induce others to follow, but it should 
have been previous to that row. The grandees and Akuashong, 
already excited, heard that some of the native mercliants had paid 
the tax. The}' posted guards to intercept any taxes carried to the 
castle, and deliver tiiem to the 'Akuashong. We say firstly, that 
the Akuashong had no right whatever to interfere or to seize gov- 
ernment propert3\ But in the second place, we should ask, "What 
were the terms of the peace made by governor Hill? Was the 
peace made only to lay down the arms or how? And lastly, how 
did Lieutenant Brownell set about collecting the tax? Was there 
a meeting held between himself and the chiefs before he began to 
collect?" We should think, the grandees as being in the ''Pro- 
tectorate'* and British subjects ought to have submitted the case 
to Lieutenant Brownell for explanation; but they thought that the 
recent peace meant abolishing the poll-tax. With that idea, they 
and the Akuashong assembled and had the native merchants sum- 
moned before them to show cause why they should pay the tax 
abolished. 

The merchants were lined for a puncheon of rum and strictly 
charged never to pay anything again. On Thursday the 31''* Au- 
gust the people went so far as to stop the provisions going over to 
the castle. Lieutenant Brownell and other otticials and soldiers 
were nearly killed by the stones thrown at them when interfering. 
One Kwaku was killed by a stone thrown at him from the castle 
during the light. 

The government now determined to chastise the rebels and made 
the necessary preparations. The Basel missionaries then on the 
coast, Revs. J. Stanger, C. W. Locher, J. Zimmermann, and Aug. 
Steinhauser, who had rendered every assistance in their power to 
effect peace since the row took place, but had failed, were invited 
by the government to remove to the castle in case of any emer- 
gencj^; but as missionaries sent out to preach the gospel, they 
were thankful for the offer, but preferred to be neutral. The na- 
tive merchants of the town, perceiving the preparation of the gov- 
ernment, and hearing a rumor that the town would be bombarded, 
went to the castle to ascertain the truth of it. 

Captain Bird plainly answered them in the affirmative, but as to 
time or date, that was indefinite. Some of the town's-people began 
to remove their [iroperty to Akra, Labade etc., but most could not 
believe it and delayed removing their things. The Basel mission- 



338 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

arieSj having declared neutral, knew they were safe, and therefore 
did not remove anything. H. M. S. "Scourge", Commodore John 
Adams, appeared on the roads of Akra at 5 p. m. on Monday the 
11**^ September, The people had not the slightest idea that it could 
interfere with their intended siege of the castle. The Labades and 
Teshis had assured those in Christiansborg that they would bring 
a good number of ladders to climb the castle. 

At last the day for action was appointed by government, which 
fortunately the people got to know of, although indirectly from one 
of the white ollrtcials. The bombardment was to take place on 
Wednesday the 13"^ September. It was the Homowo Wednesday, 
when the people assembled in the towns are generally drunk; but 
now they kept sober, awaiting the action. 

On the 12*'^ September the gunner Lieutenant (now Rear Admiral) 
Hunt Grubbe from the Scourge volunteered with two other jack- 
tars to instruct the garrison of Christiansborg Castle in the art of 
constructing defence in view of the bombardment. On the morn- 
ing of the 13*'^ September, the memorable day for us people of 
Christiansborg town, the powerful John Bull, whom our people had 
challenged as "having loaded cannon but not being able to fire 
them", got up after his long patience. The Scourge weighed an- 
chor and made for Labade. A very wise plan that was! By that 
strategy the forces of Labade and Teshi etc. were detached at once 
from joining the force of Christiansborg to effect their intended 
siege of the castle. 

At 7 a. m. Bump! Bump! Bump! the Scourge attacked at the 
time the first ceremony of Lakpa was being perforn)ed among the 
initiated worshippers. It is on that day generally every year 
that over 5 to 6000 heathens — men, women, boys and girls — 
assemble in the afternoon to play the most shameful dance in 
which all men and women are allowed by Lakpa to embrace each 
other publicly! A few minutes after the Scourge commenced with 
the attack on Labade, the garrison began to pour into the town 
showers of shells. The people then took up arms, but could not 
get a point to make any attack; so the hunters and the rharp- 
shooters ensconced themselves in the stone buildings close to the 
castle, where they were able to pick off the gunners at 30 yards 
from their hiding-place. Most of the armed men concealed them- 
selves in the quarries near the town. The women and children 
had escaped to the fields. At noon of that day the fire of the 



Chapter XXIX. 339 

garrison was actually silenced by the muskets of the hunters. No 
gunner nor soldier could attempt to load the guns or fire his rifle. 
The Scourge was at that time bombarding Teshi. Unfortunately 
the halyards of the flag had been cut by a shot of the hunters, so 
the '^ Scourge"' could not be signalled to their aid. At the risk of 
his own life Lieutenant Hunt Grubbe with the aid of his jack-tars 
succeeded in repairing the damage, and it was during this opera- 
tion that the lieutenant was wounded. At 5 p. m. the ''Scourge'' 
was signalled to come to the assistance of the fort, which she did 
in the most efftcient manner and began to bombard those buildings 
in which the hunters had ensconced themselves, and the town at 
large. Every fire from the people was instantly silenced. The 
shells were called "obata" i.e. half measure pot. Lieutenant Hunt 
Grubbe and his two tars succeeded in effecting such arrangements 
daring the night of the 13'^ that the gunners were rendered com- 
paratively safe. The armed men of the town were on their M'atch 
about the town since the bombardment commenced, to fight the 
soldiers when they would be marched out, although the firing from 
the fort continued daily on the town to the 14*^^ and 15'^^ On the 
15"' the "Scourge" went to Cape Coast for more munition of war 
and provision (at least so the people thought). This gave them an ■ 
opportunity to think of storming the castle. King Taki, hearing of 
their intentions, opposed it, advising them rather to leave the town 
and to encamp in the field to watch the movements of the gov- 
ernment, for he had heard a rumour that the Fantes would be 
called to assist the government. Through that advice all the armed 
men quitted their hiding-places for the field, and on the following 
day it was reported that the soldiers had come out of the garrison 
and were plundering the houses. They were forthwith attacked 
and driven back to the garrison with one killed on each side and 
some wounded. On the 17"' the Scourge returned from Cape Coast 
and again bombarded the town. Lieutenant Poko and 40 men of 
the Gold Coast corps landed from the Scourge, On the 19"' she 
threw supplies into the fort, and then went off to burn Labade and 
Teshi — the latter was burnt to the ground, the former not affected. 
The ignorant people tried to fire their muskets into the "Scourge", 
a very foolish idea! Some Fante armed men came under com- 
mandant Sam. Bannerman, but they ran away the very night of 
their arrival from Akra. It was through king Taki's persuasions 
that the people at large gave up the town and removed to tlie 

09 * 



340 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

bush, having suffered a loss of only live men and two women, in- 
cluding the poor blind Erick Engniann and his daughter, also half 
blind, who was leading the father to the fort for protection. At 
Labade 6 were killed, but none at Teshi, and few wounded. Whilst 
the garrison had a loss of 7 killed and 23 wounded, including among 
the latter Captain (now Major General) Henry Bird and Lieutenant 
Hunt Grubbe. (We quote this from an English news-paper — "The 
number of killed and wounded on our side sufficiently proves the 
obstinate attack made by the natives, who are by no means to be 
despised as foes.") 

The soldiers now freely entered every house, plundered every- 
thing, and pulled down several stone buildings which stood close 
to the castle. The two houses of the Basel mission sustained sev- 
eral breaches from the shells, which made way for the people to 
plunder nearly all they had. Several manuscripts written by the 
Rev. Zimmermann were lost. Being thus treated b}' both white 
and black, they removed to the Wesleyan mission house at Akra^ 
and after a few day's stay, Mr. Zimmermann removed to Abokobi 
with his family and the students under him, and established there 
a permanent mission station. 

Governor Hill then arrived with some men-of-war to pursue the 
people in the bush with the marines; but king Taki interceded, 
and so that project was abandoned, and peace concluded. Every chief 
engaged in the fight had to give a son or nephew as hostage to 
the government, which they did. The mission houses were re- 
paired, and Messrs. Stanger and Locher re-occupied them. The 
people of Christiansborg, who had been assured of assistance by 
the Labades, Teshis, etc., were greatly disappointed. Their whole 
property, consisting of several beautiful stone buildings, twenty-two- 
of which were supposed to be worth from ^"^400 to ^""SOOO each, 
money, jewels, goods, furniture, besides their influence and glory^ 
and their influential men and people were lost in the bargain, and 
themselves dispersed in the country! Oh, that we were wiser in 
time, that we did not kick against the pricks! Should not others 
take warning by us! King Taki, after he had made peace between 
the English government and the people of Christiansborg, was gath- 
ered to his fathers on Friday the 20'"^ March 1856, after a peace- 
ful and glorious reign of 31 years, having acceded in 1825, after 
the battle at Cape Coast. 

It was through the Basel missionaries, who not only reoccupied 



Chapter XXIX. 341 

their houses iirst, but also rendered every possible assistance to 
the people, that they were encouraged to return from the bush 
and rebuild the town. Rev. T. B. Freeman, then employed in the 
capacity of commandant, also contributed greatly to the success of 
recalling the people back to town. 



Rule, supremely rule, Britannia, rule 

Thy acquired colony on the Gold Coast! 

Protected from the tyrant and the slaver 

By blood of thy noble sons shed on fields, 

Besides thousands and thousands of pounds. 

Destined by Heaven to have the rule. 

Godly, justly, fatherly, therefore, rule. 

For years and years ago hadst thou to spend 

And nothing, or at least not much to gain. 

Because the Danes and the Dutch 

Had each their government on the Gold Coast. 

The foes by land and sea hast thou vanquished; 

Two inner and dangerous foes exist: 

Ignorance and funeral custom. 

The policy to allow ignorance 

To exist, and then to rule, rule at ease, 

Is never the spirit of Britannia. 

By thee no nation ever was paralyzed. 

'Tis mission's duty the gospel to preach, 

The governmenfs, classical education. 

One word, and the funeral custom will die. 

And all will sing, "Rule, Britannia, rule!" 

Superstition will then flee far away. 

And Christianity will rule supreme! 



Appendix A. 

Lists of European Governors on the Gold Coast. 

1. Lists of the Governors of the Netherlands* Possessions from 1638 to 1872, 
showing their name, rank or title, and their time of being in office. 

Abbreviations: Dir. gen. = Director general; Gov. = Governor; Pres. = 
President; C. = Commander; a, i. =; ad interim; Lt. Col. = Lieutenant Colonel; 
r. ^= returned home: d. = died. 



Names 


Rank 


« 'I 

05 o 


CO 

>< 
ce 
'■a 


of their being in office 


Remarks 


N. Van Iperen 


Dir. gen. 




9 


17 


1638 Oct. 1 


1639 Jul. 18 




A. J. Montfort 


^ 


1 


b 


19 








J. Kuyghaver 


n 


4 


11 


12 








J. Van der Well 


^^ 


4 


3 


22 








H. Doedens 






2 


2 








A. Gocq 


Gov. 




9 


4 








J. Ruyghaver 


Dir. gen. 


4 


10 


9 








J. Valkenburg 


ri 


3 


3 


20 








C. Van Houssen 


n 


2 


11 


11 








D. Wilre 


r) 




8 


16 








J. Valkenburg 


r> 


4 


5 


11 








H. Van Ongerdonk 


Gov. 


1 


6 


10 








D. Wilre 


Dir. gen. 


6 


4 










J. Eoot 


« 


1 


3 


1 








A. Meermans 


n 


3 


6 


13 








D. Verhoutert 


V 


3 


4 


6 








T. Ernsthuis 


^ 


1 


11 


14 








N. Svveerts 


n 


5 


6 


14 








J. Smits 


n 


4 


1 


24 








J. Staphorst 


r> 


2 


2 


15 








J. Van Sevenhuysen 


n 


5 


11 


24 








W. de la Palma 


„ 


3 


5 


3 








P. Nuyts 


n 


2 


11 


5 








H. Van Weesel 


Gov. 




10 


4 








A. Schoonheidt 


Dir. gen. 


1 


8 


2 








H. Haring 


„ 


5 


1 


26 








A. E. Kobberts 


n 


1 


9 


29 








W. Bullier 


n 


4 


6 


5 








A. Houtman 


^ 




8 


2 








M. de Kraane 


Gov. 




6 


14 


1723 May 28 


1723 Dec. 14 




P. Valkenier 


Dir. gen. 


3 


2 


24 


1723 Dec. 14 


1727 Mar. 10 


r. 


E. Norri 




2 


11 


25 


1727 Mar. 11 


1730 Mar. 5 


r. 


Jan Pranger 


n 


4 




6 


1730 Mar. 6 


1734 Mar. 12 


r. 


Ant. Van Overbeck 


55 


1 


11 


20 


1734 Mar. 13 


1736 Feb. 21 


d. 


M. Francis Des Bordes 


r» 


3 


5 


3 


1736 Oct. 15 


1740 Mar. 16 


d. 


Francis Barbrins 


Gov. 




11 


>0 


1740 Mar. 17 


1741 Mar. 7 


d. 



Appendix A. 



343 



Names 



Rank 









f 




C 


09 


e 


>t 


B 



of their being in office 



Remarks 



J. Baron fie Petersen 
Jan Van Voorst 
N.M.V.Nood-(le-Gieterre 
Roelof Ulsen 
Mr. L. J. Van Tets 
Mr. J. P. T. Hnydecooper 
David Pieter Erasmi 
Henrick Walmheck 
Mr. J. P. T. Hnydecooper 

Pieter Woortman 

Jacobus Van der Puye 

Pieter Volkmar 

G. Servis Galle 

Adolph Thierens 

G. Servis Galle 

Mr. L. Van Berircii vander Gryp 

Jacobus De Veer 

Mr. L. Van Bergen vander Gryp 

Otto Arnoldns Duim 

G. H. Van Ham el 

Cornelius L. Bartels 

J. de Eoever 

Pieter Lintborst 

J. P. Hoogenboom 

J. F. Koning 

A. De Veer 

H. W. Daendels 

F. Ch. E. Oldenburg 

J. Oostbout 

F. F. L. U. Last 

L. J. Timraink 

W. Pool man 

J. H. A. Mourve 

J. D. 0. Pai;enstecher 

P. F. L. U.'Last 

J. C. V^anderBreitgenPaanw 

F. F. L. U. Lkst 

J. T. J. Creraer 

E. D. L. Van Ingen 

M. Swarte 

C. E. Lans 

H. J. Tonneboeyer 

A. Van der Eb 

H. Bosch 

A. Van der Eb 



Dir. sen. 



Gov. 
Dir. sen. 



Gov. 

Gov. gen. 
Dir. t^en. 

Gov. 
Dir. gen. 
Gov. gen. 
Dir. gen. 
Gov. gen. 

Pres. 
Dir. gen. 

Pres. 

Gov. 

n 

Gov. gen. 

Pres. 
Gov. gen. 

Pres. 

Com. gen. 
Gov. gen. 

Pres. 
Pres.com. 
Com. a. i 

Lt.Col.C 
Com. a. i 



LtCol.C. 
Com. a. i. 



Lt.Col.C. 
Com. a.i. 

Lt.Col.Gov, 



3 

10 
22 
28 
17 

8 
20 

6 

1 

1 
20 
10 
29 
12 
22 

8 
19 
10 
24 
17 
10 
17 

5 
15 
13 

6 
21 
19 
17 
15 
25 

8 
11 

8 

10 
22 
13 

16 
14 

21 

26 

7 

2 



1741 Mar. 8 



1747 Apr. 

1754 Jul. 

1755 Oct. 
1758 Jan. 
1759xMar. 
1760 Oct 



1763 Jul. 11 

1764 Sept. 1 
1767 Jun. 8 
1769Jun. 10 
1780 May 10 
1780 Dec.30 
1784 Mar. 15 
1785Feb.l4 

1786 Jun. 2 

1787 Sept. 8 
1790 Mar. 19 

1794 May 26 

1795 Jan. 10 

1796 Aug. iO 
1798 May 8 

1804 Apr. 29 

1805 Jun. 16 
1807 Jul. 22 



r. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

promoted 

d 

d. 

d. 

prom. 

d. 

d. 



1747 Apr. 10 

1754 Jul. 14 

1755 Oct. 24 

1758 Jan. 16 

1759 Mar. 12 

1760 Oct. 1 

1763 Jul. 10 

1764 Aug. 31 
1767 Jun. 7 
1769 Jun. 9 
1780 Apr. 11 
1780 Dec. 30 
1784Mar.l2[d. 

1785 Feb. 14 superseded 

1786 May 26 d. 
1787Aug.24 
1790 Mar. 18 

1794 May 25 

1795 Jan. 10 

1796 Jun. 3 
1798 May 1 

1804 Apr. 28 

1805 Jun. 15 r, 

1807 Jul. 21 

1808 Aug.llj iionil)!) murdered 



relieved 

rel. 

r. 

d. 

d. 

d. 

d. 



1837 Oct. 28 



killed by Alianlas 



was in office 184.3 



344 History of the CtoW Coast and Asante. 

2. List of the Governors of the Danish Establishments on the Gold 
Coast from the year 1698 to 1850, 

with the dates of decease, return to Europe, or being superseded. 



Ei'ik Tyllemann 
Erik Oehlsen 
Johan Tranne 
Hartvig Meyer 
Peter Swerdrup 
Peter Peterson 
Erik Lygaard 
Frantz Roye 
Knud Riist 
Peter Ostrup 
David Hernn 
Niels F. Ostrup 
Chr. Syndermann 
Hendrik von Suhni 
Fred Paid 
And. Willumsen 
Andr. Waeroe 
Severin Schilderup 
Enewold Borris 
Peter Forgensen 
Chr. Dorph 
Jorgen Bilsen 
Thomas Brock 
F. Wilder 
A. F. Hackenborg 
Foost Platfusz 
Magnus Litzow 
Magnus Hacksen 
Carl Engmann 
Christian Fessen 
Carl Resell 
Chr. Tyclisen 
Frantz Kyhberg 
Gerhardt F.Wrisber"; 



1698, died 
1698, d. 

1703 Aug. 31, d. 

1704 Apr. 23, d. 

1705 June 6, d. 

1706 May 6, d. 
1711 Aug. 17, d. 
1717 Nov. 26, d. 
1 720 Aug. 30, d. 

1722 Jan. 24, d. 
1723Jan.22, d. 

1723 Oct. 30, d. 

1724 Apr. 30, d. 
1727March.l,r. 

1727 Sept.] 8, d. 

1728 Dec. 24, d. 

1735 Aug. 12, r. 

1736 June 14, d. 
J 740 June 20, d. 

1743 May 26, d. 

1744 Feb. 3, d. 

1745 Mar. 13, d. 
1745 Mar. 23, d. 

1745 Apr. 23, d. 

1746 June 21, r. 
1751 Feb. 21 r. 

1751 March 8, d. 

1 752 July 21, d. 
1757 Mar. 10, r. 
1762 Feb. 14, r. 
1766 Oct. 20, r. 

1768 Jan. 11, d. 

1769 July 2, r. 

1770 June 1, r. 



Joachim Otto 
Johan D. FroliHch 
Niels A. Aarestrup 
Conrad Hemsen 
Jens Kjoge 
Johan Kipnasse 
Andreas Biiirn 
And. Hammer 
Bendt Olrich 
Fr. Chr. v. Hagen Baron 
Johan P. I). Wrisberg 
Jolian D. Anholm 
Johan P. D. Wrisberg 
Chr. Scliionning 
Jolian E. Richter 
J. Reiersen 
Chr. Svanekjaer 
Peter S. Steffeus 
Mathias Thonuing 
Johan Ch.voiiRichelieu 
Niels Broch 
Jens P. Findt 
Henrich G. Lind 
Ludvig v. Heia 
Helmuth v. Ahrenstorff 
Niels Broch 
Henrich G. Lind 
Niels Broch 
Frederick S. Morck 
Hans A. Giede 
Lucas Dall 
Bernhardt C.Wilkens 
Ed. J. A. Carstensen 
R. E. Schmid 



1770 June 13, d. 
1 772 June 15, d. 
1777 June 24; r. 
1780 Dec, 2, d. 
1788 Mar. 31, r. 
17F9 Oct. 23, r. 
1793Jan. 25, r. 
1793 June 30, r. 
1793 Aug. 3, d. 
1795 Aug. 17, d. 
1799 Dec. 31, r. 
1802 Oct. 1, r. 
1807 Apr. 15, r. 
1817 Mar. 1, d. 
1817 Oct. .5, d. 
18 1 9 May 15, d. 
1821 Jan. 1, s. 
1821 Sept. 10, d. 
1823 Dec. 23, r. 
1825 Mar. 16, r. 

1827 Sept 30, s. 

1828 Aug. 1, r. 
1831 Jan. 20, r. 
1831 Oct. 21, d. 
1831 Dec. 4, d. 
1833 March l,s. 

1833 July 21, d. 

1834 Dec. 2, s 
1839 Mar. 18, d. 
1839 Aug. 18, d. 
1842 May 24, r. 
1842 Aug. 26, d. 
1850 ill April r. 
1850 in April r. 



Appendix A. 



345 



3. List of the Governors of the British Settlements on the Gold Coast 

from the date of the formation of the late African Company of 

Merchants (1750, see above p. 122.) to the present time (1895). 



Names 


Rank 


Date of 
appointment 


Remarks 


Thomas Melvil 


Gov. -in-chief 


1751 June 23 


died 


William Tyraewell 


n 


1756 Jan. 23 


„ 


Charles Bell 


ad interim 


1756 Feb. 17 


superseded 


Nassau Senior 


Gov. -in-chief 


1757 Oct. 15 


55 


Charles Bell 


ri 


1761 May 10 


resigned 


William Mutter 


^ 


1763 Aug. 15 


^ 


John Hippevsley 


„ 


1766 Mar. 1 


died 


Gilbert Petrie 


J, 


1766 Aug. 11 


resigned 


John Grossle 


„ 


1769 Apr. 21 


died 


David Mill 


r 


1770Aug.ll 


superseded 


Richard Miles 


ad interim 


1777 Jan. 20 


55 


John Koberts 


Gov. -in-chief 


1780 Mar. 25 


died 


J. B. Weuves 


„ 


1781 May 26 


superseded 


Eichard Miles 


v 


1782 Apr. 29 


return, to Europe 


James Morgue 


„ 


1784 Jan. 29 


superseded 


Thomas Price 


J) 


1787 Jan. 24 


died 


Thomas Norris 




1787 Apr. 27 


resigned 


William Fielde 


n 


1789 June 20 


superseded 


John Gordon 


ad interim 


1791 Nov. 15 


,, 


A. Dalzell 


Gov. -in-chief 


1792 Mar. 30 


ret. to Eur. on leave of abs. 


Jacob Mould 


n 


1798Dec.l6 


superseded 


John Gordon 


ad interim 


1799 Jan. 4 


51 


A. Dalzell 


Gov. -in-Chief 


18a} Apr. 28 


resigned 


Jacob Mould 


„ 


1802 Sep. 30 


superseded 


Colonel G. Torrane 


n 


1805 Feb. 8 


died 


E. W. White 




1807 Dec. 4 


ret. to Europe 


Joseph Dawson 


ad interim 


1816 Apr. 21 


superseded 


John Hope Smith 


Gov. -in-chief. 


18 17 Jan. 12 


ret. to Europe 


Brig. Gen. Sir Chs. McCarthy 


y, 


1822 Mar. 27 


returned to Sierra Leone 


Major Chisholm 


Commandant 


1822 May 17 


superseded 


Brig. Gen. Sir Chs. McCarthy 


Gov. -in-chief 


1822 Nov. 28 


killed in action 


Major Chisholm 


55 


1824 Jan. 21 


died 


Major Purdon 


Commandant 


1824 July 1 


ret. to Europe 


Major Gen, Chas. Turner 


Gov. -in-chief 


1825 Mar. 22 


returned to Sierra Leone 


M. Sen. Sir Neil Campbell 


51 


1825 Apr. 7 


55 


Captain Ricketts 


Commandant 


1826 Nov. 15 


superseded 


Lieut. Colonel Lumley 


Lieut. Gov. 


1827 Oct. 15 


retnrncd to Sierra Leone 


Captain Kingston 


Commandant 


1828 Mar. 10 


^ 


Major Ricketts 


15 


1828 May 18 


^ 


John Jackson 


President 


1828 June 30 


superseded 


Captain G. Maclean 


President 


1830 Feb. 19 


ret, to Eur. on leave of al)s. 


William Topp 


ad interim 


1836 June 2() 


superseded 



346 



History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 



Names 


Rank 


Date of 
service 


Remarks 


Captain Maclean 


President 


1838—44 


superseded 


Commander H. W. Hill (R.N.) 


Lieut. Gov. 


1844 & 45 




James Lilly 


n 


1845 




Comm. Will Winniett (R. N.) 


ri 


1846—49 




J. C. Fitzpatvick 


Tl 


1849 & 50 




Sir William Winniett 


Gov. 


1850 


died 1850 Dec. 4. 


James Bannerman 


Lieut. Gov. 


1850 & 51 




Major Stephen John Hill 


Gov. 


1851—53 




J. C. Fitzpatrick 


Lieut. Gov. 


1853 & 54 




Brodie G. Cruickshank 


n 


1853 




Major Stephen John Hill 


Gov. 


1854 




Henry Connor 


Acting Gov. 


1855 • 




Sir Benj. Chilly CampbellPine 


Gov. 


1857 & 58 




Major Henry Bird 


Acting Gov. 


1858 




Edward Bullock Andrews 


Gov. 


1860—62 




William A. Ross 


Acting Gov. 


1862 




Richard Pine 


(Lieut.) Gov 


1862—65 




William Hackett 


Lieut. Gov. 


1864 




Major Rokeby S.W.Jones 


n 


1865 


died 


W. E. Mockler 


n 


1865 




Lieut. Col. Edward Conran 


^ 


1865-67 




Colonel S. W. Blackall 


Gov. -in-chief 


1866 




Herbert Taylor Ussher 


Administrator 


1867 & 68 




Sir A E. Kennedy 


Gov. -in-chief 


1868 




W. H. Simpson 


Acting Adm. 


1868 




Herbert Taylor Ussher 


Administrator 


1869—71 




Charles Spencer Salmon 




1871 




John Pope Hennesey 


Gov. -in- chief 


1872 




Herbert Taylor Ussher 


Administrator 


1872 




Col. R. W. Harley 


„ 


1872 & 73 




W. R. Keate 


Gov. -in-chief 


1873 




George Berkley 


„ 


1873 




Col. Sir Garnet Wolseley 


Administrator 


1873 & 74 




Lieut. Col. Maxwell 


n 


1874 




Charles C. Lees 


J7 


1874 




Col. Johnston 




1874 




Capt. George C. Strahan 


Gov. -in-chief 


1874 




Sir Sanford Freeling 


r> 


1876 




Herbert Taylor Ussher 


n 


1879 


died 1880 DecL 


William B. Griffith 


n 


1880 




Sir Samuel Rowe 


n 


1881 




G. A. C. Young 


« 


1884 


died 


William Brandford Griffith 


■n 


1885 




Col. F. B. P. White 




1887 




Sir William B. Griffith 


Gov. -in-chief 


1887,90,92,94 




J. M. Hodgson 


Acting Gov. 


1889,91,93 




W. E. Maxwell 


Gov. 


1895 





346 b. 



Appendix B. Kings and the Royal Family of Asante. 



Nr. Xame-i of Kings Veriod 


Sisters (Niece.s) Sisters' husliauds 


Neiihevvs 


Nieces 


i Al.iMit 

1 KwabiaAiiwamfi(Aliw.)' 1600— 1630 (?) 

2 Oti Akenten 1G31— 1662 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3 Obiri Yeboa Manwu 1663—1697 


Mauu 


Owusu Pauini 


Osee Tutu 


Nyako Kosiamoa 


4 Osee Tutu 1700—1730 


Nyako Kosiamoa 


Aduamensa or Adu Gyamfi 


Opoku Ware 


Nketeawa Tim Abamu 


5 Opoku Ware 1731—1749 


Nketeawa Tim Abamu 


Apebogso Apaw 


Kwisi Boadum 


Akua Afriyie 


6 Kwisi Boadum 1750—1770 


Aliua Afriyie 


Owusu Afriyie 


Osee Kwadvi-o 


Aberafi Ya 


7 Osee Kwadwo 


1770—1781 


Aberaii Ya 

Kwadu Y'iadgni (niece) 


Mampon Asumgyima 
Mampgn Safo I. 
Adu Twum 

Asgkgre Mampgn Owusu Ansa 

Anow Owusu Yaw 


Osee Kwame Panyin 

Opoku Kwame 

Opoku Fofie 

Osee Asibe (Diasibe) 

Osee l)u 

Osee Yaw Akoto 


Kwadu Yiadgm 
Amma Seewa 
Ya Odifie 
Akua Kru 


8 Osee Kwame Panyin 


1781—1799 


Amma Seewa 


Apebooso Apaw 
Boakye Yam Kuma 


Kyeukye Heiie 
Kwame Kusi 
Kwaku Dua 
Kwame Boateh 


Afua Sapgri 


9 Opoku Fofie 


1799 60 days 




10 Osee Aslbe, Bonsu 


1800—1824 




11 Osee Y'aw Alioto 


1824—1837 




12 Kwaku Dua I. 


1838—1868 


Afua Sapoii 

Afua Kobiri (niece'i 

Ya Afere (niece) 


Owusu Gyamedua 
Kofi Nti 

Aberenkese Kamkam 
Asabi Boakye 


Osce Kwadwo 

Kwabena Nini 
Kofi Karikari 
Owusu Mensil (BonsuJ 
Kwame Nantwi 

Yaw Twereboanna 
Kwame Boateii 
Kwaku iikroma 
Akwasi Badu 
Kwaku Duko 


Afua Kobiri 
Ya Afere (f 1883) 
Ya Kyea 
Alvua Afriyie 

Akua Afriyie 
Akwasiwa Odee 
Ya KwSdu 
Akwasiwa Bereuya 
Afua Sapoh 


13 Kofi Karikari 


. 1868-1874 


Ya Kyea 


Akwasi Gyammibi (Afriyie) 


Kwaliena Kyeretwie 
Kwaku Dua Kuma 
Agyemah Perempe 
Agyemah Badu 


Akua Afriyie 
Akua Bakoma 


14 Mensa Bonsu 


1874—1883 




15 Kwaku Dua II. 


1884,0 weeks 


\wadu Somprem 
Takyiaw 


— 






16 Agyemah (Dua) ]>erempe 


1888—1895 


'Vkua Fokuo(y) 


Cwabena Awua 




Akua Afiriye(?) 



Appendix C. 

The Leaders or Influential Men and Officers 

engaged in the battle at Dodowa or Akantaniansn on the part of 
the Natives of the Protectorate and of the Asantes. 



1. List, showing- the town, name, rank, and band or division of 
the influential men who fought against the Asantes at Katamansu. 

Rem. The names denoting office are purposely given without a capital letter. 
Where no higher office is mentioned, the word captain may be supplied. 

1. Akra, Dutch Town. 

Abia Taki I., king- paramount; Akwete Krobosaki, Akotia Owgsliika, 
Dodu Nyan, chiefs; Asliare, linguist. 

Anan Patu, Koii Abra, grandees or counselors; Ankra, Kwatei Kodsho, 
Tete Tshuru, influential grandees; Anioii nyemi Koi, Alienkwa Soro, 
Sako Ayi, Asere < Jku, Mensa Akotokro, Nyrin Abodiamo, Dshan, Oto 
Dill, Otam, grandees. 

Adade Akwa, Pobi Asawa, Tete Koi, Tete Okodsheatuo, Noete Opan 
goro, Ankonu, Okai Awua, Kwate Koi, Nikoi Tshuru, Kodslio Saul, 
Late Koi, Abuma, Koi Moiii, Mensa Brebre, Ayi Kgkosaki, Ati, 
Dodu Donko, head-men.*) 

A nan Osei^ Koii Aheiie^, Aslioh Mankata*'', Anari Osipeanya^ Otutu ", 
Mensa Amasu^ Tete^, Akwete Omununkum\ Ayi Kakai ^, Mensa ^, 
()kai^ Amasa Oseko^ Ayikuma^, Kwatelai^ Owu*, Kotei*, Mensa 
Commodore*, Ayiku*, Lamtei*, Korantshi^, Otu ^, captains. 
2. Akra, James Town (Ehleshi). 

Ahoma, king; Amane, chief (maiikvalo); Akwete, linguist. 

Atg, Kpakpo Barema, Sempe Mensa; — Adshin Owuakoa, Adaraa Pa- 
taku, Kwashi Kodsho, Ama Odebreku A share, grandees. 

Ayikoi, Afara Kakaba and 6 others (n. u.), head-men; 

Mensa ^, Koti^, Akoi-, Kpakpo^, Klote nyemi Mensa ^ Akwete Utuakgte^ 
3. Akra, Christiansborg (Osii). 

Notei Dowuona, king; Tete Ashon, chief (mankralo), Pote, Alata chief; 
Koi Boadu, linguist. 

*) By "head-man" (or chieftain) we mean a member of the "akua- 
shong" or the assembly of the principal head-men of the quarters of 
the town; see page 118. — The "captains" have the numbers of their 
"asafo" (band or company or division) added to their names, cf. page 
120, viz., * Asokonfo (not Asgnkgfo), ^ Apagyafo, ^ Akgmfode, * Amferefo, 
^ Atuafo, '^ Ntiafo, ~ Kyiriamimfo, ® Ohwammirifo ; — '" Apesemakafo ; 
— '- Ankgbeafo; — '^ Ohyiawufo (death-encountering band); ** Panteakwa. 



348 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Akwete Agbedeko, Nge Dwetri, Adukoi, Notei Koroko, Omabo Noete, 
Ofem, Abose Kwao, Ngete Koranten, Laye, Adorn, Atakora Tete, 
Adenkum, Kwauiena Kuma, Akoko, Agboba, Bosa, Anum, Adu Ham- 
mer, grandees. 

Kwate Okai, Ngtei Warakataka, Yaw Miat'o, Ashon Akwadshansa, Noete 
Olo, Naku, Koi Ohusogro, OmSbo Okoi, Lamtei Nukpa, Amaiitara 
Adote, Sewa Koma, Saba Akem, Adotei Twi, Nge Osoro, Tei Badu, 
Kodsho Saul, Tete Kutei, Ngtei Susuanfaso, Ngete Odua, Ngete Ka- 
sakokrodo, Apo, Koi Fio, Nzg, Sewa Kwaoslii, Kodsho Baka, Odoi 
Ati, headmen. 

Abiashi^, Mate Akgtg^, Akwete Asoa^, Lamte^, Na ^, Tete Commodore^, 
Ngtei Nyantshi*, Ngitei Mintimirim *, Obodai ', Saka Ankam '^, Otuafo''^, 
Saba Bonsu''^, Kwamena Adam '^, captains. 

4. Akra, Labade (La). 

Saki, king; Adsha, chief; Bgi Osekere, linguist. 

Ashriti Tieko, Odate Twitwi Akwa, Okpoti Omnnunkum, Ako Nam, 
Okpoti Kwatshe, Akwete Dadeadu, Akuete Ntsliere, Bgi Osokrono, 
Dshruii Ako Oseko, Odotei Opereko, Amoa Okromansa, Awua, Sai 
Kodsho, Ashiakoi Densu, Botvve Asakara, Sodsha Oblira, Tete Fan- 
tshe, grandees. 

Ala Kgkg, Ayi Anafo, Anaii Apiakai, Late Odankwa, Tete Tekpg, 
Sodsha Kwaw Osoro, Mahama Kofi, Tggbg Abebrense, Koi Wom'oye, 
Tggbg Danso, Koi Fio, Obodai Agbove, Odotei Ofosu, Anyetei Se- 
wansaii, Tggbg Tekoasere, Adu Opete, Anyetei Ateiisua, headmen. 

Male Osokorono '^, Owuo Opetentum, Akwete Asoa, Gbagbe Osramaii ^ 
Akuete, Botwe Sareso ', captains. 

5 Akra, Teshi. 

Ofori Shadsho, king; Kru Dili, chief: Ablg Adshei, linguist. 

Akpgsg, Brebo, Okan Kape, Sowa Huti, Sowa Kgpa, Akwete Sum, 
Sowa Obransemyeode, Adsliete Boapem, Dshani, Afutu, Odai Sa, Boi 
Bgi, Ashai Akgtg, Sowa Adenkum, grandees. 

Panto Ampim, Bgi Owusu, Koi Mensa, Koi Tia, Tete Anai, Mensa 
Kuma,, Mensa Otshirifienam, Ayiku, Ante, Lflye Oseko, Sowa Adu, 
head-men. 

Ltlye^, Bgi Bgi^, Okai Botwe^ Abete Kuma*, Tgsu Okromansa*, Mensa 

Kuma*, Sowa Omununkum \ Botwe Akpgsgi, Kgle Saso, captains. 

6. Akra, Ningowa (Nuiiowa). 

Okre, king; Bglabi, chief (mankralo) : Bote Adshetri, linguist. 

Okai (Akai), Akoi, Bgtei, Bgkete Tshetshenya, Koi Kuma, Bgkete Kg- 
wuankra, grandees. — Bgtei Agbetekg", Otu ^, Bgtelabi^, captains. 



Appendix C. 349 

7. Akra, Tenia. 

Labi Shisliiabo, kini;'; Adshiete Obredshuina, chief (inaukralo); Asliite 

Kwaku T\Ve, linguist. 
Tete Nam, Nate Hglu, Ashikoi Nukpa, Akroii Adra, Late Otru, Usabu, 

Ashite Kwadshobo, Okoto, Tetc Tsliiim, grandees. 
Ashite Nukpa \ Adshei Katakiti \ Tete Bediako ''. 

8 — 14. Adangme. 

8. Kpoii (Poui). 

Saki, king; Notei Bediako, chief (mankralo); Tete Akem, chief; Tete 

Otu, Tei Tokli, linguists. 
Ngtei Nuamono, Noe Adsheize, Notei Owuadom, Noe Osono, Noe, 

Akpem Dadeako, Kwadsho, grandees. 
Akpem Agbeyivo ', Obobi ', Ngtei Konu'', Usabu Agamo''. 

9. Prampram (Gbuc^bra). 
Tete Waka, king; Natei, chief (mankralo); Numo Fiesu, linguist. 
Nate Okukruboo, Nate Okodsheboo, Osa Aniam, Abe Nukpa, Abe Gbeke, 

Kpabi Ablokutu, Tshavve Okro, Padi Adu, grandees. 
Kwamli Kuma, Meusa Nam, Nate Adoa, Nate Atifiyeden, Otu Abli, 

Tete Ufli, Nageite, Nate Klenraeti, Aye Okrako, Tei Gbagbladsha, 

Mate Adi, Tete Tshwcldabafij head-men. 
Doku Mansro", Late '^j Osabu Fiesu '^j Tete (Jsraman^, Tete Tshwako \ 

Tei, Mama Ohoyedeh, Awure '. 

10. Ningo (Niiiio). 
Tei Doku, king; Kang Atiapa, chief (mankralo); Apetepetshi, linguist. 
Shantshe Amang, Afura Okanfni, Mang Ohoyefe, Blebo Okitatshi Odi- 

akosem, Otshwi Titrikn, Duamo Tutuaui, Shan Mrgnsa, Tete Wgre- 

tshwam, Okru Bonsu, Tete Otsheremaku, grandees. 
Bonsu Obghyen^, Boakoafo ^, Na Adu Bamfro ^, Tete Okodsheatuo \ 

Koite Agbadshi^, Gbli Adshowu^, Mensa Tggbg^ 

11. Ada. 

Adshohu Kitikri, king; Akude Kuntu, chief (mankralo); Anng, linguist. 
Osabu Totime, Amedehoho, Tete Ga, Na Wgnkawose, 3 others n. u., 
grandees. — Osrciman ', Saki ^ Otumfog,^, captains. 

12. Agrave. 
Adshakoro \ Avongkadshi ', captains. 

13. Siikpe. 
Tshitshikra', Gbed.shuro ', Hgsu '. 

14. Mlati. 
Tgsu, chief (mankralo). 



350 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

15. Krobo, Yilo. 

Osibe, king; Tete Osoro, linguist; Obu", captain. 

16. Krobg, Manja. 

Muala Okumsro, king. 

17. A sLi tsh ware. 

Bole, king; Kwaku, chief (mankvalo); Nyakote, linguist. 

Tei Odetshi^, captain. 

18. Osudoku. 

Otu Adshina, king; Dshabako, chief and captain; Nyako Geli, linguist. 

Krako, Lawe Gbetg, Mate Aba, Mate Akplatshe, Mate Kaka, Tete 
Kpokploto, Na Akra, Tekute, grandees, 

Kplada^. captain. 

19. Shai. 

Nagiii, king; Tei Dshahene, chief (niankralo); Osabute Okomfa, linguist. 

Okomta Badu, Natenwa, Otu, Umli, Abobi, Aukam, Esi, Atekpo, grandees. 

Mahania Apeko*, Aboano Sisimienu", Akroti'', captains. 

20. Akuapem. 

Akropoiig: Ado Dankwa, king; Apenteh, Aye Kuma, linguists. 
Obirikorane, linguist for the Danish government. 

JBody-guard. Kwabena Ntin, chief captain; Oparo Kwadwo, Kwasi 
Adae, Bampo, captains of the Apesemakafo ^"^ (p. 120); Osae Kwa- 
bena, chief stool-bearer. 

Van. Ofce Hene, chief captain, mankralo. 

Ainannokrom : Mensa, chief captain. 

Aburi: Kwafum, chief captain; Ofee Dankwa, captain. 

Afwerease: Opare Tomfo. — Berekuso: Fafo, captain. 

Fii(jJd Winii. Awukiigua: Opese, chief captain. 

Abonse: Anobi, captain. 

Adukrom: Apagya Kofi, influential captain. 

Apirede: 

i)dawu: Asiedu. — Abiriw: Aboagye, Budu, captains. 

Left Wing. Date, Ahenease: Asiedu Kgko, chief captain. Otu, Akoi. 

Kubease: Agyemfra 1. — Maiife: Agyekuni. — Mampou: Pobi Kuma. 

Tutu: Animpon. — Obosomase: Adotia. 

21. Akem Abuakwa. 

Kyebi: Dokuwa, queen; Ampyforo, prince; Bosompem, linguist. 

Bodij-gnard. Kwabeii: Apenteh"*, chief captain. 

Kyebi: D\VaTenteh^°, Ofosu Hene, Apea DwcT, Boapea Nkrah '", Ofori 

Tiri^'^. — Kwantanaii: Amoako'-. 
Van. Kiikurantumi: Kofi Aberantee^, chief captain. 



Appendix C. 351 

Apapam: Apagya Fori^. — Tafo: Abuo. — Asuom: Ofosuhene Apenteii. 

— (Akem) Akropong: Nifa. 

Uight flank of the Van. Wankyi: Oben ^^ chief captain. 

Asainafi: Araawia'^. — Abommosu: Asare Dua^^ — Kade: Ofosu- 

pem ^'. — Ogyadam (Bremso): Kwakye Kyeame^^. — Aduasa: Oti- 

boa". — Otumi: Araane ^^. 
Riijht WiiK). Asiakwa: C4yeke, chief captain. 
Akyease: Ata Kwadwo. — Asafo: Anyai. — Nsutam: Okgmfo Danso. 

— Akakom: Adu Araoa. — Anyinasin: Aboagye. — Apapatia: 
Oheneba Amanin. 

Left Wing. Begoro: Awua^*, chief captain. 

Otwereso: Ohene Kwa^*. — Apinamaii: Odame'*. — Apedwa: Oben 
Ayekwa'*. — Osinno: Kwaniri Akem '^. — Fankyeneky: Apori 
Yaw ^^ — Dwenease: Kwaw Sika^^. — Abompe: Odakwa Bon ^^. 

— BaDSO: Kwaku Kuma^^. — Opanie: Ayim Yaw '^. 

22. Akem Kotoku. 
Gyadani: Agyemah, king; Tete Asoh, linguist. 
Sody-guard. Gyakari, Adu Kgko, captains. 
Van. Soadru: Kwagye Ampaw, chief captain. 

Aseni : Dompere, Asante Ami. — Da : Gyiraa Yeboa, Adu Kwaku. 
Plight Wing. Da: Apenteh, chief captain. 
Bamkame: Ata. — Ofoase: Kwakye Fram, captains. 
Left Wing. Bogyeseaiiwo: Asimeh, chief captain. 
Abaase: Efo. — Mmooso: Tete. 
Hear. Maiiso: Qpoii. — Da: Boapea Nyame, Okcni. 

23. Akwamu. 
Akwam': Akoto Yirifi Ampasaki, king; Odee Kwaku, linguist. 
Body-guard. Anowu, chief captain; Kwabena Afadi *'-', Oheneba Ofee ^"^ 

Dodu Kwaw ^^, Kwadwo Y'^eboa ^^. Kwadako, stool-bearer; Asare Manso, 

adantafo, KwSme An.s;i, basket-carrier. 
Vim. Dabara, Abosi, chief captains; Mante Kwadwo, Ohuakwaw. 
Peki: Kwadwo Dee, chief captain. 
Akwaui': Asiedu Kwaku, Nyako, Boakye, captains. 
Plight Wing. Senkye: Sreku, chief captain. 
Kotropee: Bamforo. — - Akrade: Kwaw Akora. — Adoiiie: Apea Kwasi. 

— Pese: Kwaku Nyampgh. — Apaso: Adu Akwara. — Apatifi: 
Sekyei. — Gyakiti: Mamfe. 

Left Wing. Akwam': Akonno Kuma (deputed Budu), chief (mankralo). 
Atimpoku: Budu. — .Agyiiia: Kofi Kuma. — Agyeboii: Kwaw Tia. 

— Anum: Kurai I. — Pom: Akowua. — Akwam": Amedi, Ansa Pram. 



352 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

Hear. Akwam': Kwabena Maui, chief captain; Adipa, Oheneba Kete- 

ku, captains; Ofee, Kwii, Kronyo, captains and linguists. 
Boso : Boso Nyilko, captain, linguist. 

24. Dankera: Kwadwo Tibo, king. 

25. Asen: Otibo Kuma, Gyebi, kings. 

26. Tshuforo: Owusu Kgko, king. 

27. Asikuma: Aboagye, Kwasi Amankwa, chiefs. 

28. Agona: Nsaba: Kwamena Asamanin, king. 

Nyakroiii: Ata Kgko. — Soaduru: Ayite. — Asafo: Asoako, chief capts. 

29. Cape Coast (Gua): Bani, Kwabena Manfoi, chief captains. 

30. Winneba (Simpa): Ayerebi, king. 

31. ObutU: Otii, chief; Ni Nsaki, Agyampofo, captains. 



2, List of the names of the Generals and Captains who fought 
under the King- of Asante at Katamansu. 

Tiemarh. The different bands or hosts (asafo) instituted by the kings 
of Asante are more than thirty; most of thera are mentioned on page 
119. In the following list we add "h = host" to sucli names which in 
the original list are often put instead of the name of the town; it is 
then not clear whether the home of those men is Kumase or some other 
place. The word "captain" maybe supplied to all names to which no 
other title is added. The names of places have larger letters. 

Asante^ Kumase: Osee Yaw Akoto, Sraman-esi-adum, king. 

Bantama: Awua, general, Koronti host. 

Asafo: Dee Kra, chief captain, Akwamu host. 

Kumase: Sarapane, chief captain, Adum host. 

Body-(iiiard. 

Kumase: Opoku Fredefrede, chief captain. Owusu Para. 

Asikesu: Osee Vvwaku, chief captain. 

Pampaso: Ntim. Fante (h) : Yaw Da. Ananta (h) : Apea, 

Nkonsoh (h): Abu, prince Peremu; Adu See Tshatsha, linguist. 

Oti Panyin, Kankam Paton, linguists; Kwaku Dua, captain. 

Hyiawu (h): Yaw Panyih, Kankam. Samialiene: Ofosu Kra, treasurer^ 

Asampoh:. Okra So. 
Nsiirobifo (h) : Asamoa Wewewee. Akomfode (h): Adu Kwame. 
Atanehene: Atakrobi, Owusu Dome. 

Akyemfo: Owusu AnScl ; x^numsafo (h): Ogyoben, shield-bearers. 
Nkoiihwasoafo: Yaw Dabanka (Kokoroko), stool-bearer. 
Kukruba: Osee, carriers' captain. 

Atufua: Bosommuru Bomah, chief captain: Asante, Okra Kwaten. 
Apesemaka (h): Kwautanau : Amoako. Oten Akwasi. 



Appendix C. 353 

(Asante) Apagya (li) : Osee; Anamareko (li): Osee Kofo. 

Ankobea (h) : Amankwa Abunyawa. 

Van. Kumase: Owusu Kwantabisa, general. 

Agona: Gyedu Kumanini. — Antoahene: Boakye Atansa. — Asareso : 
Kwadvvowa. — Asaman: Obugyei. — Makom: Akosa. — Okyiri- 
kroni : Gyoku. — Abogso: prince Gyekye. — Asinaa: Kukuwa. — 
Bamai'i: Bekoe. — Bomai'i: Yaw Akotia. — Yayase: Owusu Yaw. 

— Abenkyirem : Gyamara. Advance (juard. Kumase: Dankesewa. 
Left flanh of the Van. Nsuta: Yaw Sekyere, Akrofrom: ? — Ntonso: 

? — Kuntraaso: Antwi, Akokofe, Barnnpa^ chief captains. 

Left Winrj. Knmawu: Odabo^ general. 

Abodom: Yaw Kuma. — Fumesua: Osee. — Hima: Afum. — Oti- 
krom: Agyei Boahyen. — Kwaso: Adabg. — Apromaase: Fosu. — 
Botnaii: Adu Brade. — Tafo: Agyiii Firerapoh. — ■ Asienempou : 
Kwasi Auot'i. — Akyene-kroni : Adu Kwaku. — Kwamai: Moama. 

— Aiiioafo: Osee. — Odumase: Gyah Mereku. — Abarakaso: Kofi. 
Bight flank of the Van. Dwaben: Boaten, king and general. 
Domakwae: Ewi Asamoa; Hyiawu (b?): Okyerc Panyin; Abetireiii : 

Ampoti Poku, body-guard captains. — Apeinso: Sapon, Mmorontog 

captain. — Beheiiease: Gyesi, Anew, captain. — Edwapon: Dinkyene. 

Pianyinaase: Kwanim. 
Abohyenfo (h) : Kanyaraase: Okyere; Awioin : Pipim; Adenkyema- 

raso: Opoh Waree; Ahenkuro: Apea; Adweso: Borobe; Esereso : 

Otomfoo; Mamponteii: Kagya Panyin; Asamaii: Kwavv; Nyama; 

Pampaso: Kobea Adobe. 
Biflht Wing. Matnpoii: Atakora Kwame, general. 
Alidwaase: Odua. — Osee Kwame, gyaasefo (body-guard's) captain. — 

Gyamaase: Agyam Boaten. — Pataase: Kwame Panyin. 
Apesemaka (h): Asokye ; — Akomfode (b); Krampo; — Apagya (h) : 

Akwasi Adae; — Nsurogyafo (b) : Kwabena Kuma. — Damenda: 

Kwabena Dam; — Benim: Kwaku Ketewa. 
Akohnwasoafo (stool-bearers): Obgniandweri. 
Hausafo: Fetvvafo. — Adwira: Yaw Pampani. 
Nkoransa: Owusu Ansa; Ofeso: Gyah Firempgh; (Asante) Adweso: 

Okyere Adabrabewa, chief captains. 
Asotwe: Kwadwowa Borobe. — Bomwere: Okae. 
Rear. Akycmpim: Adu See Kra, general. 

Dmiiakwae: Nsuase Poku, linguist. — Akumauiu: Banahene, chief. 
Hiawa: Opawa. — Asetn: Tebi. — (Asante) Akropoii : Adu Ansere. 

23 



Additions and Corrections. 

Rem. Owiug to the great distance between the dwelling-places of the first 
and second reviser, the latter had not the whole of the manuscript before him, 
but got it in portions which he sent the same distance back to the printer, as 
likewise the corrected proof-sheets. Some additions which ought to have been 
inserted each in its place, came to light behindhand and are now given here 
together with corrections of misprints etc., esi)ecial]y with a view to a subsequent ,^ 
new work or edition. The pages are given in fat figures, the lines (40 on a page) -^ 
are counted from above. 

P. 1. under the last line: "Asante", which was meant as a mark for 
the book-binder, is superfluous. 

10, line 32 {to on the coast Avith add) his sister Agba Lale Adenao and 

12, 23 read Zege {for Yege). 

22, 25 dele fully successful or. 28 read gave over (the head of Okai 
Koi) to the Akwamus {for took with them ). 

24, Chapter III, line 4 enlarge fJie superscription as it is on p. XII. 

25, 33 read Gbaga {for Ngmaka). 

33, 26 r. Akem (/". Atshem). 36, 26 Bote-Anno. 

43, Chap. IV, superscription, add Gyakari after Ntim. 

47, 3, Amoafo, Pompong. — 1. 39 Bekwae; 54, 9 Bekwae. 

53, 7; 55, 22 and 56, 5 Ntim Gyakari. 

55, 16 "Dabi m'bedu Adunku m'eda, on the day I reach Adunku I 
shall sleep soundly." And while Ntim Gyakari was thus engaged in 
singing and dancing, the 300 old women whose noses be had purposely 
cut off with a cruel and hellish view of composing a nasal choir, were 
also singing through their noses: "Obensua ba Ntim e, fwe mere yeahu o!" 
— whicli means: "Just observe what we suffer, Obensua's son, Ntim!" 

70, 9, 11; 77, 19 read cousin {for brother). 

73, 19 Lanimo be we .... 1. 29 Akwamus. - 

74, 7: the Akeras' supremacy. 

78, 7 and 85, 3 AdvVumanko — perhaps letter Adwumako. 

120, 5 Asokorifo (/". Asohkofo). 

126, 4 — 15 read thus: 1. There are four different kinds of neck-laces 
made of the young light-green shoots of palm-leaves or fibres, which 
are called "komi" by the Akras. Such a lace, wlien worn at the neck, 
is a symbol of a solemn vow of dedication and devotedness of one's life 
entirely to the service of a certain national fetish, or a symbol of being 
doomed to be sacrificed in the burial of a high personage. 

a. Ga-komi is made of a thread-like creeping plant called nyanyara 
by the natives, and is rubbed all over with white clay. 

b. Lakpa-komi is made of the young light-green shoots of the oil- 
ualm-leaves and is dved red. When a bride is to be sought for a new 



Additions and Corrections. 355 

priest of Lakpa, this symbol is used. Wlien placed on tlie neck of any 
Camwood-girl of any town whatever, she is dedicated, even if betrothed 
ah-eady, to become the priest's wife. 

c. Adanme-komi is made of a kind of twine madje of the fibres of 
tlie young light-green leaves of a species of palm called "adobe". 

d. Akyere-mmerenkensono is made of the green leaves of the oil- 
palm, and is folded into an equilateral triangle, having the adjoinings 
f(n-med into three knots. When placed on one's neck, it is a symbol of 
lM*ing doomed for a sacrifice in the burial of a high personage. 

128, 40 read Fandraka {for Jandraka). 

144, 36 scarcity of provisions. 

144, 40; 145, 1 {for But though . . . . ) read: Becoming aware of how 
deceitfully they were dealt by the Akuapems, they stood united against 
their common foe. 

155, 16 insert: Private Jonas lieindorf was also severely wounded 
on the head by a club. The assailants, however, were unable to carry 
the prisoner Paspo away in triumph, the soldiers being assisted by those 
from the castle in securing the prisoners back to their cell. 

166, 9 the stool. — 167, 34 Fiti. — 177, 38 Odede 

178, 7 — 38 should be thus joined to 183, 6: either a slave or pawn 
to the rich men in the country. Yet they were at that time etc. 

279 (Foot-note). We insert the following on Local Improvements, 
recorded in the Gold Coast Almanack for the year 1844, in behalf of 
the late Mr. Henry Barnes. 

"In the year 1843 two important improvements have been completed, 
which merit especial notice. The most prominent of these is the foun- 
dation of a carriage road from Anomabo to the village of Akroful, a 
distance of ten miles. This most laborious and useful work has just 
been completed, after three years' incessant labour, entirely by the eu- 
ter[)rise and perseverance, and at the sole expense of Mr. Henry Barnes, 
merchant in Anomabo. His object in commencing this laborious task 
was to enable him to transport to the coast the magnificent timber with 
which the interior of the country abounds, upon carriages constructed 
for the purpose, he having been the first person to engage in the tim- 
l)er-trade (as a regular business) in this country, which he did so long 
ago as the year 1830. It is to be hoped that he will derive adequate 
pecuniary advantages from the facilities of transport afforded by this 
road; but, as the public generally will derive infinitely greater benefit 
from it than he can do as an individual, it is also to be hoped that the 
Local Government will speedily be in a position to repay to him at 
least some portion of the actual expenses incurred. 

" The other improvement referred to is the construction of an elegant 
and durable stone bridge of two arches, thrown over the brook which 
separates the District of Cape Coast from that of Anomabo. For the 
completion of this most useful work the public are also in a great 
measure indebted to the public spirit and active enterprise of Mr. Barnes. 
For, though the actual expenses incurred were borne by the Govern- 



356 History of the Gold Coast and Asante. 

meat, yet Mr. Barnes gave, gratuitously, his valuable superintendence 
during the progress of the work, — without which it is not probable 
that it could have been completed. It is to be hoped that the Cape 
Coast Almanack for 1845 will record the completion of the cari'iage-road 
from Cape Coast to Anomabo." 

284. We gratefully remark under this chapter that our Colonial 
Government' are now becoming alive to some of the most important 
•wants of the Colony, and have begun to encourage agriculture by hav- 
ing established a Botanical Garden at Aburi, in which have been planted 
a great many marketable plauts and seeds of everv description from 
the lioyal Gardens, Kew; Botanical Station, Lagos; Botanical Gardens, 
Jamaica and Trinidad; Botanical Station, British Guinea etc. And we 
are highly thankful to his Excellency Sir William Brandford Griffith, 
Governor and Commander-in-chief of the Gold Coast Colony, avIio takes 
special interest in agriculture and encourages the natives thereto. We 
need not retnark that the next important step is Koads! Roads! 

In Appendix B, the list of the Kings and Eoyal Family of Asante, 
the names are given closer to the Tshi way of writing. — A letter from 
Christiansborg, 10 June 1895, remarks that Ya Afere, the second niece 
of Kwaku Dua I., would have come into power, when Afua Kobi (her 
elder sister) and her son King Mensa Bonsu were deposed in 1883; 
but she died during those days ; hence Ya Kyea, the daugther of Afua 
Kobi, succeeded in conspiring with the chief of Bekwae to make war 
against Kokofu etc. and so placed her son Kwaku Dua II on the stool, 
whereby Ya Afere's son Twereboannji, who had the nearer right to the 
stool, was set aside. 



List of Illustrations. 



Portraits: C. C. lieindorf, frontispiece; ■Mr. Richter, p. 212; A. Eiis, 
p. 225; J. G. Widmann, J. Zimmermann, .J. G, Christaller 
facing p. 230, Governor Schonning, p. 269. 

Cape Coast ToM^n and Castle — facing p. 16. 

Chief Aduanan Apea of Advvumako and his court — facing p. 186. 

Christiansborg Castle 1862 — facing p. 340. 



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